D. J. Scott
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D. Jon Scott’s WebsiteArtFiction ► Fantasy ► Palæoboreanica
D. J. Scott

The Elder Faeryn Language

(Base Dialect)
Copyright © 2000 C.E. by Dustin Jon Scott
[Last Update: November 24th, 2018]


ELDER FAERYN — Base Dialect Introduction to the Proto-Borean Language

Linguistic and Dialectical Overview — History and Development

Glossogeny and Linguistic Prehistory

“The Eldertongue”, as it was known by speakers of its descendant languages, also known informally as Old Borean (OB) and more technically in modern linguistic studies as the Proto-Borean Language (PBL), was created ex nihilo, albeit very gradually, by a supposedly thereunto mute Anatolian people who at the earliest stages of linguistic development used a speech shockingly similar both to the natural manner in which the Corvus caurinus ~ Corvus brachyrhynchos (Crow) gradient/hybrid of the Pacific Northwestern United States communicates, and to the “uh-oh” theory of glossogeny among Homo sapiens: One type of vocalization might have meant “danger, predator!”, and another, “danger, rival!”, still another, “come hither, there’s food!”, and so on. This people was (like, and possibly inspired by, Crows) able to refine this process into an extremely complex system of vocal communication that enabled them to function cooperatively toward communal goals such as defensive and offensive measures and maneuvers, including complicated ambushes, and food-finding endeavors. The people believed this to have been divinely guided as one of the Primordial Charismata, and claimed to have had the ability to translate between local Crow populations and their own groups (which due to an astounding level of proto-syntactic similarity was likely possible, as many species such as the tool-manufacturing New Caledonian Crow have demonstrated feats of remarkably Human-like intelligence); this may have been the original source of common myths of future societies concerning divine inspiration for their own languages (cf. “Language of the Gods”, “Divine Language”) and anecdotal or legendary accounts of persons occasionally learning the language(s) of birds (cf. “Language of the Birds”). Hence was only an infinitesimal step to using certain consonants and vowels in association with gestures, tones, and possibly facial expressions to convey basic psychological concepts such as firmness, being, highness, etc., and stringing these together into simple monosyllabic words for things and ideas defined vaguely by their constituent “morphonemes”. As the language’s speakers, the Proto-Borean people, migrated westward along the European coast of the Mediterranean Sea, the language gained increasingly sophisticated syntax and grammar to govern how these words should fit together to form whole sentences. At first this process was simple: A speaker might have said the word for “me”, followed by the word for “go”, followed by the word for “up”, followed by the word for “hill”, producing “me go up hill”. This was an extremely primitive, very poorly analytical or isolating language that often used root-inflection of lexemes with a CVC ~ CCVCC morphology (where C = a consonant, an “h” digraph, or one of a limited number of consonant clusters treated as a single phone, and V= a monophthong or diphthong) to distinguish between passivity, intransivity, transivity, causality, time, aspect, frequency, and a host of other characteristics, and relied upon word order, tones, and possibly also gestures to indicate the difference between, for example, a passive, present-tense verb and an intransitive, past-tense verb. However, as this primitive and fragile syntax was evolving during a period of migration, the people who spoke the language found that other nearby bands and tribes were using different word orders, and using the same word forms for different lexical categories. While these “sub-dialects” were still somewhat inter-intelligible, these differing lineages of syntactic alignment based in the same morphoneme inventory and resultant overlapping of morphologies managed to cause sufficient confusion both between and within the various proto-dialects, that the need arose to mark words with affixes to clearly define each word’s grammatical and lexical role. Suffixes were added to mark verbs and nouns, and both the consonants and vowels of these suffixes could be changed according to the language’s inherent [morphoneme = vague meaning] morphosyntax, allowing for the creation of clearly marked verb tenses and noun classes that could be easily understood by the sounds used to express them; noun cases also began to appear, both grammatical and prepositional, and verb moods could be expressed by adding prefixes to verbs, as could a cornucopia of different verb aspects. Even affixes themselves, such as lexical category markers, could be inflected ad nauseum. Soon there were hundreds of thousands of (possible) word forms per each lexeme’s inflecto-derivational paradigm. Out of this sudden explosion of inflection and derivation emerged what would become known as the Elder Dialect — that is, the dialect spoken as the Proto-Borean Language was first beginning to evolve beyond its absolute proto-language state into a more thoroughly developed speech. Thus, by the time the nomadic Proto-Boreans had reached their new homeland in the historical area of Etruria, the speech of the Proto-Borean people had come into its own as a full-fledged and complex tongue: a concise, moderately agglutinative, highly fusional, oligosynthetic language — the relative proto-language of the Borean Language Family.

Early Dialectical Developments

In its first stages as a true language, Old Borean was a highly fusional language with a limited number of morphemes, as each morpheme corresponded only to a single phoneme (hence the afore-used term, “morphoneme”) such as a consonant, digraph, or vowel, and used these morphonemes to define the lexemes and inflections that comprised them. Each morphoneme had a range of conceptually related meanings, so that an “arc-morpheme” (either a lexical root or affix) constructed of them might only be vaguely defined by its morphology, therefore both arc-morphemes and whole lemmas (canonical word forms with the most “neutral” inflections of a lexeme’s inflecto-derivational paradigm) were associated with much more specific concepts than one might have guessed by analyzing their constituent morphonemes. As time went on, many lexemes became so associated with the concepts they described, that they were used with little regard to the literal meaning outlined by the morphemes they comprised, allowing certain words to be used metaphorically, figuratively, or even just plain incorrectly, and subsequently undergo semantic drift, leading to a handful of cases in which the semantic meaning of a word seemed unjustified, or at least little justified, by its morphology (especially in the case of interjections), though this was the exception rather than the rule, and would only begin to occur on a truly noteworthy scale in subsequent dialects. This also allowed new words to be coined from old lexemes or specific word forms that would not necessarily have made sense according to the definitions implied by their morphologies, and could only be understood in the context of the older lexemes they were derived from. Additionally, a large number of roots were created via onomatopoeia (especially in the case of animal species names) and had no literal meaning discernible from the roots’ morphologies, though such roots were affixed and inflected just as any arc-morpheme root in the Old Borean language. All of these forces working together somewhat obscured the oligosynthetic origins of much of the language’s lexicon.

ELDER FAERYN — Base Dialect Introduction to the Proto-Borean Language

Linguistic and Dialectical Overview — Diagnostic Summaries

Syntactic Overview - Summary Contextual Diagnosis Lexical Overview - Summary Morphological Diagnosis

The Elder Dialect of Old Borean most commonly employed a subject-verb-object word order for independent clauses in the transitive, verb-object-subject for dependent clauses in the transitive, verb-subject-indirect object in the intransitive, subject-verb-object in the reflexive, object-subject-verb in the passive, and subject-object-verb in the causative. (This does not apply to stative verbs in the adjectival and adverbial moods, which were prefixed to whatever they modified.) The Elder Dialect most often used either a manner-place-time or place-manner-time order, with other arrangements being slightly less common but perfectly acceptable. Despite having a relatively free word order, the exact meaning of many words depended heavily upon the words around them: For example, a verb’s subject marked in the nominative case could be either the agent or experiencer of the verb if it was intransitive, the agent only if the verb was monotransitive or causative, or the patient if the verb was passive; if the verb was ditransitive or reflexive, however, the subject (agent) would be marked for the ergative case. Similarly complex rules governed the direct and indirect object of sentences. While context was certainly important, Old Borean was foremost a highly inflectional language rather than an analytic one. In informal speech and writing, Old Borean was a pro-drop language; in formal speech and writing, pronouns were obligatory. Morphology: Root arc-morphemes used a C, CVC, CCVC, CCVCC, or CVCC order. These were whole words early in Old Borean’s prehistory. V equals verb class. Verbs used a (C1)V1+[root]+V2C2V3C3(C4) order. C1 equals mood; if absent, implies indicative mood. V1 equals aspect. V2 equals voice and tense. C2, V3, C3, and C4 equal tense. Adjectives and Adverbs used a re-arranged verb order. Nouns used a (C1)(V1)+[root]+V2C2(C3)(C4)V3(’C5(C6)V4) order unless derived. C1 equals mood. V1 equals aspect. V2 equals number and class. C2 and C3 equal central declension. C4 equals determiner. V3 equals gender and number. C5(C6) and V4 equal peripheral declension. Roots could sometimes be doubled or used as prefixes: [root]+V+[root], where V equals intensity and class. Radicals generally used a simple (V)(C)CV(C) order. Allomorphy is almost nonexistent.

Morphosyntactic Overview - Summary Inflectional Diagnosis

The Old Borean language had the most complex system of inflection and derivation of any known language. Lexical category markers transformed verb roots into either nouns or full verbs. Nouns (including pronouns) could be inflected for noun class, number, person, gender, grammatical case, prepositional case, and also determiner. Verbs could be inflected for voice, tense, grammatical mood, intensity, verb class, multiple categories of aspect, and conjugation in gender, number, and person with their primary arguments. Verb inflections were so extensive, in fact, that the language had no need for either auxiliary verbs or copulas. Adjectives and adverbs were a sub-class of verb, created with the adjectival or adverbial mood in combination with the stative voice (for non-participles). This arrangement was highly conductive to the formation of adjectival and adverbial participles, created by changing the adjective or adverb’s voice. All verb forms could be easily transformed into verbal nouns, such as gerunds and infinitives, merely by adding the verbal gender morphoneme to the end of the verb. Nouns could be transformed into verbal nouns by using the verbal gender as well. Both nouns and adjectives could be given a stative gender, roughly equating to the English suffixes -ity, -itous, -ness, -ism, -ist, -ry, etc. There were also radicals — usually monosyllabic or disyllabic conjunctions, verb mood supplements, and interjections.

Phonetic Overview - Summary Phonological Diagnosis

• Phonology is at the heart of the Proto-Borean tongue’s innermost workings. Each of the language’s limited number of perceived phonemes corresponded to its own set of vague yet interrelated psychological concepts; these morphonemes were then strung together into verb-based word roots and inflections. The result is a language that was not only highly fusional, but also oligosynthetic with surprising brevity. This was made possible by what one might call active fusion: A morpheme would take only one or two of all its interrelated meanings depending upon its relative position within a root or affix. The language’s “morphoneme oligarchy” (phoneme inventory) included 30 monophthongs and diphthongs, 13 consonantal monographs, and 13 consonantal digraphs, for a grand total of just 56 morphonemes (not including consonant clusters perceived as single phones) providing all the various shades and nuances of a morphosyntactic and semantic complexity unparalleled by any other known language. Because of this complexity, there was little if any room for allophony among word forms, though the language had evolved so by virtue of its own internal features that morphonemes of phonetic similarity were also relatively close in semantic similarity, meaning that occasional mispronunciations probably wouldn’t have caused an unreasonable or intolerable amount of confusion.

• While the Old Borean language expressed grammatical moods morphologically, it probably also used some degree of intonation, as does English — but unlike English, it would have used intonation to supplement morphological distinctions whose meanings may not have otherwise been obvious. It is also possible that intonation was used to supplement the language’s massive inventory of vowels and diphthongs to prevent any overlapping that may have confused listeners, though even if this were true it is unlikely that it was practiced consistently enough to qualify the Eldertongue as a tonal language. However, it is relatively safe to assume that the Proto-Borean tongue was an intonation language.

Pro-Dropping and Diglossia

Within the Elder Dialect existed a certain amount of diglossia, which could be loosely divided into an acrolect and a basilect. While non-expletive pronouns were obligatory in the acrolect, expletives such as the pleonastic pronoun (an example in English: “it”, as in “it is good to work”, also known as the “preparatory it”) were typically found only in the basilect. Within the acrolect, these forms were avoided (for example in English: “to work is good”) although, strangely, they were not considered incorrect (per the English example: “it” refers to the to-infinitive, “to work”; since infinitives are considered verbal nouns, “to work” can logically be the referent of “it” — in other words, the “it” isn’t truly an expletive). The pleonastic pro-adverb (an example from English: “there”, as in “there are many people here”) was likewise avoided in the acrolect, and had its own rationale in the basilect (in this case, a special ambiguous form of “there” was used, so that the word for “here” could be its referent). So while the basilect dropped many non-expletive pronouns, the acrolect avoided the so-called “expletive”, “pleonastic” pro-forms.

ELDER FAERYN — Base Dialect As transliterated from the Elder-Runes alphabet

Verb Inflections — Voices and Tenses (Exemplar: eredenele, root: red)

Past Passive Non-Future Passive Present Passive Non-Past Passive Future Passive
Aorist Atelic eredanale Aorist Atelic eredanile Aorist Atelic eredanele Aorist Atelic eredanule Aorist Atelic eredanole
Aorist Telic eredaanale Aorist Telic eredaanile Aorist Telic eredaanele Aorist Telic eredaanule Aorist Telic eredaanole
Progressive eredaenale Progressive eredaenile Progressive eredaenele Progressive eredaenule Progressive eredaenole
Perfect Atelic eredainale Perfect Atelic eredainile Perfect Atelic eredainele Perfect Atelic eredainule Perfect Atelic eredainole
Perfect Telic eredaonale Perfect Telic eredaonile Perfect Telic eredaonele Perfect Telic eredaonule Perfect Telic eredaonole
Perf. Progress eredaunale Perf. Progress eredaunile Perf. Progress eredaunele Perf. Progress eredaunule Perf. Progress eredaunole
Past Intransitive Non-Future Intransitive Present Intransitive Non-Past Intransitive Future Intransitive
Aorist Atelic eredenale Aorist Atelic eredenile Aorist Atelic eredenele Aorist Atelic eredenule Aorist Atelic eredenole
Aorist Telic eredeanale Aorist Telic eredeanile Aorist Telic eredeanele Aorist Telic eredeanule Aorist Telic eredeanole
Progressive eredeenale Progressive eredeenile Progressive eredeenele Progressive eredeenule Progressive eredeenole
Perfect Atelic eredeinale Perfect Atelic eredeinile Perfect Atelic eredeinele Perfect Atelic eredeinule Perfect Atelic eredeinole
Perfect Telic eredeonale Perfect Telic eredeonile Perfect Telic eredeonele Perfect Telic eredeonule Perfect Telic eredeonole
Perf. Progress eredeunale Perf. Progress eredeunile Perf. Progress eredeunele Perf. Progress eredeunule Perf. Progress eredeunole
Past Stative Non-Future Stative Present Stative Non-Past Stative Future Stative
Aorist Atelic eredinale Aorist Atelic eredinile Aorist Atelic eredinele Aorist Atelic eredinule Aorist Atelic eredinole
Aorist Telic eredianale Aorist Telic eredianile Aorist Telic eredianele Aorist Telic eredianule Aorist Telic eredianole
Progressive eredienale Progressive eredienile Progressive eredienele Progressive eredienule Progressive eredienole
Perfect Atelic erediinale Perfect Atelic erediinile Perfect Atelic erediinele Perfect Atelic erediinule Perfect Atelic erediinole
Perfect Telic eredionale Perfect Telic eredionile Perfect Telic eredionele Perfect Telic eredionule Perfect Telic eredionole
Perf. Progress erediunale Perf. Progress erediunile Perf. Progress erediunele Perf. Progress erediunule Perf. Progress erediunole
Past Causative Non-Future Causative Present Causative Non-Past Causative Future Causative
Aorist Atelic eredonale Aorist Atelic eredonile Aorist Atelic eredonele Aorist Atelic eredonule Aorist Atelic eredonole
Aorist Telic eredoanale Aorist Telic eredoanile Aorist Telic eredoanele Aorist Telic eredoanule Aorist Telic eredoanole
Progressive eredoenale Progressive eredoenile Progressive eredoenele Progressive eredoenule Progressive eredoenole
Perfect Atelic eredoinale Perfect Atelic eredoinile Perfect Atelic eredoinele Perfect Atelic eredoinule Perfect Atelic eredoinole
Perfect Telic eredoonale Perfect Telic eredoonile Perfect Telic eredoonele Perfect Telic eredoonule Perfect Telic eredoonole
Perf. Progress eredounale Perf. Progress eredounile Perf. Progress eredounele Perf. Progress eredounule Perf. Progress eredounole
Past Transitive Non-Future Transitive Present Transitive Non-Past Transitive Future Transitive
Aorist Atelic eredunale Aorist Atelic eredunile Aorist Atelic eredunele Aorist Atelic eredunule Aorist Atelic eredunole
Aorist Telic ereduanale Aorist Telic ereduanile Aorist Telic ereduanele Aorist Telic ereduanule Aorist Telic ereduanole
Progressive ereduenale Progressive ereduenile Progressive ereduenele Progressive ereduenule Progressive ereduenole
Perfect Atelic ereduinale Perfect Atelic ereduinile Perfect Atelic ereduinele Perfect Atelic ereduinule Perfect Atelic ereduinole
Perfect Telic ereduonale Perfect Telic ereduonile Perfect Telic ereduonele Perfect Telic ereduonule Perfect Telic ereduonole
Perf. Progress ereduunale Perf. Progress ereduunile Perf. Progress ereduunele Perf. Progress ereduunule Perf. Progress ereduunole
Verb Inflections — Voices and Tenses (Exemplar: eredenele, root: red)

• Note: The transitive verb forms, monotransitive and ditransitive, are morphologically indistinguishable. Reflexive verbs are treated as passive.

• Additional Note: The Aorist Atelic, Aorist Telic, progressive, perfective atelic, perfective telic, and perfect progressive verb aspects should be considered tense functions rather than true aspects, as the “aspect” in the morphology of the Proto-Borean Language had its own, distinct morphological place at the beginning of the verb (unless said verb was also inflected for mood, in which case the aspect followed the mood inflection).

ELDER FAERYN — Base Dialect As transliterated from the Elder-Runes alphabet Verb Inflections — Conjugation (Exemplar: eredelen, root: red)

First Person Nominative Second Person Nominative Third Person Nominative
Feminine Singular eredemela Feminine Singular eredetela Feminine Singular eredenela
Feminine Dual eredemealaa Feminine Dual eredetealaa Feminine Dual eredenealaa
Feminine Trial eredemeelae Feminine Trial eredeteelae Feminine Trial eredeneelae
Feminine Paucal eredemeilai Feminine Paucal eredeteilai Feminine Paucal eredeneilai
Feminine Plural eredemeulau Feminine Plural eredeteulau Feminine Plural eredeneulau
Feminine Mass eredemeolao Feminine Mass eredeteolao Feminine Mass eredeneolao
Masculine Singular eredemelu Masculine Singular eredetelu Masculine Singular eredenelu
Masculine Dual eredemealua Masculine Dual eredetealua Masculine Dual eredenealua
Masculine Trial eredemeelue Masculine Trial eredeteelue Masculine Trial eredeneelue
Masculine Paucal eredemeilui Masculine Paucal eredeteilui Masculine Paucal eredeneilui
Masculine Plural eredemeuluu Masculine Plural eredeteuluu Masculine Plural eredeneuluu
Masculine Mass eredemeoluo Masculine Mass eredeteoluo Masculine Mass eredeneoluo
Neuter Singular eredemele Neuter Singular eredetele Neuter Singular eredenele
Neuter Dual eredemealea Neuter Dual eredetealea Neuter Dual eredenealea
Neuter Trial eredemeelee Neuter Trial eredeteelee Neuter Trial eredeneelee
Neuter Paucal eredemeilei Neuter Paucal eredeteilei Neuter Paucal eredeneilei
Neuter Plural eredemeuleu Neuter Plural eredeteuleu Neuter Plural eredeneuleu
Neuter Mass eredemeoleo Neuter Mass eredeteoleo Neuter Mass eredeneoleo
First Person Objective Second Person Objective Third Person Objective
Feminine Singular eredemena Feminine Singular eredetena Feminine Singular eredenena
Feminine Dual eredemeanaa Feminine Dual eredeteataa Feminine Dual eredeneanaa
Feminine Trial eredemeenae Feminine Trial eredeteetae Feminine Trial eredeneenae
Feminine Paucal eredemeinai Feminine Paucal eredeteitai Feminine Paucal eredeneinai
Feminine Plural eredemeunau Feminine Plural eredeteutau Feminine Plural eredeneunau
Feminine Mass eredemeonao Feminine Mass eredeteotao Feminine Mass eredeneonao
Masculine Singular eredemenu Masculine Singular eredetetu Masculine Singular eredenenu
Masculine Dual eredemeanua Masculine Dual eredeteatua Masculine Dual eredeneanua
Masculine Trial eredemeenue Masculine Trial eredeteetue Masculine Trial eredeneenue
Masculine Paucal eredemeinui Masculine Paucal eredeteitui Masculine Paucal eredeneinui
Masculine Plural eredemeunuu Masculine Plural eredeteutuu Masculine Plural eredeneunuu
Masculine Mass eredemeonuo Masculine Mass eredeteotuo Masculine Mass eredeneonuo
Neuter Singular eredemene Neuter Singular eredetete Neuter Singular eredenene
Neuter Dual eredemeanea Neuter Dual eredeteatea Neuter Dual eredeneanea
Neuter Trial eredemeenee Neuter Trial eredeteetee Neuter Trial eredeneenee
Neuter Paucal eredemeinei Neuter Paucal eredeteitei Neuter Paucal eredeneinei
Neuter Plural eredemeuneu Neuter Plural eredeteuteu Neuter Plural eredeneuneu
Neuter Mass eredemeoneo Neuter Mass eredeteoteo Neuter Mass eredeneoneo

ELDER FAERYN — Base Dialect As transliterated from the Elder-Runes alphabet Verb Inflections — Moods (Exemplar: eredenele, root: red)
Descriptive Moods Relative Moods Volitive Moods Sensory Evidental Moods
Indicative eredenele Sarcastic gnyeredenele Desiderative mberedenele Aural dyeredenele
Declarative beredenele Facetious myeredenele Optative mveredenele Extra-sensory psyeredenele
Energetic heredenele Inferential mdyeredenele Imprecative mveredenele Generic mtyeredenele
Generic neredenele Felicitous ndyeredenele Commissive mderedenele Olfactory msyeredenele
Narrative nderedenele Infelicitous nyeredenele Hortative tsyeredenele Savory myeredenele
Capacitive ceredenele Admirative mjeredenele Cohortative tsyeredenele Tactile mpyeredenele
Negative ñeredenele Confirmative gneredenele Jussive tsyeredenele Visual vsyeredenele
Conditional Moods Summative Moods Directive Moods Inquisitive Moods
Subjunctive weredenele Dubitative gñeredenele Permissive syeredenele Interrogative kweredenele
Hypothetical feredenele Probabilitative lderedenele Prohibitive ñesyeredenele Precative kwe-weredenele
Presumptive lyeredenele Obligative lteredenele Suggestive seredenele Deliberative kweseredenele
Tentative wyeredenele Reputative kyeredenele Injunctive nseredenele Conjunctive weredenele
Potential cweredenele Deductive ltyeredenele Necessitative nseredenele Derivative Moods
Eventive ldweredenele Approximative yeredenele Imperative tyeredenele Adjectival redele
Probable ldyeredenele Assumptive ldyeredenele Implorative mbyeredenele Adverbial redenele

? Mood Supplements — Radicals

The Elder Dialect’s verb morphology made it impossible to express more than one mood with a single verb. Therefore, it was impossible to express, for example, a “negative dubitative” (“I doubt it doesn’t”) mood using the Elder Dialect’s standard rules of verb morphology. However, there existed in the Elder Dialect a lexical provision for just such a contingency: the mood radical. Syntactically, mood radicals were the Old Borean language’s closest equivalent to auxiliary verbs and copulas. (Usage of these is exampled above.) Using mood radicals for whole phrases, sentences, or clauses, while never inflecting a verb for mood to begin with, was very common in casual writing and conversation, however, and became the standard in some of the more analytical dialects that later developed. Even in the Elder Dialect, a few moods could not be expressed without the use of mood radicals (most such are not listed here, as they are created merely by combination of the moods above; examples of these that are listed above include the prohibitive and deliberative moods). For more information, see the section on Radicals.

Verb Inflections — Aspects (Exemplar: eredelen, root: red)

Aspects of Reception Aspects of Function Aspects of Condition Aspects of Mutation Aspects of Lineation
Momentane aredelene Indicative eredelene Adjective iredelene Inceptive oredelene Prospective uredelene
Semelfactive aaredelene Delimitative earedelene Inchoative iaredelene Durative oaredelene Protractive uaredelene
Iterative aeredelene Completive eeredelene Generic ieredelene Future Utility oeredelene Directive ueredelene
Repetitive airedelene Alternative eiredelene Apparentive iiredelene Accidental oiredelene Distributive uiredelene
Experiential aoredelene Terminative eoredelene Superlative ioredelene Simulfactive ooredelene Continuative uoredelene
Perdurative auredelene Habitual euredelene Comparative iuredelene Resumptive ouredelene Superfective uuredelene
Verb Root Derivations — Intensities and Verb Classes (Exemplar: eredelen, root: red)
Passive Class Intransitive Class Descriptive Class Causative Class Transitive Class
Moderative eradelene Moderative eredelene Moderative eridelene Moderative erodelene Moderative erudelene
Approximative eraadelene Approximative ereadelene Approximative eriadelene Approximative eroadelene Approximative eruadelene
Frequentative eraedelene Frequentative ereedelene Frequentative eriedelene Frequentative eroedelene Frequentative eruedelene
Attenuative eraidelene Attenuative ereidelene Attenuative eriidelene Attenuative eroidelene Attenuative eruidelene
Intensive eraodelene Intensive ereodelene Intensive eriodelene Intensive eroodelene Intensive eruodelene
Evolutive eraudelene Evolutive ereudelene Evolutive eriudelene Evolutive eroudelene Evolutive eruudelene

OLD BOREAN — Elder Dialect As transliterated from the Elder-Runes alphabet

Verb Inflections — Adjectives and Adverbs (Exemplar: nelene, root: n)
? Adjectival agreement with Nouns (Exemplar: nelne, root: n) — Nouns presented in the singular, dual, trial, paucal, plural, and mass.
? Adverbial agreement with Verbs (Exemplar: enelenen root: n) and Adjectives (Exemplar: nelne, root: n)

? Presented in both the feminine and masculine gender. ? Presented as referring to this example’s noun. ? Presented in both the feminine and masculine gender. ? Presented as referring to this example’s noun. Feminine Adverbs Adjectives Adverb ? Presented as referring to this example’s noun. ? Presented as referring to this example’s adjective. ? Presented as referring to this example’s noun. ? Presented as referring to this example’s adjective. Feminine
Adjectives and Nouns Adjectives and Nouns
Assuming Noun is in the Nominative Case Assuming Noun is in the Objective Case
Noun Adjective Noun Adjective
Masculine Feminine Masculine Feminine Masculine Feminine Masculine
nella nellu nali(n)’- nuli(n)’- nenna nennu nani(n)’- nuni(n)’-
neallaa neallua naali(n)’- nuali(n)’- neannaa neannua naani(n)’- nuani(n)’-
neellae neellue naeli(n)’- nueli(n)’- neennae neennue naeni(n)’- nueni(n)’-
neillai neillui naili(n)’- nuili(n)’- neinnai neinnui naini(n)’- nuini(n)’-
neullau neulluu nauli(n)’- nuuli(n)’- neunnau neunnuu nauni(n)’- nuuni(n)’-
neollao neolluo naoli(n)’- nuoli(n)’- neonnao neonnuo naoni(n)’- nuoni(n)’-
Adverbs and Verbs Adverbs and Verbs
Assuming Verb agrees with Noun in the Nominative Case Assuming Verb agrees with Noun in the Objective Case
Verb Adverb Verb Adverb
? Presented as conjugating with this example’s noun. ? Presented as referring to this example’s verb. ? Presented as conjugating with this example’s noun. ? Presented as referring to this example’s verb.
Feminine Masculine Feminine Masculine Feminine Masculine Feminine Masculine
enenela enenelu naleni(n)’- nuleni(n)’- enenena enenenu naleni(n)’- nuleni(n)’-
enenealaa enenealua naaleni(n)’- nualeni(n)’- eneneanaa eneneanua naaleni(n)’- nualeni(n)’-
eneneelae eneneelue naeleni(n)’- nueleni(n)’- eneneenae eneneenue naeleni(n)’- nueleni(n)’-
eneneilai eneneilui naileni(n)’- nuileni(n)’- eneneinai eneneinui naileni(n)’- nuileni(n)’-
eneneulau eneneuluu nauleni(n)’- nuuleni(n)’- eneleunau eneneunuu nauleni(n)’- nuuleni(n)’-
eneneolao eneneoluo naoleni(n)’- nuoleni(n)’- eneneonao eneneonuo naoleni(n)’- nuoleni(n)’-
Adverbs and Adjectives Adverbs and Adjectives
Assuming Adjective agrees with Noun in the Nominative Case Assuming Adjective agrees with Noun in the Objective Case
Masculine Feminine Masculine Feminine Masculine Feminine Masculine
nali(n)’- nuli(n)’- naleni(n)’- nuleni(n)’- nani(n)’- nuni(n)’- naleni(n)’- nuleni(n)’-
naali(n)’- nuali(n)’- naaleni(n)’- nualeni(n)’- naani(n)’- nuani(n)’- naaleni(n)’- nualeni(n)’-
naeli(n)’- nueli(n)’- naeleni(n)’- nueleni(n)’- naeni(n)’- nueni(n)’- naeleni(n)’- nueleni(n)’-
naili(n)’- nuili(n)’- naileni(n)’- nuileni(n)’- naini(n)’- nuini(n)’- naileni(n)’- nuileni(n)’-
nauli(n)’- nuuli(n)’- nauleni(n)’- nuuleni(n)’- nauni(n)’- nuuni(n)’- nauleni(n)’- nuuleni(n)’-
naoli(n)’- nuoli(n)’- naoleni(n)’- nuoleni(n)’- naoni(n)’- nuoni(n)’- naoleni(n)’- nuoleni(n)’-

OLD BOREAN — Elder Dialect As transliterated from the Elder-Runes alphabet Verb Derivation — Creating Verbal Nouns (Exemplar: nelne, root: n) Verbing — Forming Verbs from Nouns (Exemplar: nelne, root: n) nelne nelne(n)’-
Transforming Nouns into Verbal Nouns Transforming Derived Nouns into Verbs
Tense Function Noun Verbal Noun Lexical Category Derivation Noun Verb Verb Voice
Singular nelne enelento Singular None nelne enelen Passive
Dual nealnea eneleantoa Dual Augmentative nembilne enelimben Intransitive
Trial neelnee eneleentoe Trial Diminutive nepilne enelipen Descriptive
Paucal neilnei eneleintoi Paucal Pejorative nelgilne enelilgen Causative
Plural neulneu eneleuntou Plural Negative neñilne eneliñen Transitive
Mass neolneo eneleontoo Mass
Transforming Nouns into Adjectival Nouns Transforming Derived Nouns into Adjectives
Tense Function Noun Adjectival Noun Lexical Category Derivation Noun Adjective Adjective Voice
Singular nelne inelento Singular NonePassive
Dual nealnea ineleantoa Dual Augmentative nembilne nelnembi(n)’- Intransitive
Trial neelnee ineleentoe Trial Diminutive nepilne nelnepi(n)’- Stative
Paucal neilnei ineleintoi Paucal Pejorative nelgilne nelnelgi(n)’- Causative
Plural neulneu ineleuntou Plural Negative neñilne nelneñi(n)’- Transitive
Mass neolneo ineleontoo Mass
Verb Inflections — Adjective Voices and Aspects (Exemplar: redelne, root: red) Note: the passive participle is nearly equivalent to English’s past participle, and implies the Aorist Telic aspect in the passive voice, present tense (English’s so-called “past participle” rarely if ever indicates the past tense or a non-passive voice, and almost always implies the telic aspect). The intransitive, transitive, and causative participles are equivalent to English’s present participle, and can imply either the imperfective or continuous aspect (realized in this circumstance together as the progressive aspect; similar again to English, which rarely distinguishes between the imperfective and the continuous aspects except with the addition of a qualifier like “always” to an -ing verb) in the intransitive, transitive, and causative voice respectively. Verb Inflections — Adverb Voices and Aspects (Exemplar: redelene, root: red)
Passive Voice Intransitive Voice Stative Voice Transitive Voice Causative Voice
Passive Participle Intransitive Participle Non-Participle Transitive Participle Causative Participle
Adjective redelna’ Adjective redelne’ Adjective redelni’ Adjective redelnu’ Adjective redelno’
Inchoative redelnaa’ Inchoative redelnea’ Inchoative redelnia’ Inchoative redelnua’ Inchoative redelnoa’
Generic redelnae’ Generic redelnee’ Generic redelnie’ Generic redelnue’ Generic redelnoe’
Apparentive redelnai’ Apparentive redelnei’ Apparentive redelnii’ Apparentive redelnui’ Apparentive redelnoi’
Comparative redelnau’ Comparative redelneu’ Comparative redelniu’ Comparative redelnuu’ Comparative redelnou’
Superlative redelnao’ Superlative redelneo’ Superlative redelnio’ Superlative redelnuo’ Superlative redelnoo’
Passive Voice Intransitive Voice Stative Voice Transitive Voice Causative Voice
Adjective redelena’ Adjective redelene’ Adjective redeleni’ Adjective redelenu’ Adjective redeleno’
Inchoative redelenaa’ Inchoative redelenea’ Inchoative redelenia’ Inchoative redelenua’ Inchoative redelenoa’
Generic redelenae’ Generic redelenee’ Generic redelenie’ Generic redelenue’ Generic redelenoe’
Apparentive redelenai’ Apparentive redelenei’ Apparentive redelenii’ Apparentive redelenui’ Apparentive redelenoi’
Comparative redelenau’ Comparative redeleneu’ Comparative redeleniu’ Comparative redelenuu’ Comparative redelenou’
Superlative redelenao’ Superlative redeleneo’ Superlative redelenio’ Superlative redelenuo’ Superlative redelenoo’
OLD BOREAN — Elder Dialect As transliterated from the Elder-Runes alphabet Noun Inflections — Noun Classes and Numbers (Exemplar: ilne)
Passive Class Intransitive Class Descriptive Class Causative Class Transitive Class Three of Some
One of One alne One of One elne One of One ilne One of One olne One of One ulne
Two of One alnea Two of One elnea Two of One ilnea Two of One olnea Two of One ulnea
Three of One alnee Three of One elnee Three of One ilnee Three of One olnee Three of One ulnee
Some of One alnei Some of One elnei Some of One ilnei Some of One olnei Some of One ulnei
Many of One alneu Many of One elneu Many of One ilneu Many of One olneu Many of One ulneu
All of One alneo All of One elneo All of One ilneo All of One olneo All of One ulneo
One of Two aalne One of Two ealne One of Two ialne One of Two oalne One of Two ualne
Two of Two aalnea Two of Two ealnea Two of Two ialnea Two of Two oalnea Two of Two ualnea
Three of Two aalnee Three of Two ealnee Three of Two ialnee Three of Two oalnee Three of Two ualnee
Some of Two aalnei Some of Two ealnei Some of Two ialnei Some of Two oalnei Some of Two ualnei
Many of Two aalneu Many of Two ealneu Many of Two ialneu Many of Two oalneu Many of Two ualneu
All of Two aalneo All of Two ealneo All of Two ialneo All of Two oalneo All of Two ualneo
One of Three aelne One of Three eelne One of Three ielne One of Three oelne One of Three uelne
Two of Three aelnea Two of Three eelnea Two of Three ielnea Two of Three oelnea Two of Three uelnea
Three of Three aelnee Three of Three eelnee Three of Three ielnee Three of Three oelnee Three of Three uelnee
Some of Three aelnei Some of Three eelnei Some of Three ielnei Some of Three oelnei Some of Three uelnei
Many of Three aelneu Many of Three eelneu Many of Three ielneu Many of Three oelneu Many of Three uelneu
All of Three aelneo All of Three eelneo All of Three ielneo All of Three oelneo All of Three uelneo
One of Some ailne One of Some eilne One of Some iilne One of Some oilne One of Some uilne
Two of Some ailnea Two of Some eilnea Two of Some iilnea Two of Some oilnea Two of Some uilnea
Three of Some ailnee Three of Some eilnee Three of Some iilnee Three of Some oilnee uilnee
Some of Some ailnei Some of Some eilnei Some of Some iilnei Some of Some oilnei Some of Some uilnei
Many of Some ailneu Many of Some eilneu Many of Some iilneu Many of Some oilneu Many of Some uilneu
All of Some ailneo All of Some eilneo All of Some iilneo All of Some oilneo All of Some uilneo
One of Many aulne One of Many eulne One of Many iulne One of Many oulne One of Many uulne
Two of Many aulnea Two of Many eulnea Two of Many iulnea Two of Many oulnea Two of Many uulnea
Three of Many aulnee Three of Many eulnee Three of Many iulnee Three of Many oulnee Three of Many uulnee
Some of Many aulnei Some of Many eulnei Some of Many iulnei Some of Many oulnei Some of Many uulnei
Many of Many aulneu Many of Many eulneu Many of Many iulneu Many of Many oulneu Many of Many uulneu
All of Many aulneo All of Many eulneo All of Many iulneo All of Many oulneo All of Many uulneo
One of All aolne One of All eolne One of All iolne One of All oolne One of All uolne
Two of All aolnea Two of All eolnea Two of All iolnea Two of All oolnea Two of All uolnea
Three of All aolnee Three of All eolnee Three of All iolnee Three of All oolnee Three of All uolnee
Some of All aolnei Some of All eolnei Some of All iolnei Some of All oolnei Some of All uolnei
Many of All aolneu Many of All eolneu Many of All iolneu Many of All oolneu Many of All uolneu
All of All aolneo All of All eolneo All of All iolneo All of All oolneo All of All uolneo

OLD BOREAN — Elder Dialect As transliterated from the Elder-Runes alphabet Noun Inflections — Persons and Genders (Exemplar: ilne)
0th Person Pronoun 1st Person Pronoun 2nd Person Pronoun 3rd Person Pronoun 4th Person Pronoun
Feminine ilna Feminine milna Feminine tilna Feminine nilna Feminine kilna
Neuter ilne Neuter milne Neuter tilne Neuter nilne Neuter kilne
Stative ilni Stative milni Stative tilni Stative nilni Stative kilni
Masculine ilnu Masculine milnu Masculine tilnu Masculine nilnu Masculine kilnu
Verbal ilno Verbal milno Verbal tilno Verbal nilno Verbal kilno

Note: The 0th Person was used for the pleonastic pronoun, inanimate objects, concepts and actions, and hypothetical entities. It functioned much like the English ambiguous pronoun, “one”, as well as the “hypothetical you”. The 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Persons were used only for known, specific individuals or groups, whether human-like entities (wights) or other sentient beings (birds, beasts, serpents, etc.). The plural 3rd person neutral pronoun could never be used to refer to a singular entity, as with the English language’s “singular they” (which is also considered incorrect), nor did speakers have to resort to the more cumbersome “he or she”; instead, the singular neuter form, meaning “it”, was used, and was not considered even remotely offensive (as it is English). The 4th person was used only for known, specific creatures regarded as non-sentient, seemingly sentient but unnatural constructs (automatons), and sentient beings treated as part of a larger whole (cf. “kindred”). In some later dialects, the 4th person would also come to be used derogatorily for persons of a herd- or group-oriented mentality, for example persons perceived as having no sense of individuality or capacity for independent thought (cf. “sheople”, “mindless drones”). The verbal gender existed solely for converting verbs or nouns into verbal nouns such as infinitives and gerunds. The stative gender could be added to either stative verbs (specifically in the creation of adjectives and adverbs) or nouns. Noun Inflections — Declensions (Exemplar: ilne)
Central Declension Grammatical Cases Noun Case Syntactic Role Word Form Peripheral Declensions Prepositional Cases (Using Direct Object as template) Noun Case Meaning Word Form
Canonical Lemma ilne
Nominative Subject ille
Ergative Agent (Ditran/Rflx) ilde
Objective Direct Object inne
Accusative Indirect Object inte (innetu)
Vocative Referent iye
Purposive For reason of it inneba
Causal Because of it innebao
Surpassive (Going) by it innevai
Invocative In the name of it innevia
Instructive By means of it innevie
Prolative By way of it innevio
Instrumental Using it innevuu
Benefactive For it innebu
Possessive Of it inneka
Dedative Of / relating to it innekaa
Respective About it / of it innekai
Topical In the matter of it innekao
Post-Temporal After it innekraa
Temporal On / at the time of it innekri
Pro-Temporal Before it / ere it innekrua
Exterior Outside of it innekta
Excessive To the outside of it innektu
Affective To (the mind of) it inneku
Genitive Of / from it inneda
Excessive From being it inneða
Adessive Atop / on top of it inneha
Superessive On / upon it innehi
Allative Onto it innehu
Prosecutive Through way of it innemveu
Comitative Together with it innewe
Associative With it innewi
Inessive In / inside it innemni
Illative Into it innemtu
Diapedetive Through it innemzu
Abessive Without it inneña
Omissive Not / neither / nor it inneñia
Sociative Together with it innenwa
Ubiquitous All around it innepao
Proximal Near / at it innepi
Distributive Per / For each it innepwi
Desiderative For it inneprui
Posterior Behind it / after it innepsa
Sublative To it (destination) inneptu
Terminative Unto it (place) inneptu
Pursuant Upon / near it innepu
Anterior In front of / before it innepui
Terminative Until it (time) innertu
Elative Out of it innesaa
Delative Issued from it innesda
Ablative Off of it innesa
Translative To being it innežu
Lative To / into it inneto
Equative As it innetsa
Co-Temporal As / at the time of it innetsi
Essive As long as it innetsu
Dative To / unto it innetu (inte)

Note: Whether these peripheral declensions are a matter of using actual noun cases, or clitics, affixes, or postpositions is highly debatable. The case for any of these three could be made, and one finds these inflections would be treated as any of said three in later languages; in one large branch of the Borean language family, these became prepositions; in another, they became prefixes; in another still, these merged partially into the central declensions and became suffixes more characteristic of inflected languages such as those in the Uralic language family. OLD BOREAN — Elder Dialect As transliterated from the Elder-Runes alphabet Noun Inflections — Pro-Forms; Table of Correlatives (presented in the canonical, nominative, and objective declensions) Note: While the proximal demonstrative determiner corresponds to the English word, “this”, and the distal demonstrative determiner corresponds to the English word, “that”, the generic demonstrative determiner corresponds not to an English determiner, but to the English definite article “the”. The equivalent to the English indefinite article, “a / an” is implied when a singular word is not inflected for a demonstrative, a quantifier, or for grammatical number.
Canonical Relative / (Interrogative) Demonstrative Quantifier
Proximal Generic Distal Quantitative Indefinite Universal Negative
Determiner -(k)w- -p- -y- -f- -c- -py- -j- -ñ-
Pronoun Impersonal iln(k)we ilnpe ilnye ilnfe ilnce ilnpye ilnje ilnñe
Sentient niln(k)we nilnpe nilnye nilnfe nilnce nilnpye nilnje nilnñe
Inanimate iln(k)we ilnpe ilnye ilnfe ilnce ilnpye ilnje ilnñe
Automaton kiln(k)we kilnpe kilnye kilnfe kilnce kilnpye kilnje kilnñe
Pro-Adverb Location piln(k)we pilnpe pilnye pilnfe pilnce pilnpye pilnje pilnñe
Source piln(k)weda pilnpeda pilnyeda pilnfeda pilnceda pilnpyeda pilnjeda pilnñeda
Goal piln(k)weptu pilnpeptu pilnyeptu pilnfeptu pilnceptu pilnpyeptu pilnjeptu pilnñeptu
Time tsiln(k)we tsilnpe tsilnye tsilnfe tsilnce tsilnpye tsilnje tsilnñe
Manner iln(k)wevi ilnpevi ilnyevi ilnfevi ilncevi ilnpyevi ilnjevi ilnñevi
Reason iln(k)weba ilnpeba ilnyeba ilnfeba ilnceba ilnpyeba ilnjeba ilnñeba
Nominative Relative / (Interrogative) Demonstrative Quantifier
Proximal Generic Distal Quantitative Indefinite Universal Negative
Determiner -(k)w- -p- -y- -f- -c- -py- -j- -ñ-
Pronoun Impersonal il(k)we ilpe ilye ilfe ilce ilpye ilje ilñe
Sentient nil(k)we nilpe nilye nilfe nilce nilpye nilje nilñe
Inanimate il(k)we ilpe ilye ilfe ilce ilpye ilje ilñe
Automaton kil(k)we kilpe kilye kilfe kilce kilpye kilje kilñe
Pro-Adverb Location pil(k)we pilpe pilye pilfe pilce pilpye pilje pilñe
Source pil(k)weda pilpeda pilyeda pilfeda pilceda pilpyeda piljeda pilñeda
Goal pil(k)weptu pilpeptu pilyeptu pilfeptu pilceptu pilpyeptu piljeptu pilñeptu
Time tsil(k)we tsilpe tsilye tsilfe tsilce tsilpye tsilje tsilñe
Manner il(k)wevi ilpevi ilyevi ilfevi ilcevi ilpyevi iljevi ilñevi
Reason il(k)weba ilpeba ilyeba ilfeba ilceba ilpyeba iljeba ilñeba
Objective Relative / (Interrogative) Demonstrative Quantifier
Proximal Generic Distal Quantitative Indefinite Universal Negative
Determiner -(k)mh- -p- -y- -f- -c- -py- -j- -ñ-
Pronoun Impersonal in(k)we inpe inye inphe ince inpye inje inñe
Sentient nin(k)we ninpe ninye ninphe nince ninpye ninje ninñe
Inanimate in(k)we inpe inye inphe ince inpye inje inñe
Automaton kin(k)we kinpe kinye kinphe kince kinpye kinje kilnñe
Pro-Adverb Location pin(k)we pinpe pinye pinphe pince pinpye pinje pinñe
Source pin(k)weda pinpeda pinyeda pinpheda pinceda pinpyeda pinjeda pinñeda
Goal pin(k)weptu pinpeptu pinyeptu pinpheptu pinceptu pinpyeptu pinjeptu pinñeptu
Time tsin(k)we tsinpe tsinye tsinphe tsince tsinpye tsinje tsinñe
Manner in(k)wevi inpevi inyevi inphevi incevi inpyevi injevi inñebvi
Reason in(k)weba inpeba inyeba inpheba inceba inpyeba injeba inñeba

OLD BOREAN — Elder Dialect As transliterated from the Elder-Runes alphabet Noun Inflections — Noun Classes and Derivation (Exemplar: radalne)
Passive Class Intransitive Class Derivation Meaning Word Form Derivation Meaning Word Form “Enlightened” “Light; bright light” “Great enlightened; Moon” “Great light; Sun” “Little enlightened” “Candlelight; starlight” “Fucking enlightened” “Fucking light” “Un-enlightened” “Non-lighter” Causative Class Derivation Meaning Word Form Derivation Meaning Word Form No Derivation “Light” No Derivation “Enlightener” radolne “Great light” Augmentative Derivation “Great enlightener” radombilne “Little light; star” Diminutive Derivation “Little enlightener” radokilne “Fucking light” Pejorative Derivation “Fucking enlightener” radolgilne “Lightless” Negative Derivation “Enlightener-less” radoñilne Derivation Meaning Word Form No Derivation “Lighter; fire; torch” radulne “Great lighter; beacon” radumbilne “Little lighter; candle; flame” radukilne “Fucking lighter” radulgilne “Lighter-less; dark” raduñilne
No Derivationradalne No Derivationradelne
Augmentative Derivationradambilne Augmentative Derivationradembilne
Diminutive Derivationradakilne Diminutive Derivationradekilne
Pejorative Derivationradalgilne Pejorative Derivationradelgilne
Negative Derivationradañilne Negative Derivationradeñilne
Descriptive Class
Augmentative Derivationradimbilne
Diminutive Derivationradikilne
Pejorative Derivationradilgilne
Negative Derivationradiñilne
Transitive Class • Note: The passive class was used extensively in the formation of taxonyms; as such, it sometimes performed the function of the diminutive derivation itself; the difference between the two was in some cases subtle enough that creation of new word forms properly requiring one were formed incorrectly using the other.
• Additional Note: All of the meanings given are to be used as nouns only; they are not adjectives, but could be converted into adjectives if desired. Also note that some of the meanings given are simply possible metaphorical derivations, and would be better (more literally) represented by other Old Borean words.
Augmentative Derivation
Diminutive Derivation
Pejorative Derivation
Negative Derivation
Noun Derivation — Creating Verbal Nouns (Exemplar: enelen, root: n) Verbing — Forming Verbs from Nouns (Exemplar: nelne, root: n) Transforming Verbs into Verbal Nouns Transforming Nouns into Verbs eneulen eneulento Perfect Gerund Transforming Stative Verbs into Adjectival Nouns Transforming Nouns into Adjectives Tense Function Pseudo-Adjective Adjectival Noun Lexical Category Noun Class Noun Adjective Adjective Voice ineulen ineulento Perfect Gerund
Tense Function Verb Verbal Noun Lexical Category Noun Class Noun Verb Verb Voice
Aorist Atelic enelen enelento Infinitive Passive nalne enalen Passive
Aorist Telic enealen enealento Infinitive Intransitive nelne enelen Intransitive
Progressive eneelen eneelento Imperfect Gerund Descriptive nilne enilen Descriptive
Perfect Atelic eneilen eneilento Infinitive Causative nolne enolen Causative
Perfect Telic eneolen eneolento Infinitive Transitive nulne enulen Transitive
Perfect Progressive
Aorist Atelic inelen inelento Infinitive Passive nalne nelna(n)’- Passive
Aorist Telic inealen inealento Infinitive Intransitive nelne nelne(n)’- Intransitive
Progressive ineelen ineelento Imperfect Gerund Descriptive nilne nelni(n)’- Stative
Perfect Atelic ineilen ineilento Infinitive Causative nolne nelno(n)’- Causative
Perfect Telic ineolen ineolento Infinitive Transitive nulne nelnu(n)’- Transitive
Perfect Progressive

OLD BOREAN — Elder Dialect As transliterated from the Elder-Runes alphabet Radicals — Conjunctions
Correlating Conjunctions Coordinating Conjunctions Temporal Subordinating Conjunctions or tsui(’n) (also) Causal Subordinating Conjunctions Oppositional Subordinating Conjunctions Conditional Subordinating Conjunctions
Both / and pwoa(’n)/nwaa(’n) And nwai(’n) or ntwai(’n) After kraa(’n) or tsai(’n)
Either / or iltoa(’n)/ultaa(’n) Or ultai(’n) Before / ere krua(’n)
Neither / nor ñiltoa(’n)/ ñultaa(’n) Nor ñultai(’n) When / whenas krea(’n) or tsei(’n)
Whether / or wiltoa(’n)/ultaa(’n) Or ultai(’n) While / whenas / as kria(’n) or tsii(’n)
Whether / or not wiltoa(’n)/ulñaa(’n) Or not ulñai(’n) (Ever) since ndraa(’n) or tsaa(’n)
Not only / butñiplhaa(’n)/ultwaa(’n) But ultyai(’n) Until ertua(’n) or tsuu(’n)
Because baa(’n) Although ñoltaa(’n) If / an fia(’n)
Since bwaa(’n) Though altaa(’n) Unless / if not ñifaa(’n)/fiñi/aa(’n)
Now That tswaa(’n) Even Though wiltaa(’n) Only if / if only fipyi/aa(’n)
As bia(’n) Whereas waltaa(’n) Whether or not wiltulñaa(’n)
In Order To voua(’n) While waltai(’n) Even If wifaa(’n)
So (That) voa(’n) -- -- In Case nikwaa(’n)
Radicals — Mood Supplements
Descriptive Moods Relative Moods Volitive Moods Sensory Evidental Moods Indicative Sarcastic Desiderative Aural Declarative Facetious Optative Extra-sensory Energetic Inferential Imprecative Generic Generic Felicitous Commissive Olfactory Narrative Infelicitous Hortative Savory Capacitive Admirative Cohortative Tactile Negative Confirmative Jussive Visual Conditional Moods Summative Moods Directive Moods Inquisitive Moods Subjunctive Dubitative Permissive Interrogative Hypothetical Probabilitative Prohibitive Precative Presumptive Obligative Suggestive Enquiritive Tentative Reputative Injunctive Inquisitive Potential Deductive Necessitative Hypothetical Eventive Approximative Imperative Deliberative Probable Assumptive Implorative Conjunctive

Note: The vowel of the Verb Mood Supplement radicals described above should be changed to match the monophthong or diphthong of the aspect of the verb being supplemented, except where the need to express an additional aspect is present and semantically (and logically) possible. When using more than one grammatical mood, it was customary to use one to modify the verb itself, while using an additional mood supplement radical before the verb. The “primary” mood was the one used to prefix the verb, while the “secondary” mood was the radical set just before the verb. Mood order is thus of extreme import. ? Examples — Mood Order Syntactics It doubtfully is gñenenele It doubtfully isn’t gñe ñenenele It isn’t doubtful that it is ñe gñenenele I doubt that it is gñenenele I doubt that it isn’t gñe ñenenele I don’t doubt that it is ñe gñenenele OLD BOREAN — Elder Dialect As transliterated from the Elder-Runes alphabet Radicals — Interjections ? Interjections — Pro-Sentences (e.g. Holophrastic Sentences) Descriptive Affirmative Descriptive Negative Responsive Corroborative Responsive Dissentive Almost iaya Approximative Sort of ñiaya Approximative Probably aaya Approximative Doubtful ñaaya Somewhat iiya AttenuativeNot really ñiiya AttenuativeAlright aiya AttenuativeNah ñaiya Yes / Aye iya Moderative No / Nay ñiya Moderative Uh-huh aya Moderative Huh-uh ñaya Of course ioya Elative No way ñioya Elative Yes / Aye aoya Elative No / Nay ñaoya Extremely iuya Intensive Opposite ñiuya Intensive Verily auya Intensive Never ñauya Obviously ieya Declarative Nay! ñieya Declarative Yea! aeya Declarative Nay! ñaelya
? Interjections — Holophrastic Sentences: Conventions of Formality Rough Translation or Equivalent Phrase Interjection (Casual Version) Contracted From (Standard Informal Version) Lengthened Formal Version Tille mbhibeonibhereaphet Tille mbhibeonephi’mbhebhereaphinit Beonidalni tinnetu Dalhilpi mbhibeoniorhunil tinnecu Beonidinialni tinnetu Iadaalhielennpo mbhibeoniorhunol tinnecu Beonimorhlhilli tinnetu Morhlhilpe mbhibeoniorhunel tinnecu Beoninaictilli tinnetu Naictilpi mbhibeoniorhunil tinnecu Beoninhiapulilento tinnetu Nhiapulielennpo mianneacaa mbhibeoniorhunol tinnecu Beoniabhielento tinnetu Iabhielennpo mbhibeoniorhunol tinnecu Eprilhulenem tinnetu; plezilni Mille eprilhulenem tinnetu; plezilni Gratsilli tinnetu Malleca gratsinni tinnetu Gratsilnmi tinnetu Malleca gratsinni tinnetu Mbhiblisiorhunet Tille mbhiblisiorhunet Malledha tannethu Malledha tannethu Melleda tinnetu Melleda tinnetu Melleda tinnetu Melleda tinnetu Merholenin’iapulilen miallea Iapulielennpo mianneacaa mbhiamerhoorhunol tinne Merholeni’nhiapulilen miallea Nhiapulielennpomhi mianneacaa mbhimerheorhunil tilde Ille mhlhiplezurhunem Ille mhlhiplezurhunem minne Nhailha; gratsilni Nhailha, ultlhai mille igratsalenem tinne Nhili’gmhostolli minnecu Ilpe enalenil nhili’gmhostonni minnecu Pasalli tinnetu Pasalli enalenil tinnemhi Pasictolli tinnetu Pasinectolli (Pasalin’ectolli) enalenil tinnemhi Phia’n ille mhlhiplezurhunel Phia’n ille mhlhiplezurhunel tinne Mille mhlhiplezarhunem Mille mhlhiplezarhunem innebhie
Fare (Thee) Well Beobhereaphet
Good Day (to thee) Beodalni
Good Morning (to thee) Beodianilni
Good Morrow (to thee) Beomorhlhilni
Good Night (to thee) Beonaictilni
Good Parting (to thee) Beonhiapulilni
Good Evening (to thee) Beoniabhilno
Prithee please Epritinne plezilni
Hello (Response) Gratsilni
Thanks; Thank you Gratsilni
Blessed (Thou) Be Iblisiorhet
You’re welcome (for a gift) Malledhe
Hello (Greeting) Melleda
You’re welcome (for kind words) Melleda
Merry (We) Meet Merhiapulilni
Merry (We) Part Merhonhiapulilni
(It would) please (me) Mhlhiplezurhunto
No thanks; No thank you Nhailhagratsilni
No problem; Not a problem Nhigmhostolni
Peace; Peace be with you Pasalni
Peace Out Pasictolni
If (it) please(s) (thee) Phia plezulni
(I would be) please(d) Plezalni
Pardon me; Excuse me
You’re excused; pardoned
OLD BOREAN — Elder Dialect As transliterated from the Elder-Runes alphabet Radicals — Interjections ? Interjections — Emotive Interjections Intra-Phonetic Emotive Interjections Extra-Phonetic Emotive Interjections These interjections roughly conformed to Old Boren’s morphonetic structure, and many of them seemed to be contractions of Elder Dialect lexemes or corruptions of word forms from the pre-linguistic stage of Old Borean. These interjections did not necessarily conform to Old Borean’s morphonetic structure. IPA pronunciations are given for words that did not quite fit the phonology of the Proto-Borean. Introduction of English Interjection Old Borean Interjection Interjection of English Interjection Old Borean Interjection Adulation D Mlhiitaa Admiration Wow! Mhao! Agreement Word; Serious Narii Anxiety Uh-oh. ?uqo. [ ??o ] Annoyance Oy Nhaamu Attention Ahem! Hqhm! [ h?hm ] Approval Right on; Good Beonaa Attention Psst! Psst! Awe Ooo. Aumhe. Attention Yo; Lo Lheo Cessation Uh- ?uiq [ y? ] Cessation Ah-ah-ah… ?aqaqaa… [ ????a ] Cessation Well; Um; Uh Un Contemplation Ah, ; Uh Ah, [ ? ] Contemplation Hm. Hm. Congratulation Bravo Beoneli Contemplation Um, ?am, [ ?m ] Corroboration Uh-huh. ?uhuh. [ ?h? ] Dismissal Humbug; Bah Nhlhahh Delight Oh! Ailha! Discorroboration Huh-uh. Huquh. [ h??? ] Dispassion Eh. Eh. [ ? ] Dispassion Meh. Meh. [ m? ] Ecstasy Ooh! Aolha! Embarassment Oops; Woops Nhii Fright Ah! Nhai! Epiphany Eureka Blhaonaa Frustration Argh! Ahh! Frustration D’oh Nhahh Purplexion Huh? ; Huh. Huh?; Huh. [ h? ] Grief Lackaday; Alas; Alack Halnhaahh Quietude Sh! Sst! Relief Whew! Mhilhu! Tsk-tsk Tsk-tsk. ; Tut-tut. Ntsc-ntsc. [ ? ? ] Pause Hold up; Avast Ptlhea Pain Ow! Nhao! Sorrow Alas Nheobaa Pain Yeouch! Nhaa! Surprise Yikes Aikaa Pleasure Mmm. Mmm. Suprise Well Realization Ah, ; Ah! Aah, ; Aah! [ a ] Uncertainty Huh; Say what Cmhii Realization Ah-ha! Ahaa Pause Hold up; Avast Ptlhea Revulsion Eww! Nhiuhh! Sorrow Alas; Alack ?alnhaahh Revulsion Ick! Lhihh! Revulsion Ugh! Uhh! Start Oh! Lhai! Surprise Whoa! Lhaa! OLD BOREAN — Elder Dialect As transliterated from the Elder-Runes alphabet Radicals — Interjections ? Interjections — Curses English Interjection Original Word or Phrase English Interjection Original Word or Phrase Be fucked Emphuclhaorhet Tille mbemphuclhaorhunet Fuck thyself Tlhemphuclherhet Tilde tlhemphuclherhunet Get fucked Tlhemphuclhaorhet Tille tlhemphuclhaorhunet Fuck me Mphuclherhelh minne Ilhe emphuclherhunelh minne OLD BOREAN — Elder Dialect As transliterated from the Elder-Runes alphabet Radicals — Interjections Formal Conventions Filled Pauses Curses and Derogatory Terms English Casual Version Formal Version (Not Interjection) Old Borean Equivalent Old Borean Meaning Equivalent No problem Nhi? Nhi? “Ah,” “Ah,” Bherelnatsa “Like bearer” “Like a slave” No thanks Nhailha; gratsilni Nhailha, ultlhai mille igratsalenem “Er,” “Eh,” Callathu... “Into herd’s...” “To hell...” Please Plezalni Mille mhlhiplezarhunem inne’bhie “Uh,” “Uh,” Mbuca! “Fuck!” “Fuck!” Please Phia plezulni Phia’n ille mhlhiplezurhun’el tinne “Um,” “Um,” Mbuculhe “Fucker” “Fucker” Prithee please Epritinne plezilni Eprilhulen’em tinne plezilli “ “ Mbucalhe “Fuckard” “Fuckard” Thanks Gratsilni Malle’ca gratsinni tinne’tu “Well,” “Ni,” Nictolni! [Uncertain] “Gay!” You’re welcome Malle’dhe Malle’dha tanne’thu (for a gift) “ “ P You’re welcome Melle’da Melle’da tinne’tu (for kind words) “ “ P