Parent Group

Gnathostomata (“Jawed Fish”)

Sister Groups

Chondrichthyes (“Cartilaginous Fish”)

Daughter Groups

Sarcopterygii (“Lobe-finned Fish”)
Actinopterygii (“Ray-finned Fish”)


Evolution: Reptiles to Mammals
The evolutionary transition from synapsid reptiles to mammals.

Convergence or Introgression?
Could the mosaic of characteristics seen in fossil and extant hominids be evidence of past hybridization?

“Through a Glass, Darkly”
Dinosaurian hominids.


The Hominid Homepage
For all your filthy monkey-man needs.


Fossil Hominid Specimens

D. J. Scott

Osteichthyes (“Bony Fish”)

You’re Boned.
Copyright © 2000-2017 by Dustin Jon Scott
[Last Update: September 14th, 2017]


Class Amphibia (“amphibians”)
Class Reptilia (“reptiles”)
Class Aves (“birds”)
Class Mammalia (“Mammals”)

Class Actinopterygii (“ray-finned fish”)
Class Sarcopterygii (“Lobe-finned Fish”)
Class Amphibia (“amphibians”)
Class Synapsida (“Mammals” and their ancestors, the “Synapsid Reptiles”)
Class Sauropsida (“reptiles”)

Works Cited

☣ Eric Bapteste, Maureen A O'Malley, Robert G Beiko, Marc Ereshefsky, J Peter Gogarten, Laura Franklin-Hall, François-Joseph Lapointe, John Dupré, Tal Dagan, Yan Boucher and William Martin, “Prokaryotic evolution and the tree of life are two different things.” Biology Direct 2009 4:34 (Received: 16 July 2009; Accepted: 29 September 2009; Published: 29 September 2009) DOI: 10.1186/1745-6150-4-34
Available online @ <>

☣ Dawkins, Richard. The Last Paragraph of "On The Origin of Species" - Richard Dawkins Lecture Part 1. Youtube. August 15, 2017
Available online @ <>

☣ Vinod, Soumya. The Anthropic Trilogy, Book 3: Evolution Involution. June 28, 2010
Available online @ <>

☣ ADVEXON TV. From The Big Bang To The Present Day - 1080p Documentary HD . Jun 23, 2015
Available online @ <>

Origin of Life - How Life Started on Earth

Tyson, Neil Joe Rogan Experience #310 - Neil Degrasse Tyson