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Chthonic Languages

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Variant Group B: Codal Voicing in Closed Dialects
+ Glottal Assimilation

In closed dialects, the codas of syllables with back vowels were voiced.


p > b /[a]_
p > b /[u]_
p > b /[o]_

t > d /[a]_
t > d /[u]_
t > d /[o]_
t > ɾ /[vowel]_[same vowel]_

k > g /[a]_
k > g /[u]_
k > g /[o]_

q > ɦ /[a]_
q > ɦ /[u]_
q > ɦ /[o]_

Ada’-odi’-araro’
Closed, preformative, suffixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: etoq-apepuq-atoq-ikotaq atiq-atiqoq-etiq ateq-otaqoq-atikokaqoq atiq-ikiq-apepuq-atatoq

Transliteration 2: edoq-abebuq-adoq-igodaq adiq-adiqoq-ediq adeq-odaqoq-adigogaqoq agiq-igiq-abebuq-adadoq

Pronunciation: etow-abepuw-adow-ikodaj adij-adijow-etij adej-odajow-adikogajow agij-ikij-abepuw-aɾaɾow

Transcription: eto’-abepu’-ado’-ikoda’ adi’-adi’o’-eti’ ade’-oda’o’-adikoga’o’ agi’-iki’-abepu’-araro’

Gloss: cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Ada’-odi’-araro’
Closed, preformative, suffixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: atiq-ikiq-apepuq-atatoq ateq-otaqoq-atikokaqoq atiq-atiqoq-etiq etoq-apepuq-atoq-ikotaq

Transliteration 2: agiq-igiq-abebuq-adadoq adeq-odaqoq-adigogaqoq adiq-adiqoq-ediq edoq-abebuq-adoq-igodaq

Pronunciation: agij-ikij-abepuw-aɾaɾow adej-odajow-adikogajow adij-adiqow-etij etow-abepuw-adow-ikodaw

Gloss: nothing-big-ness-subject exist-verb-past-evidental things-object-all-of cause-big-object-gerund-before

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


A’ad-i’od-o’arar
Closed, afformative, suffixing, OVS

Transliteration: oqet-uqepap-oqat-aqotik iqat-oqiqat-iqet eqat-oqaqot-oqaqokikat iqat-iqik-uqepap-oqatat

Transliteration: oqed-uqebab-oqad-aqodig iqad-oqiqad-iqed eqad-oqaqod-oqaqogigad iqad-iqig-uqebab-oqadad

Pronunciation: owet-uwepab-owad-ajodik ijad-owijad-ijet ejad-owajod-owajogikad ijag-ijik-uwepab-owaɾaɾ

Pronunciation: o’et-u’epab-o’ad-a’odik i’ad-o’i’ad-i’et e’ad-o’a’od-o’a’ogikad i’ag-i’ik-u’epab-o’arar

Gloss: Cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


A’ad-i’od-o’arar
Closed, afformative, suffixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: iqak-iqik-uqepap-oqatat eqat-oqaqot-oqaqogikad iqad-oqiqad-iqed oqet-uqeqab-oqad-aqodik

Transliteration 2: iqag-iqig-uqebab-oqadad eqad-oqaqod-oqaqogigad iqad-oqiqad-iqed oqed-uqebab-oqad-aqodig

Pronunciation: ijag-ijik-uwepab-owaɾaɾ ejad-owajod-owajogikad ijad-owijad-ijet owet-uwejab-owad-ajodik

Gloss: nothing-big-ness-subject exist-verb-past-evidental things-object-all-of cause-big-object-gerund-before

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


Araro’-odi’-ada’
Closed, preformative, prefixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: ikotaq-atoq-apepuq-etoq etiq-atiqoq-atiq atikokaqoq-otaqoq-ateq atatoq-etapuq-ikiq-akiq

Transliteration: igodaq-adoq-abebuq-edoq ediq-adiqoq-adiq adigogaqoq-odaqoq-adeq adadoq-edabuq-igiq-agiq

Pronunciation: ikodaɦ-adoɦ-abepuɦ-etoɦ etiʔ-adiqoɦ-adiʔ adikogaɦoɦ-odaɦoɦ-adeʔ aɾaɾoɦ-edepuɦ-ikiʔ-agiʔ

Transcription: ikoda’-ado’-abepu’-eto’ eti’-adiqo’-adi’ adikoga’o’-oda’o’-ade’ araro’-edepu’-iki’-agi’

Gloss: before-gerund-object-big-cause of-all-things-object evidental-past-verb-exist subject-ness-big-none

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Araro’-odi’-ada’
Closed, preformative, prefixing, SVO

Transliteration: atatoq-epepuq-ikiq-akiq atikokaqoq-otaqoq-ateq etiq-atiqoq-atiq ikotaq-atoq-atepuq-etoq

Transliteration: adadoq-ebebuq-igiq-agiq adigogaqoq-odaqoq-adeq ediq-adiqoq-adiq igodaq-adoq-adepuq-edoq

Pronunciation: aɾaɾoɦ-ebepuɦ-ikiʔ-agiʔ adikogaɦoɦ-odaɦoɦ-adeʔ etiʔ-adiqoɦ-adiʔ ikodaɦ-adoɦ-adepuɦ-etoɦ

Transcription: araro’-ebepu’-iki’-agi’ adikoga’o’-oda’o’-ade’ eti’-adiqo’-adi’ ikoda’-ado’-adepu’-eto’

Gloss: subject-ness-big-none evidental-past-verb-exist of-all-things-object before-gerund-object-big-cause

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


O’arar-i’od-a’ad
Closed, afformative, prefixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: aqotik-oqat-uqepap-oqet iqet-oqiqat-iqat oqaqokikat-oqaqot-eqat oqatat-uqepap-iqik-iqak

Transliteration 2: aqodig-oqad-uqebab-oqed iqed-oqiqad-iqad oqaqogigad-oqaqod-eqad oqadad-uqebab-iqig-iqag

Pronunciation: aɦodik-oɦad-uɦepab-oɦet iʔet-oɦiʔad-iʔad oɦaɦogikad-oɦaɦod-eqad oɦaɾaɾ-uɦepab-iʔik-iʔag

Transcription: a’odik-o’ad-u’epab-o’et i’et-o’i’ad-i’ad o’a’ogikad-o’a’od-eqad o’arar-u’epab-i’ik-i’ag

Gloss: before-gerund-object-big-cause of-all-things-object evidental-past-verb-exist subject-ness-big-none

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


O’arar-i’od-a’ad
Closed, afformative, prefixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: oqatat-uqepap-iqik-iqak oqaqokikat-oqaqot-eqat iqet-oqiqat-iqat aqotik-oqat-uqepap-oqet

Transliteration 2: oqadad-uqebab-iqig-iqag oqaqogigad-oqaqod-eqad iqed-oqiqad-iqad aqodig-oqad-uqebab-oqed

Pronunciation: oɦaɾaɾ-uɦepab-iʔik-iʔag oɦaɦogikad-oɦaɦod-eʔad iʔet-oɦiʔad-iʔad aɦodik-oɦad-uɦepab-oɦet

Transcription: o’arar-u’epab-i’ik-iʔag o’a’ogikad-o’a’od-e’ad i’et-o’i’ad-i’ad a’odik-o’ad-u’epab-o’et

Gloss: subject-ness-big-none evidental-past-verb-exist of-all-things-object before-gerund-object-big-cause

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.




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