Introduction The Elder Dialect is the earliest attested form of the Old Borean [OB] or Proto-Boreanic language (known in later times to its remaining speakers as Äÿldilÿ?gallisseth?: “The Eldertongue” — as rendered in one of many and sometimes radically differing possible dialectical permutations). Yet even this oldest attested dialect, when compared to those later to be attested, bore telltale signs of having undergone at least some degree of linguistic change since the divergence of the other known dialects of the Proto-Boreanic tongue. Even so, its most prominent feature — a clearly morphonetic structure unobscured by sound changes too localized to specific combinations of phonemes or any other sort of linguistic drift that could render etymological meanings less than plainly obvious even to its least educated speakers — played an important part in the language, and the meaning of each utterance’s constituent morphonemes remained obvious to the language’s speakers, even if the literal meaning of said utterance had been largely supplanted by a metaphorical, more specific, or otherwise emergent meaning. (Case markers need to be able to be applied either to nouns or verbs for slight differences in meaning, either in this or later dialects) Glossogeny The Elder Dialect was for the duration of the Borean cultures assumed to have evolved from an unattested “Lost Dialect” of the Eldertongue, which was (and is) generally assumed to be the distant progenitor of the more exotic branches of the Boreanic language super-family. The Anatolians regarded their own ancestral tongue, which was later supplanted by the Anatolian Dialect of the Eldertongue and all traces of any written attestation lost, as this mythic “Lost Dialect”. Subdialects The main subdialects of Elder Proto-Boreanic are the reconstructed Basal Elder Dialect (described elsewhere), the Standard Elder Dialect (described henceforth), the West Elder Dialect (described elsewhere), the Proto-Anatolian Dialect (described elsewhere), the Elder Marine Dialect (described elsewhere), the Elder Sylvan Dialect (described elsewhere), the Elder Terran Dialect (described elsewhere), and the Elder Austrean Dialect (described elsewhere). Chronolects Many cultures attempted to preserve the “True” Elder Dialect through the ages, passing it from one generation to another even as its descendant languages gave way to newer, further derived languages, until long after its inter-intelligibility with its descendants had faded away for all but the most linguistically inclined to recognize pan-lingual characteristics and discern the commonalities between it and the languages — and, inevitably, language families — that it had spawned. This was so even in an era of civilization in which extreme multilingualism was so common that those who were merely trilingual were considered either intellectually lazy or simply dull-witted. Some cultures preserved the dialect as an acrolect spoken by intellectual elitists. Others preserved it accidentally, as it gave way more quickly to newer dialects and languages in cultural epicenters such as the ever-burgeoning cities while the countryfolk stuck to a more “archaic” form of speech, thus rendering it a basilect. Diachronics The Boreanic language family, of which Proto-Boreanic and its Elder Dialect represent an early member, shares many similarities with the Indo-European (English, Iranian, Russian, Greek, Spanish, Celtic, Sanskrit), Etrusco-Pelasgic (Albanian, Pelasgian, Etruscan; probably representing a branch of the Indo-European family that split off at an extremely early date in the language family’s history), Uralic (Finnish, Hungarian, Estonian), Afro-Asiatic (Arabic, Ancient Egyptian, Hebrew, Aramaic), and to a lesser extent, the Sino-Tibetan (Mandarin, Cantonese) and Japonic (Japanese) language families, as well as the Sumerian language isolate, and is very likely, albeit inconclusively, related to them as an early member of the larger Nostratian super-family. Morphological Overview The base of the Proto-Borean language was its Elder Dialect’s unique morphology: its morphonology. At the earliest, unattested stages of the Eldertongue’s development — long before the emergence of what would later be dubbed the “Elder Dialect” — morphonemes (morphemes made up of a single perceived phoneme each) were strung together into “clumps” of morphonemes, called lexiphrases (phrase-words), forming structures akin to phrases or highly-inflected lexemes; these lexiphrases could be combined with others to form sentences. Within every lexiphrase, however, there was always a discernible root, which was itself derived to create a stem, and further brachiated by the addition of brachiative lexifixes resulting in the formation of lexiphrases and semilexiphrases belonging to either of the verbal and nominal branches. The morphemes surrounding the brachiated stem determined whether said lexiphrase was a nominocentric [semi]lexiphrase (noun-based phrase-word) or a verbocentric [semi]lexiphrase (verb-based phrase-word). It is obviously highly debatable whether this was an isolating language or an inflecting language, as it isn’t entirely clear whether or which morphemes surrounding a given root constituted function words or affixes; thus they are generally termed lexifixes. Even when analyzing the Proto-Borean tongue as an inflecting language, it is unclear whether it was a root-inflecting language, a fusional (fusion-inflection) language, or an agglutinative (agglutination-inflecting) language: when one examines a lexiphrase broadly, one finds it possible to alter any of its vowels to achieve another meaning while leaving the other morphonemes in tact, suggesting a form of root-inflection — albeit one in which, being that the same is true of its consonants, any morphoneme might be substituted according to predictable, systematic patterns, suggesting polysynthesis or even oligosynthesis; it is also possible, alternately, to break down each lexiphrase systematically into smaller constituent morphemic units, called lexemelles (a group that would include both polymorphemes and lexifixes), that could be thought of either as separate lexemes surrounded by function words or as a group of fusional affixes agglutinated onto a root, thus creating a single, highly inflected word form; moreover, any of these lexemelles could themselves be broken down further into the aforementioned morphonemes, suggesting oligosynthetic, non-fusional agglutination. Doubtless as a side-effect of being the most ancient proto-language currently known [however rich in vocabulary it be, in contrast to other proto-languages like Proto-Germanic, Proto-Uralic, Old Norse and its mutually intelligible relative, the would-be-proto-language or proto-language-with-only-one-descendent, Anglo-Saxon (“Old English”[*] in the newer terminology, which has reclassified what is traditionally termed Old English as “Middle English”[†], completely ignoring the rule of separating languages by lack of mutual intelligibility, in favor of nationalistically-motivated emphasis on its genetic relationship to True English[‡], which cannot, in academically rigorous linguistic study be considered the same language as what is now termed “Old English”; the title “Old English” being accurate only so far as Anglo-Saxon was the old language of England), which could be considered for the purpose of illustration as an “honorary” proto-language] the Standard Elder Dialect has a large number of primitives, and as compared to other subdialects of the Elder Dialect itself, far fewer derivatives. By contrast, a language with a longer history between itself and its proto-language will tend to have a greater number of derivatives (wherein the root is altered to accommodate an inflection as a result of sound change) and retain a fewer number of primitives, the relationship between primitives and derivatives being roughly analogous to regular and irregular verbs in very ancient languages like Old Latin, or the irregular and regular verbs in more derived languages like English. : Anglo-Saxon (now “Old English”) is best exemplified by the epic-poem Beowulf of unknown authorship. [†]: Old English (now “Middle English”) exemplified by the rather early and nigh-transitional example of Geoffrey Chaucer’s Book of the Duchess and Canterbury Tales. The descendents of this language include English, Scots English, Irish English, Neo-English, and Pseudo-English. [‡]: True English (“Early Modern English”) is best exemplified by works such as the King James version of the Holy Bible or William Shakespear’s A Midsummer Night’s Dream, Hamlet, Romeo & Juliet, and many others. This language has since become nearly extinct, existing today mainly in Shakespearean plays and archaic poetry, yet having begotten the corrupted Neo-English language of Jonathan Swift’s lifetime, still spoken athwart the globe in North America in such areas as Cascadia, the United States (both with spelling reforms implemented by the great Noah Webster to streamline the previous inconsistencies of Neo-English), and Canada (without any such spelling reforms); a ridiculously derived and hideously aberrant descendant of the Neo-English language which purports to be the “Standard” form of the nearly extinct English language is a minority language best termed Pseudo-English or British, with dialects of this monstrosity spoken in the British Isles’ United Kingdoms (where True English was once spoken), South Africa, and elsewhere. The language of Australia shares similarities with both Neo-English and the grotesquely deformed British language. The morphology of the Standard Elder Dialect (attested and herein described), much the same as the Basal Elder Dialect (unattested and elsewhere described), can be subdivided into Micromorphology The base Inframorphology The base Intramorphology The base Intermorphology The base Macromorphology The base Phonodynamics The base of the Proto-Borean language was its root system. At the earliest, unattested stages of the Eldertongue’s development — long before the emergence of what would later be dubbed the “Elder Dialect” — morphonemes (morphemes made up of a single perceived phoneme each) were strung together into “clumps” of morphonemes forming structures akin to phrases or highly-inflected lexemes; these “clumps” could be combined to form sentences. Within every “clump”, however, there was always a discernible root, in many instances a sort of monosyllabic “polymorpheme” made up of at least three individual morphonemes Morphoneme Inventory The Consoneme Inventory & Corresponding Phonotactics Transliterated consonants Phonotactic Summary Bilabials When a consonant bridges two syllables (i.e. when positioned between two vowels), it is pronounced as being the onset of the next syllable, except when the consonant bridges one syllable with a final vowel, in which case the consonant is pronounced as if it were a coda (this being known as dual terminal codality). Where consonant clusters are involved, the phonotactics of the language are a bit more complicated: When a consonant cluster begins with a plosive consonant, and the next consonant is neither an approximant, a lateral, nor a semi-vowel, there follows a very slight schwa [ ? ] preceeding that next consonant, unless the consonant cluster is itself preceeded by a vowel [even if said vowel appears at the end of the previous word], in which case the plosive is re-analyzed as the final consonant on the coda of the preceeding syllable. When a consonant cluster begins with a nasal consonant, however, said consonant is syllablized unless the nasal consonant is preceeded by another vowel [again, even if said vowel appears at the end of the preceeding word], which causes the nasal consonant to be pronounced as the final consonant of the previous syllable’s coda. When preceeding a consonant, the digraphs ph, bh, th, and dh (/ ph, bh, t?h, d?h /) are modified into fricative consonants (/ f, ß, ??, ð? /) , whilst the fricative digraph sh (/ sj /) is modified into an affricative consonant (/ ? /). When preceeding a liquid consonant or semi-vowel, or when following any other type of consonant, the plosive palatal digraphs ch and gh (/ ch, ?h /) become fricative consonants (/ ç, ? /). The digraph lh (/ l??? /) becomes a semi-vowel (/ j /) when preceeded by any type of consonant, but cannot itself preceed any consonant but mh, resulting in the quatergraph lhmh (/ j? /). When following any other consonant, the aspirated nasal digraph mh becomes a semi-vowel (/ w /), but when preceeding the liquid consonant r or the digraph rh, merely rounds the following consonant; the digraph mh may not preceed any other consonant with the exception of the digraph lh, with the pronunciation of mhlh being uncertain (though the most likely pronunciation is simply / w / followed by / j / with a slight schwa buffering the two). The digraph nh may not be preceeded by any type of cons0nant at the coda, though otherwise its pronunciation remains largely unchanged from that given on the chart to the left, except when modified to / ?? / preceeding any consonant, in any position. The pronunciations of doubled consonants are merely lengthened versions, or geminates, of whatever the pronunciation of a single consonant in the same morphological position would be; an exception to this is the digraph rr (/ r /). The standard formula for consonant clusters in the Old Borean language, therefore, is: [Formula] No consonant cluster may contain more than four consonemes. Most consonant clusters contain three or fewer consonemes. Clusters of four are extremely rare. Geminates are an exception. Monographs Digraphs IPA Latin IPA Latin Onset Coda Maj. Min. Onset Coda Maj. Min. [ p ] [ p? ] P p [ p? ] [ ?? ] Ph ph Voiceless plosive Aspirated plosive / fricative [ b ] [ b? ] B b [ b? ] [ ß? ] Bh bh Voiced plosive Asp. voiced plosive / fricative [ m ] [ m? ] M m [ m? ] [ ?? ] Mh mh Nasal Aspirated nasal / semi-vowel Post-dentals Monographs Digraphs IPA Latin IPA Latin Onset Coda Maj. Min. Onset Coda Maj. Min. [ t? ] [ t?? ] T t [ t?? ] [ ??? ] Th th Plosive Aspirated plosive / fricative [ d? ] [ d?? ] D d [ d?? ] [ ð?? ] Dh dh Voiced plosive Asp. voiced plosive / fricative [ n? ] [ n?? ] N n [ n??? ] [ ???? ] Nh nh Nasal Palatalized nasal [ l? ] [ l?: ] L l [ ??? ] [ ??? ] Lh lh Approximant Palatalized approximant Coronals Monographs Digraphs IPA Latin IPA Latin Onset Coda Maj. Min. Onset Coda Maj. Min. [ s ] [ s: ] S s [ s? ] [ ?? ] Sh sh Voiceless fricative (Palatalized) fricative [ z ] [ z: ] Z z [ z? ] [ ?? ] Zh zh Voiced fricative (Palatalized) fricative Dorsals Monographs Digraphs IPA Latin IPA Latin Onset Coda Maj. Min. Onset Coda Maj. Min. [ c ] [ c? ] C c [ c? ] [ ç? ] Ch ch Plosive Aspirated plosive / fricative [ ? ] [ ?? ] G g [ ?? ] [ ?? ] Gh gh Voiced plosive Asp. voiced plosive / fricative [ ? ] [ ?? ] ? ? [ ?? ] [ ??? ] ?h ?h Nasal Palatalized nasal Miscellaneous Monographs Digraphs IPA Latin IPA Latin Onset Coda Maj. Min. Onset Coda Maj. Min. [ h ] [ x? ] H h [ ? ] [ x? ] Hh hh Voiceless glottal Voiced glottal [ ? ] N/A Q q [ . ] N/A Qh qh Glottal stop Syllable break [ r ] [ r?? ] R r [ ? ] [ ?: ] Rh rh Alveolar lateral flap Trill / approximant Voloneme Inventory & Corresponding Phonotactics Transliterated vowels Phonotactic Summary Monophthongs & Diphthongs Vowels Majuscule A Aa Ae Ai Ay Au Ao Minuscule a aa ae ai ay au ao Initial [ ? ] [ a? ] [ a? ] [ a? ] [ a? ] [ a? ] [ a? ] Medial [ ? ] [ ?: ] [ ?? ] [ ?? ] [ ?? ] [ ?? ] [ Œ? ] Final [ a ] [ a: ] [ ae ] [ ai ] [ ay ] [ au ] [ ao ] Majuscule E Ea Ee Ei Ey Eu Eo Minuscule e ea ee ei ey eu eo Initial [ ? ] [ e? ] [ e? ] [ e? ] [ e? ] [ e? ] [ e? ] Medial [ ? ] [ ?? ] [ ?: ] [ ?? ] [ œ? ] [ œ? ] [ ø? ] Final [ e ] [ ea ] [ e: ] [ ei ] [ ey ] [ eu ] [ eo ] Majuscule I Ia Ie Ii Iy Iu Io Minuscule i ia ie ii iy iu io Initial [ ? ] [ i? ] [ i? ] [ i? ] [ i? ] [ i? ] [ i? ] Medial [ ? ] [ ?? ] [ ?? ] [ ?: ] [ ?? ] [ ?? ] [ y? ] Final [ i ] [ ia ] [ ie ] [ i: ] [ iy ] [ iu ] [ io ] Majuscule Y Ya Ye Yi Yy Yu Yo Minuscule y ya ye yi yy yu yo Initial [ ? ] [ y? ] [ y? ] [ y? ] [ y? ] [ y? ] [ y? ] Medial [ ? ] [ ?? ] [ ?? ] [ ?? ] [ ?: ] [ ?? ] [ y? ] Final [ y ] [ ya ] [ ye ] [ yi ] [ y: ] [ yu ] [ yo ] Majuscule U Ua Ue Ui Uy Uu Uo Minuscule u ua ue ui uy uu uo Initial [ ? ] [ u? ] [ u? ] [ u? ] [ ?? ] [ ?? ] [ ?? ] Medial [ ? ] [ ?? ] [ ?? ] [ ?? ] [ ?? ] [ ?: ] [ u? ] Final [ u ] [ ua ] [ ue ] [ ui ] [ ?y ] [ ?u ] [ ?o ] Majuscule O Oa Oe Oi Oy Ou Oo Minuscule o oa oe oi oy ou oo Initial [ ? ] [ o? ] [ o? ] [ o? ] [ ?? ] [ ?? ] [ ?? ] Medial [ ? ] [ ?? ] [ ?? ] [ ?? ] [ ?? ] [ ?? ] [ o? ] Final [ o ] [ oa ] [ oe ] [ oi ] [ ?y ] [ ?u ] [ ?o ] (Simplify Above, Œ > ?, ø > œ, etc.) Morphonemetics Blah Morphoneme Oligarchy The Consoneme Oligarchy: First Tier Consonantal monographic continua Elderunes Latin Alphabet Morphonetic Meaning majuscule minuscule majuscule minuscule Bilabials I: Enflexive continuum P p Definite place or point; to point (as in, “to point to something”, or, “to point something out”); a point on something or a piece of something; a definite place on, within, or about something. Finiteness; definiteness; proximity. The proximal demonstrative. euphone allophone [ p ] [ p? ] B b For a definite point or goal: for a person or reason. Being for something, as in having a definite cause, reason, or course. Because of something. Purposefulness; potentiality. Having inherently some useful or desirable quality or qualities. euphone allophone [ b ] [ b? ] M m Inwardness, internality, or the self; the figurative or physical interior of a creature or object: The innermost. The essence or internal quality of a thing or concept. Referral to the self or internal or inherent personal quality. The first person singular, “I”, and FP exclusive, “we, but not thou/ye”. euphone allophone [ m ] [ m? ] Post-dentals II: Entensive continuum T t The physical end or goal; terminal. Ending, termination; the physical or chronological closure or termination of an immediate event or tangible, definable object or happening. The absolutive case; the second person. euphone allophone [ t? ] [ t?? ] D d Place of origination; starting point. Beginning; the physical or chronological opening or origination of an immediate event or tangible, definable object or happening. euphone allophone [ d? ] [ d?? ] N n Being; existing. Dependently specified and unambiguous condition of so being or existing. Simultaneously contrasting and complementary relationship with, secondarily to, the morphoneme “L”. The objective case; the third person;. euphone allophone [ n? ] [ n?? ] L l Being; existing. Independently specified and unambiguous condition of so being or existing. Variously contrasting or complimentary relationship with, primarily to, the morphoneme “N”. The nominative case. euphone allophone [ l? ] [ l?? ] Alveolars III: Enpensive continuum S s Flowing. Overflowing; outpouring, emitting. Also, having a course or current, sometimes metaphorically, as from a given place, object, condition, or event, toward another, especially if by natural or logical course. euphone allophone [ s ] [ s: ] Z z Intense outpouring or sudden charge, such as that of a flashflood; thus toward a specific end, cause, or goal, especially in circuit or for its own sake. Hence, also, deep or intense emotion. Can indicate the perpetual when used with certain other consonants. euphone allophone [ z ] [ z: ] Palatals IV: Enspective continuum C c Concerning; facing, directed toward, relating to. Together with; being considered as having strongly to do with. A substrate of something; hence, sometimes, a diminutive. The dynamic case; the dual, trial, paucal, plural, or BLANK numeric case. euphone allophone [ c ] [ c? ] G g Founding, being the foundation or founding aspect of. Firmness, solidarity, permanence. Found often in words relating to the ground, earth, or land. A superstrate of something. Girth, broadness, or width. euphone allophone [ ? ] [ ?? ] ? ? euphone allophone [ ? ] [ ?? ] Miscellaneous V: En- continuum H h Superior to; above. More than; greater than; an intensive or specified form of. euphone allophone [ h ] [ x? ] Q q The glottal stop has no independent meaning since it has no independent pronunciation. But as placing it between two vowels indicates that the vowels be pronounced separately as individual monophthongs, it also indicates that their meanings not be conflated (as if parts of a diphthong). euphone allophone [ ? ] N/A R r Becoming or growing toward the state of; advancing forth or toward something. Emphasis of the changing or mutable nature of a thing or concept. Movement, action. euphone allophone [ ? ] [ ??? ] Consoneme Oligarchy: Second Tier Consonantal digraphic continua Elderunes Latin Alphabet Morphonetic Meaning majuscule minuscule majuscule minuscule Bilabials I: Exflexive continuum Ph ph Distant place or point; a remote or hypothetical condition; the condition of being remote, far; an unattained but attainable place, condition, or circumstance; distance. The distal demonstrative. euphone allophone [ p? ] [ ?? ] Bh bh A definite point or goal; something to aspire to or pilgrim for. Going for something, as in a cause or desire. Movement or motion. Potency; intrepidness. Having the quality of zealousness, passion, or desire. Purpose or purposefulness. euphone allophone [ b? ] [ ß? ] Mh mh Association, pairing; a logical relationship necessarily based in some internal quality of one or the other; hence, mutuality of inherent connectedness and thus transcendental internality. Naturally following from. The first person inclusive, “thou/ye and we”. euphone allophone [ m? ] [ w? ] Post-dentals II: Extensive continuum Th th The conceptual end or goal; resolution. Ultimate end; the metaphysical; closure of or termination of or spiritual transition into a state of being. Death or the Afterlife; the Great Beyond. The spiritual state. Definition or definiteness. The demonstratives; the definite article. euphone allophone [ t?? ] [ ??? ] Dh dh Metaphysical or spiritual origination - whether ultimate or relative. The primordial chaos; the night sky; darkness (especially the primeval dark). Ultimate otherworldly source. Spiritual or conceptual origination. euphone allophone [ d?? ] [ ð?? ] Nh nh Unbeing; not existing. Independently unspecified and ambiguous condition of so unbeing. Contrasting relationship with both “Lh” and “N”. Absence, but not active negation: the lack of, but not the direct opposite of. euphone allophone [ n??? ] [ ???? ] Lh lh Dependently unspecified or ambiguous condition of being or existing, often an extensive form of the condition of so being or existing. Contrasting relationship with both “L” and “Nh”. Ambiguation or intensification of form. The vocative case; the hypothetical demonstratives. euphone allophone [ l?? ] [ j?? ] Coronals III: BLANK continuum Sh sh Motion toward a specified or unspecified goal. Loosely indicating a particular course or current within broad parameters; questionable or inferential potentiality. Ambiguity concerning a specific, known course or event. Distal eventuality or assumed inevitability. euphone allophone [ s? ] [ ?? ] Zh zh euphone allophone [ z? ] [ ?? ] Palatals IV: BLANK continuum Ch ch E euphone allophone [ c? ] [ ç? ] Gh gh E euphone allophone [ ?? ] [ ?? ] ?h ?h E euphone allophone [ ?? ] [ ?? ] Miscellaneous V: BLANK continuum Hh hh E euphone allophone [ ? ] [ x? ] Qh qh E euphone allophone [ . ] N/A Rh rh Growing from the state of; advancing forth or forth from something; growing out of. Emphasis of the changing or mutable nature of a thing or concept. euphone allophone [ ? ] [ ?: ] Voloneme Oligarchy: First Tier Monophthongal continuum Elderunes Latin Alphabet Morphonetic Meaning majuscule minuscule majuscule minuscule A a Dependency; passiveness or Pronunciations [ ? ] [ a ] [ ? ] [ Œ ] majuscule minuscule majuscule minuscule E e Pronunciations [ ? ] [ e ] [ œ ] [ ø ] majuscule minuscule majuscule minuscule I i Pronunciations [ ? ] [ i ] [ ? ] [ y ] majuscule minuscule majuscule minuscule Y y Pronunciations [ ? ] [ y ] [ j ] majuscule minuscule majuscule minuscule U u Pronunciations [ ? ] [ u ] [ ? ] majuscule minuscule majuscule minuscule O o Pronunciations [ ? ] [ o ] [ ? ] majuscule minuscule majuscule minuscule ? ? A short, null voloneme without meaning. Used in some morphological positions [differing from speaker to speaker or from scribe to scribe] to make consonant clusters easier to pronounce, or wherever a voloneme be expected but no meaning be intended. Pronunciations [ ?? ] Notes on Orthography: 1. All Elderunes in this document are graphed according to the manner they should appear if scribing left to right, top to bottom (LRTB), just as in the modern Latin alphabet. If inscribing RLTB, the characters should be oriented oppositely, or horizontally mirrored — that is, flipped horizontally as if viewed in a mirror —, as indicated by the formation implemented in the most common method of inscribing the Elderunes: Boustrophedon. When scribed according to the boustrophedon method, a LRTB “p” on the first line should look identical to the RLTB “c” on the second line. The Elderunes can actually be scribed in any direction whatever, so long as the letters are oriented accordingly; thus, one used to a LRTB script, such as the Latin alphabet, reading a sample scribed TBLR would have to tilt one’s head to see the letters “properly” oriented, and stand on one’s head to accomplish this if the runes were scribed BTRL. 2. The Elderunes originally contained no minuscule graphemes; these were invented later, to be followed in a few centuries’ time by the addition of graphemes representing the approximate sounds of [f], [v], [w], [þ], [ð], [n], [y], [s], [z], [ç], [j], [ñ], [x], [-], and [r], to take the place of the “h” digraphs [ph], [bh], [mh], [th], [dh], [nh], [lh], [sh], [zh], [ch], [gh], [?h], [hh], [qh], and [rh], respectively, in response to changes in pronunciation, making this later version of the Eldertongue (described elsewhere) a truly fusional language. Root System Those Root Type: Consonantal (Type-C) The simplest roots are those made up of a single morphoneme. In usage this is most often a consonantal monograph or digraph, although consonant clusters are lexically more numerous (though when consonant clusters are used as roots, the nucleic morphoneme is considered reducible into smaller morphonemes; these consonant clusters are thus termed “polymorphemes”). Since these roots lack vowels, they can be considered nihilosyllabic roots (0·S-Type) — a subcategory of syllabic root (S-Type) characterized by being non-syllabic, in much the same way that black can be considered a color characterized by its lack of color, or atheism a religious position characterized by its position of rejecting religion. 1. Uniconsonantal (Type-1·C) Uniconsonantal roots are lexemelles made up of a nihilosyllabic morpheme comprising a single consoneme — whether it be a consonantal monograph or a consonantal digraph. 2. Biconsonantal (Type-2·C) Biconsonantal roots are lexemelles made up of a nihilosyllabic polymorpheme comprising two consonemes [or, as in many cases, a redundant pair of nihilosyllabic morphemes] — whether they be consonantal monographs or consonantal digraphs. 3. Triconsonantal (Type-3·C) Triconsonantal roots are lexemelles made up of a nihilosyllabic polymorpheme comprising three consonemes — whether they be consonantal monographs or consonantal digraphs. 4. Quadruconsonantal (Type-4·C) Quadruconsonantal roots are lexemelles made up of a nihilosyllabic polymorpheme comprising four consonemes — whether they be consonantal monographs or consonantal digraphs. Root Type: Syllabic (Type-S) The 1. Nihilosyllabic (Type-0·S) “Nihilosyllabic root” is another term for “consonantal root”, consisting of either a morpheme or polymorpheme; from a single consoneme of one or two characters to a consonant cluster incorporating up to four morphonemes. 2. Monosyllabic (Type-1·S) Monosyllabic roots are made up of 3. Disyllabic (Type-2·S) Disyllabic roots are made up of 4. Trisyllabic (Type-3·S) Trisyllabic roots are made up of 5. Tetrasyllabic (Type-4·S) Tetrasyllabic roots are made up of 6. Pentasyllabic (Type-5·S) Pentasyllabic roots are made up of Uniconsonantal (Type-1·C) Roots Those Biconsonantal (Type-1·C) Roots Those Triconsonantal (Type-1·C) Roots Those Quadruconsonantal (Type-1·C) Roots Those Monosyllabic (Type-1·S) Roots These are Monosyllabic Roots: Construction Those ? Parentheses — ? Nuclei — Monosyllabic Root Construction: Parentheses Those ? Anterior Parenthesis — ? Posterior Parenthesis — Anterior Parenthesis Those *per- direct toward; place; point to; narrow into; *ber- *mer- *ter- *der- *ner- *ler- *ser- *zer- *cer- *ger- *?er- *her- *qer- *rer- *pher- *bher- *mher- *ther- *dher- *nher- *lher- *sher- *zher- *cher- *gher- *?her- *hher- *qher- *rher- The verbal class system of the Proto-Borean language is a system of derivation by which the root’s nucleus is altered to create a new word. This system itself almost certainly derived from a very early form of interconsonemetic vocality present in Proto-Borean’s own ancestral tongue. All Posterior Parenthesis Those *rep- *reb- *rem- *ret- *red- radiate; heat; disperse; antigregate; cast off *ren- *rel- *res- *rez- *rec- *reg- *reh- *req- *rer- *reph- *rebh- *remh- *reth- *redh- radiate; heat; disperse; antigregate; cast off *renh- *relh- *resh- *rezh- *rech- *regh- *rehh- *reqh- *rerh- In the Monosyllabic Root Construction: Nuclei This ? Nucleic Base — marks a lexiphrase’s nuclear vocality by use of a single vowel: the nuclear monophthong. ? Nucleic Echelons — are graduative aspects of a monosyllabic root’s basal vocality. Nucleic Base: Nuclear Vocality A root’s nucleic base uses a base vocality to establish a nucleic voice within the consonantal parentheses of a monosyllabic root, ____. This system is itself derived from a very early form of interconsonemetic vocality present in the Old Borean language’s own ancestral tongue, and uses the same six basal voices. Nuclear vocality is distinguished from basal vocality in other morphological positions by a diacritic (commonly transcribed into the Latin alphabet as diereses), which is commonly assumed to indicate some form of emphatic intonation used to distinguish word forms that might otherwise have been homonymous. Nuclear vocality can be altered to derive new words via nuclear suppletion. In the example below, the consonantal root *r-d- has the morphonetic meaning of r, “to go” or “to move”, in relationship to the following morphoneme, d, which signifies ? The basal active (projective intransitive) voice renders *red-, which via semantic shift, developed the meaning of “ ? The basal stative (receptive descriptive) voice renders *rid-, ? The basal adjective (projective descriptive) voice renders *ryd-, ? The basal acquisitive (receptive transitive) voice renders *rud-, ? The basal causative (projective transitive) voice renders *rod-, ? Finally, the basal passive (receptive intransitive) voice renders *rad-, ? The descriptive form, *ridh-, took the meaning of “to be going toward the darkness or initial, wild, or feral state; to be going toward the spiritual source”; hence, “to travel through the wild; to seek wisdom or enlightenment; to wander, travel, or pilgrim; to be away from society”. ? The causative form, *rudh-, gained the meaning of “to put out toward the darkness; to cause to go outward into the [surrounding] dark and/or cold; to return to an initial state of unbeing”, hence, “to make pervade the darkness or cold; to return to ashes”, and therefore, “to set aflame or alight; to fire or burn; to heat or cook; to redden [or ‘to blacken [with heat or flame]’, which brings us back to the concept of returning to darkness]”. ? The passive form, *radh-, acquired the meaning of “to be put out toward or into the primordial darkness, cold, or chaos; to have tapped into the abyss of infinite knowledge”; variously interpreted as, “to be caused to pervade the [surrounding] darkness”, “to have been placed away in the wild; apart from the group or society”, or “to have found [possibly innate] knowledge”; hence, “to shine; to be bright [with the metaphorical meaning, ‘to be intelligent’] or radiating [with the metaphorical meaning, ‘to be splendorous or beautiful’]; to stand out or apart [also with the metaphorical meaning of being unusually intelligent and/or beautiful]; to be radical [with connotations of both radical intellect or cunning and radical beauty]; to be radiant, splendorous, or beautiful; to be radically clever or knowledgeable; to be wild, or to be wildly brilliant or radiant [whether referring to intelligence, literal ‘brightness’, or beauty]; et cetera”. ? Finally, the acquisitive form, *rodh-, developed the meaning of “to draw away from the source”, hence, “to erode away or gnaw at; to devour”. This gives us the following basic paradigm: Passive *räd- shine/radiate; standout Active *rëd- learn; evolve; egregate; set [oneself] apart; antigregate Stative *rïd- travel; wander; pilgrim; exit; cast off or away Adjective *rÿd- travel; wander; pilgrim; exit; cast off or away Acquisitive *rüd- erode away at; eat/gnaw at; devour Causative *röd- heat; redden [or blacken] When used in the form of a verb, these forms take on the following meanings: Nucleic Echelons: Graduative Aspect The unique relationship between the initial vowel that is the nucleic base and the __ vowels that are the nucleic echelons determine a monosyllabic root’s graduative aspect. Most of these are expressed by the addition of a second vowel, creating a nuclear diphthong; the exception to this is the moderative grade, marked by the null echelon, which is merely an un-gradated basal voice — or, more simply, a nucleic base without a nucleic echelon. Nuclear diphthongs, like nuclear monophthongs, are marked by a diacritic (diereses), placed on each of the two vowels marking the ends of the diphthong. Moderative passive *räd- radiate; shine Attenuative passive *rääd- swell; glow; ember Intensive passive *räëd- burgeon; rage; burn; glare Approximative passive *räïd- fill up; smolder passive *räÿd- Evolutive passive *räüd- go from filling or smoldering to burgeoning, raging, burning, or glaring Excessive passive *räöd- Moderative active *rëd- learn; egregate; set [oneself] apart; antigregate Approximative active *rëäd- Intensive active *rëëd- Attenuative active *rëïd- *rëÿd- Evolutive active *rëüd- Excessive active *rëöd- Moderative descriptive *rïd- travel; wander; pilgrim; exit; cast off or away Approximative descriptive *rïäd- Intensive descriptive *rïëd- Attenuative descriptive *rïïd- *rïÿd- Evolutive descriptive *rïüd- Excessive descriptive *rïöd- Moderative causative *rÿd- heat; redden [or blacken] Approximative causative *rÿäd- Intensive causative *rÿëd- Attenuative causative *rÿïd- *rÿÿd- Evolutive causative *rÿüd- Excessive causative *rÿöd- Moderative acquisitive *rüd- erode away at; eat/gnaw at Approximative acquisitive *rüäd- Intensive acquisitive *rüëd- eat; consume; devour Attenuative acquisitive *rüïd- *rüÿd- Evolutive acquisitive *rüüd- Excessive acquisitive *rüöd- Moderative causative *röd- heat; redden [or blacken] Approximative causative *röäd- Intensive causative *röëd- Attenuative causative *röïd- *röÿd- Evolutive causative *röüd- Excessive causative *rööd- Monosyllabic Roots: Derivation Those ? Parenthetical Suppletion — ? Nuclear Suppletion — Anterior Parenthetical Suppletion Those The verb class system of the Proto-Borean language is a system of derivation by which the root’s nucleus is altered to create a new word. This system itself almost certainly derived from a very early form of interconsonemetic vocality present in Proto-Borean’s own ancestral tongue. Posterior Parenthetical Suppletion Thos In the Nuclear Suppletion This feature of the Proto-Borean language is a system of derivation by which a monosyllabic root’s basal voice is substituted for another within the consonantal parentheses of a monosyllabic root, creating a new lexeme even if no other morpheme is changed. This is a form not of root-inflection, but root-derivation. ? Vocal Suppletion — ? Graduative Suppletion — Vocal Suppletion Vocal suppletion is the process by which one basal voice is substituted for another within the consonantal parentheses of a monosyllabic root. This system is itself derived from a very early form of interconsonemetic vocality present in the Old Borean language’s own ancestral tongue, and uses the same six basal voices. Basal vocality is distinguished from vocality in other morphological positions by a rising tone. Basal vocality can be altered to derive new words by nuclear suppletion: Graduative Suppletion Nuclear suppletion is the process by which one basal voice is substituted for another within the consonantal parentheses of a monosyllabic root. This system is itself derived from a very early form of interconsonemetic vocality present in the Proto-Borean language’s own ancestral tongue, and uses the same six basal voices. Basal vocality is distinguished from vocality in other morphological positions by a rising tone. Basal vocality can be altered to derive new words by nuclear suppletion: Disyllabic (Type-2·S) Roots These are Trisyllabic (Type-3·S) Roots These are Tetrasyllabic (Type-4·S) Roots These are Pentasyllabic (Type-5·S) Roots These are Conjoined Roots Those Conjunctive Vocality A conjunctive voice is a type of interconsonemetic vocality that appears between roots. ? Basic Conjunctive Vocality — ? Attenuated Conjunctive Vocality — Basic Conjunctive Vocality: Generic Voice A lexical voice is Basic Conjunctive Vocality: Example 1 Generic Voice Meaning (in verbal/adjectival terms) Passive (receptive intransitive) *rëda- taught; guided; set apart Active (projective intransitive) *rëde- learn; evolve; egregate; set [oneself] apart; antigregate; develop Stative (receptive descriptive) *rëdi- be learned; be evolved; be sophisticated Adjective (projective descriptive) *rëdy- be wise; be sophisticating Acquisitive (receptive transitive) *rëdu- learn [someone/thing]; be taught [someone/thing] Causative (projective transitive) *rëdo- teach [someone/thing]; set apart [someone/thing] Basic Conjunctive Vocality: Example 2 Generic Voice Meaning (in verbal/adjectival terms) Passive (receptive intransitive) *rüëda- be fed; be nourished Active (projective intransitive) *rüëde- eat; consume; devour Stative (receptive descriptive) *rüëdi- Adjective (projective descriptive) *rüëdy- Acquisitive (receptive transitive) *rüëdu- eat, consume, or devour [someone/thing] Causative (projective transitive) *rüëdo- feed [someone/thing]; nourish [someone/thing] Attenuated Conjunctive Vocality: Specific Voice W Nihilosyllabic Stems Those Monosyllabic Stems Those Disyllabic Stems Those Trisyllabic Stems Those Tetrasyllabic Stems Those Pentasyllabic Stems Those Lexical Vocality A lexical voice is a type of vocal inflection similar to a conjunctive voice in that both are a form of interconsonemetic vocality, and differing in that it applies to the whole of a lexeme’s stem rather than one of the stem’s constituent roots. Lexical vocality, then, is merely the term for the inevitable alteration in meaning and specification in morphonology an interconsonemetic voice takes when it happens to be the last such inflection before a word-form’s brachiative lexifix. ? Basal Lexical Vocality — ? Attenuative Lexical Vocality — Basal Lexical Vocality: General Voice A lexical voice is Basal Lexical Vocality: Example 1 General Voice Meaning (in verbal/adjectival terms) Passive (receptive intransitive) *rëda- be taught; be guided; be set apart Active (projective intransitive) *rëde- learn; evolve; egregate; set [oneself] apart; antigregate; develop Stative (receptive descriptive) *rëdi- be learned; be evolved; be sophisticated Adjective (projective descriptive) *rëdy- be wise; be sophisticating Acquisitive (receptive transitive) *rëdu- learn [someone/thing]; be taught [someone/thing] Causative (projective transitive) *rëdo- teach [someone/thing]; set apart [someone/thing] Basal Lexical Vocality: Example 2 General Voice Meaning (in verbal/adjectival terms) Passive (receptive intransitive) *rüëda- be fed; be nourished Active (projective intransitive) *rüëde- eat; consume; devour Stative (receptive descriptive) *rüëdi- be healthy; be (well-)fed; be (well-)nourished Adjective (projective descriptive) *rüëdy- be consuming; be devouring Acquisitive (receptive transitive) *rüëdu- eat, consume, or devour [someone/thing] Causative (projective transitive) *rüëdo- feed [someone/thing]; nourish [someone/thing] Attenuative Lexical Vocality: Special Voice W Attenuative Lexical Vocality: Example 1 *rëda- be taught; be guided; be set apart *rëdaa- be learned *rëdae- *rëdai- *rëday- *rëdau- *rëdao- *rëde- learn; evolve; egregate; set [oneself] apart; antigregate; develop *rëdea- *rëdee- *rëdei- *rëdey- *rëdeu- *rëdeo- *rëdi- *rëdia- *rëdie- *rëdii- *rëdiy- *rëdiu- *rëd’io- *rëdy- learned; evolved; sophisticated *rëdya- *rëdye- *rëdyi- *rëdyy- *rëdyu- *rëdyo- *rëdu- learn [someone/thing]; be taught [someone/thing] *rëdua- *rëdue- *rëdui- *rëduy- *rëduu- *rëduo- *rëdo- teach [someone/thing] *rëdoa- *rëdoe- *rëdoi- *rëdoy- *rëdou- *rëdoo- Attenuative Lexical Vocality: Example 2 Attenuation Special voice Meaning (in verbal/adjectival terms) Null Passive rüëda- be fed; be nourished ([by someone/thing]) Passive Raptive rüëdaa- be eaten; be consumed; be devoured ([by someone/thing]) Active Eupassive rüëdae- be fed ([to someone/thing]) Adjective rüëdai- Stative rüëday- Acquisitive Receptive rüëdau- Causative rüëdao- Attenuation Special voice Meaning (in verbal/adjectival terms) Null Active rüëde- eat; consume; devour Passive Middle rüëdea- feed; nourish (as in, to feed from or to nourish off a host) Active rüëdee- Adjective rüëdei- Stative rüëdey- Acquisitive rüëdeu- Causative rüëdeo- Attenuation Special voice Meaning (in verbal/adjectival terms) Null Stative rüëdi- voracious, gluttonous Passive rüëdia- eaten, consumed, devoured Active rüëdie- eating Adjective rüëdii- Stative rüëdiy- Causative rüëdiu- consuming; devouring Acquisitive rüëdio- nourishing; filling Attenuation Special voice Meaning (in verbal/adjectival terms) Null rüëdy- voracious, gluttonous Passive rüëdya- fed, nourished Active rüëdye- Adjective rüëdyi- Stative rüëdyy- Causative rüëdyu- Acquisitive rüëdyo- Attenuation Special voice Meaning (in verbal/adjectival terms) Null Acquisitive rüëdu- eat, consume, or devour [someone/thing] Passive Partitive rüëdua- be fed [someone/thing] Active rüëdue- Adjective rüëdui- Stative rüëduy- Causative rüëduu- Acquisitive rüëduo- Attenuation Special voice Meaning (in verbal/adjectival terms) Null Causative rüëdo- feed [someone/thing]; nourish [someone/thing] Passive rüëdoa- Active rüëdoe- feed or nourish [someone/thing] [with/using someone/thing]? Adjective rüëdoi- Stative rüëdoy- Causative Dative rüëdou- feed [(to) someone/thing] [someone/thing] Acquisitive Benefactive rüëdoo- feed or nourish [(for) someone/thing] [someone/thing] Lexical Brachiation Lexical brachiation is achieved by the addition of brachiative lexifixes to lexical stems in order to create lexiphrases. Verbal branch *rëderené Nominal branch *rëdelle The verbal branch includes what would be analyzed in English grammar as verbs, pro-verbs, adjectives, and adverbs. The nominal branch includes what would be analyzed in English grammar as nouns, pronouns, and pro-adverbs. Verbal Variation Those (Aspect before mood & time) The Verbal Vocality Tensile Aspect: Telicity The telicitous tensile verbal aspect (how to form a participle?) Simple atelic rëderené- Simple atelic (irregular) rëderrené- Projective atelic rëdelhené- Progress- bbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbive atelic rëdenrené- Progressive projective atelic rëdendené- Continuous atelic rëdensené- Imperfect atelic rëdenlhené- Perfect atelic rëderághene- Perfect continuous atelic rëdensene- Simple telic rëdetené- Simple telic (irregular) rëdettené- Projective telic rëdetlhené- Progressive telic rëde?rené- Progressive projective telic rëde?dené- Continuous telic rëde?sené- Imperfect telic rëde?lhené- Perfect telic rëdetághene- Perfect continuous telic rëde?ene- Predicative Aspect Momentane rëderané’- rëderaané’- rëderaené’- rëderainé’- rëderayné’- rëderauné’- rëderaoné’- Indicative rëderené’- [It is] shiny / radiant rëdereané’- rëdereené’- rëdereiné’- rëdereyné’- rëdereuné’- rëdereoné’- rëderiné’- rëderiané’- [It] is as shiny / is as radiant rëderiené’- [It] is shinier / is more radiant rëderiiné’- rëderiyné’- erëdiurén’- rëderioné’- [It] is shiniest / is most radiant rëderyné’- rëderyané’- rëderyené’- rëderyiné’- rëderyyné’- rëderyuné’- rëderyoné’- rëderuné’- rëderuané’- rëderuené’- rëderuiné’- rëderuyné’- rëderuuné’- rëderuoné’- rëderoné’- rëderoané’- rëderoené’- rëderoiné’- rëderoyné’- rëderouné’- rëderooné’- (Perfective & imperfective need to be expressed elsewhere) Verbal Aspect: Tense The tensile aspect (tense) of a verb is determined by combination of a temporal tensile aspect (time), a telicitous tensile aspect (telicity), and perfective tensile aspect (perfection). ? Telicitous Tensile Aspect — ? Perfective Tensile Aspect — ? Temporal Tensile Aspect — Tensile Aspect: Perfection The temporal tensile aspect is a form of interconsonemetic vocality, in this permutation evolved from the logical meaning inevitable to emerge when following the telicitous tensile aspectual consonemetic markers. Imperfective *rëdetághene- Perfective *rëdettághene- Verbal Modality Those Alethic Modality Those Realis Modality Alethic moods of the realis variety express statements of both actuality and truth. Statements of what actually is untrue, or of what actually need be or could be true, are of the variety known as irrealis. Indicative rëderené nillo Energetic rëderehé nilla Exclamative rëderebhé nillo Generic rëderené nillaon Irrealis Modality Alethic moods of the irrealis variety express statements of what actually could or need be true, or what actually is untrue, but not of what actually is true or what one wishes, assumes, or deduces to be true. Capacitative rëdereclhé nillo rëderené nilla Requisitive rëderené nillo Nullitive rëderenhé nilla Negative rëdere?hé nillo Subjunctive rëdetághene’- Remotive subjunctive rëdettághene’- Non-Alethic Modality? Those Epistemic Modality Those Dubitative *rëderené nilli Probabilitative *rëderené nilli Superprobabilitative *rëderené nilli Hyperprobabilitative *rëderené nilli Obligative *rëderené nilli Reputative *rëderené nilli Approximative *rëderené nilli Assumptive *rëderené nilli Deductive *rëderené nilli Speculative --- (See Speculative Epistemic Modality for more moods) Speculative Epistemic Modality Those Hypothetical *rëderené nilli Presumptive *rëderené nilli Tentative *rëderené nilli Tentative-eventive *rëderené nilli Potential *rëderené nilli Potential-eventive *rëderené nilli Conditional *rëderené nilli Relative Epistemic Modality Those Sarcastic *rëderené nilli Facetious *rëderené nilli Infelicitous *rëderené nilli Felicitous *rëderené nilli Inferential *rëderené nilli Admirative *rëderené nilli Confirmative *rëderené nilli Declarative *rëderené nilli Quotative Sensory-Evidental Modality Those Aural sensory *rëderené nilli Cognitive sensory *rëderené nilli Extrasensory *rëderené nilli Generic sensory *rëderené nilli Gnostic sensory *rëderené nilli Instinctive sensory *rëderené nilli Olfactory sensory *rëderené nilli Savory sensory *rëderené nilli Tactile sensory *rëderené nilli Visual sensory *rëderené nilli Deontic Modality Those Volitive Deontic Modality Those Desiderative *rëderené nilli Imprecative *rëderené nilli Commissive *rëderené nilli Hortative *rëderené nilli Cohortative *rëderené nilli Jussive *rëderené nilli Optative *rëderené nilli Directive Deontic Modality Those Permissive *rëderené nilli Prohibitive *rëderenénhé nilli Suggestive *rëderené nilli Injunctive *rëderené nilli Necessitative *rëderené nilli Imperative *rëderené nilli Interrogative Modality Those Inquisitive *rëderecmhé nilli Precative *rëderené nilli Deliberative *rëderené nilli Ejaculative *rëderené nilli Conjunctive *rëderené nilli Derivative Modality Those 360 589 9421. Predicative *rädytiné nilli it is bright / shiny / radiating Attributive *rädytinín’nillitha? a bright / shiny / radiating thing Tensile Aspect: Time The temporal tensile aspect is a form of interconsonemetic vocality, in this permutation evolved from the logical meaning inevitable to emerge when following the telicitous tensile aspectual consonemetic markers. Simple past rëderená- Immediate past rëderenáá- Hodiernal past erëderáén- Hesternal past rëderenáí- Recent past rëderenáý- Remote past rëderenáú- Distant past rëderenáó- Simple present rëderené- Nonfuture present rëderenéá- “Until now” Continual present rëderenéé- “Ever, always” Condurative present rëderenéí- “Still” rëderenéý- Nonpast expectant rëderenéú- Nonpast present-future rëderenéó- Static present rëderení- Static past rëdereníá- Static continuous rëdereníé- rëdereníí- Static expectant rëdereníý- Static future rëdereníú- rëdereníó- rëderený- rëderenýá- rëderenýé- rëderenýí- rëderenýý- rëderenýú- rëderenýó- Simple expectant rëderenú- Immediate expectant rëderenúá- Hodiernal expectant rëderenúé- Hesternal expectant rëderenúí- Near expectant rëderenúý- Remote expectant rëderenúú- Distant expectant rëderenúó- Simple future rëderenó- Immediate future rëderenóá- Hodiernal future rëderenóé- Hesternal future rëderenóí- Near future rëderenóý- Remote future rëderenóú- Distant future rëderenóó- Tensile Aspect: More Sophisticated Expressions of Time By using otherwise absurdly rare features of the Proto-Boreanic language: infixes, triphthongs, and tetraphthongs; even deeper and more intricate shades of chronological meaning are possible to express, such as: Antimmediate past *rëderanhaané Antihodiernal past *rëderanhaené Antihesternal past *rëderanhainé Nonrecent past *rëderanhayné Nonremote past *rëderanhauné Indistant past *rëderanhaoné Nonpresent *rëderenhené “Not yet” present *rëdereanhé- “Not yet” present *rëdereinhé- “No longer” present *rëderenheiné- *rëdereyné- Nonpast expectant *rëdereuné- Nonpast present-future *rëdereoné- ***Stative present *rëderinhíné- ***Stative past *rëderianhíáné- ***Stative continuous *rëderienhíéné- *rëderiiné- ***Stative expectant *rëderiunhíúné- ***Stative future *rëderionhíóné- Simple expectant *rëdenuné- Immediate expectant *rëderuané- Hodiernal expectant *rëderuené- Hesternal expectant *rëderuiné- Near expectant *rëderuyné- Remote expectant *rëderuuné- Distant expectant *rëderuoné- Simple future *rëdenoné- Immediate future *rëderoané- Hodiernal future *rëderoené- Hesternal future *rëderoiné- Near future *rëderoyné- Remote future *rëderouné- Distant future *rëderooné- Modifications: By using the otherwise rare features of the Proto-Boreanic language: infixes, triphthongs, and tetraphthongs; even deeper and more intricate shades of meaning are possible, such as: Nonpresent *rëderenhíné- “Not Yet” present *rëdereanhíné- Alt. “Not Yet” present *rëdereiéáné- Verbal Aspect: Perfective Modality Those Modal Aspect: Perfection Those Verbal Emphasis Those Simple present rëderené nillo he learns Emphatic present né rëderené nillo he does learn Simple perfect Nominal Variation Those Those Nominal Person Used for the construction of pronouns. First person *Mille Exclusive first person *Millea We two [but not thee] Inclusive first person *Mhillea We two [including thee] Second person *Tille Third person *Ille Third person (informal) *Cille Fourth person *Nille Exclusive first people *Meol Our people[s] [but not thee or thy people] / my people / we people[s] Inclusive first people *Mhilleo Our peoples [including thee and thy people] / we people[s] Second people *Tilleo Thy people[s] / [all] ye people[s] Inclusive 2nd people *Thilleo Thy people[s] / [all] ye people[s] [which are also my people[s]] Third people *Eol Third people (informal) *Cilleo Fourth people *Nilleo Pronoun Table Blah blah blah something should be written here. Nominal Vocality Those Dual *rädalli In *rädaalli *rädaelli *rädailli *rädaylli *rädaulli *rädaolli Trial *rädelli In *rädealli *rädeelli *rädeilli *rädeylli *eurädil *rädeolli Paucal *rädilli In *rädialli *rädielli *rädiilli *rädiylli *rädiulli *rädiolli Plural *rädylli In *rädyalli *rädyelli *rädyilli *rädyylli *rädyulli *rädyolli BLANK *rädulli In *rädualli *räduelli *räduilli *räduylli *räduulli *räduolli BLANK *rädolli In *rädoalli *rädoelli *rädoilli *rädoylli *rädoulli *rädoolli Nominal Case The declination paradigm making up the nominal case system of the Old Borean language is multi-tiered and complex. The language’s grammar divides it into two main categories: central declensions, which are always obligatory, and peripheral declensions, which are only used in relevant situations. Central Declensions Those Primary Central Declensions: Morphosyntactic Case Those Canonical *rädilli Marks the lemma of a nominal word-form Vocative *Rädilhe Marks the noun as the addressee of a statement or sentence Nominative? *rädilli Marks the noun as the subject of a statement or sentence Subjective *rädilli Marks the noun as the subject of a statement or sentence Objective (oblique) *rädinni Marks the noun as the object of a statement or sentence Subjunctive *rädissi Marks the subject of one statement and the object of another Disjunctive Partitive (To be used with atelic and irresultative verbs) Pegative? Secondary Central Declensions: Morphosyntactic Case Those Tertiary Central Declensions: Typological Case (Nominal Gender) Feminine *rädilla Indicates the noun as female Neuter *rädille Indicates the noun as [n]either female [n]or male Descriptive *rädilli Indicates the noun as inanimate Stative *rädilly Indicates the noun as a state, quality, or unquantifiable substance Verbal *räderenéllu Indicates the noun as a gerund or infinitive Masculine *rädillo Indicates the noun as male Quaternary Central Declensions: Numeric Case (Nominal Number) Singular *rädilli Indicates the noun as being single; Dual *rädillia[c] Indicates the noun as being double; Trial *rädillie[c] Indicates the noun as being triple; Paucal *irädiil Indicates the noun as being few; Plural *rädilliy[s] Indicates the noun as being many; BLANK *rädilliu[s] Indicates the noun as being most; BLANK *rädillio[t] Indicates the noun as being all; Primary Peripheral Declensions: Static Morphosyntactic Case Those Null *rädilli Marks a noun with no verb Agentive *rädillisse Marks the agent of a verb Dynamic *rädillisce Marks the patient of a verb if distinct from the experiencer Experiential *rädilliste Marks the experiencer of a verb, distinct or not from the patient Reciprocative *rädilliastmhe Implies “one another” as the verb’s omitted agent or experiencer (Used only on dual, trial, paucal, plural, BLANK, or BLANK nouns in the nominative case — or in the vocative case for verbs of BLANK modality — and works only with acquisitive and causative verbs; implies “by one another” as the omitted indirect object of passive verbs.) Secondary Peripheral Declensions Those Absolutive *rädillissa Marks the subject of passive verbs or direct object of transitive verbs Intransitive *rädillisse Marks the subject of active verbs or predicative adjectives *rädillissi *rädillissy Ergative-acquisitive *rädillissu Marks the subject/agent of acquisitive verbs Ergative-causative *rädillisso Marks the subject/agent of causative verbs Tertiary Peripheral Declensions Null *rädilli Interrogative *rädillicmhe Relative *rädillilhe Demonstrative *rädillithe Hypothetical *rädilli Articulate *rädillidhe ¿Partitive? *rädilli Quantifying *rädilli ¿Partitive? *rädilli Quaternary Peripheral Declensions Null *rädilli Light (write this word in another document: “brusque; retinue, waylay, discreet, forgone, groundswell, besiege, remand, retask, intrigue, whittle, detachment, stymie, bridgehead, oratory, disenchant, foundry, belated, abate, despot, yoke, larder, balk, oust, entourage, tirade, acolyte, harangue, august, cede, magnanimous, raze, sedition, atone, enthuse, obeisance, redoubt, rote, convoke, hobbled (adj.), minder, vacillate, embolden, goad, escape (intr.), cityscape, scuttle, carbuncle, wayward, dalliance, palp, sheaf, athreat, thane, afoot, quotidian, unhewn, stele, spelt, dearth, blackthorn, aspen, furze, holly, heath, white-thorn, hawthorn, quickthorn, swaddle, sororal, sistren, manacle, pauper,”) Interrogative *rädillicmh[?] What / which light [?] Demonstrative: Note that the generic demonstrative and definite articulate declensions are exactly the same. Generic *rädillidh[?] The light Proximal *rädillipdh[?] This light Medial *rädillicdh[?] That light Distal *rädilliphdh[?] Yon light Relative *rädillilh[?] What[ever] light / which[ever] light / that light which / the light that Hypothetical: These are demonstrative declensions, as above but for they indicate only hypothetical nouns. Generic *rädillilh[?] The / a light / some/any light (“The light is the fruit, the oil the seed.”) Proximal *rädilliplh[?] This light (“...and let’s say hypothetically that this light be blue...”) Medial *rädilliclh[?] That light (“In that case, I would be keeping an eye on that light.”) Distal *rädilliphlh[?] Yon light (“Would ye ken whether yon light be a drake or a beacon?”) Relative *rädillimhlh[?] What[ever] light (“Ye mustn’t always seek whatever light be nearest.”) Articulate: Proprietary *Rädille Light (used for proper nouns; represented by the “zero article”) Indefinite *rädillin[?] A light (used for any grammatical number, just like the definite article) Definite *rädillidh[?] The light (used for any grammatical number, just like in English) Exclusive *räd’illiplh[?] Some/any individual light (used for any grammatical number) Quantifying: ??? Infinitesimal Fractional Divisional Partitive *rad’illyiclh[?] Some number or some of a number of lights; some amount of light Inclusive *rad’illyiplh[?] Any number of or any of a number of lights; any amount of radiance Universal *rad’illyipgh[?] All of a number of lights; all of an amount of or all existing light Invariable *rad’illyipgh[?] Every of a number of lights; every light in existence Individual *rad’illyingh[?] Each light in a given number, area, or all existence Nullitive *rad’illyinh[?] No light(s); not any one or more of any number of or of all existing light[s] Negative *rad’illyi?h[?] Negative light; ethereal radiance; nigrescence; radiant darkness or shadow; a true opposite, not merely a lack, of light; is comparatively as much darker than the purest possible black as light of equivalent intensity is brighter Quinary Peripheral Declensions: Derived Names Senary Peripheral Declensions: Septenary Peripheral Declensions: Locative Cases Octonary Peripheral Declensions: Genitive Cases Nonary Peripheral Declensions: Motive Cases Vo Denary Peripheral Declensions: Modal Cases Vo List of All Postpositional Cases Vo Null *rädinnith The light Genitive Cases: Inalienable possessive Alienable possessive Alienated possessive Substantial partitive Elemental partitive Original partitive Subjective genitive Objective genitive Genitive Dedative Regarding or respecting Descriptive Locative Cases: Separative *rädinnithap[p[h]i In distance from the light / off the light Ablative *rädinnitha[p[h]dda Having come from the light / of the light Delative *rädinnithe[p[h]dda Moving away from the light Abelative *rädinnitha[mh[ss]dda Having come out of the light / out from within the light Elative *rädinnithe[mh[ss]dda Out of the light / out from within the light Adessive *rädinnith?hlai Atop the light / on top of the light Allative *rädinnith?hltta Onto the light / on the light Illative Into Inessive Inside or within Lative To or toward (an object, not a destination) “True” locative At, near, by (next to), or around Subessive Below, beneath, under, or underneath Sublative To the destination of Superessive Over or above Superlative Over the top of (movement) Motive Cases: Aversive *rädinnithypho To escape the light / in avoiding the light Evitative *rädinnithyphobha In order to avoid/evade the light / for fear of the light Causative *rädinnithybhau For the light / because of the light / due to the light Quaternary Peripheral Declensions: Postpositional Case Modifiers Dative *rädinnithi[p[h]ttu To the light Causal-final *rädinnithybhuu For want of the light / in order to obtain the light Benefactive *rädinnithybhou For the light / for benefit of the light / intended for the light Distributive *rädinnithyttainnu Per light / for each of the light[s] Distributive-temporal *rädinnithytseinnu At the time of the light Essive *rädinnithytsnna Whenas the light / as the light (also “as a / when (I) was a...”) Essive-formal *rädinnithynnllei In the form of the light / as the light / like the light Essive-modal Privative *rädinnithynha Having been left without the light / deprived of the light Caritive *rädinnithynhe Lacking the light / being without the light Abessive *rädinnith?nhyi Without the light / “lightlessly” Adverbial *rädinnith?llyi In the manner of the light / “brightly” Comitative *radinnith?ccei In concert with the light / together with the light Negative *rädinnith??hye In the manner of negating the light / “darklingly” Antessive Equative Excessive Distantitive Dubutive Final Formal Instructive By method/means of or via Instrumental Using or by means of Medial Modal? Multiplicative Perlative Postessive Possessive? Prolative By way of or via Prosecutive By way of, via, or through Proximative? Sociative In company with Temporal At the time of or time known as Terminative As far as, unto, or until Translative Becoming, changing into, in (a language); etc. Morphosyntax Proto-Boreanic is a null-subject language. Select Words & Phrases Blah blah blah something should be written here. Greetings (Phrases of Meeting) “Hail” or “hello” “Hail to thee” or “hello to thee” “Good day [to thee]” “Good morrow [to thee]” “Good morning [to thee]” “Good afternoon [to thee]” “Good evening [to thee]” “Good eve [to thee]” “Good night [to thee]” (greeting) “May Lucifer shine upon you all!” Tinneontlha räderemlhé Llöctibhërollosse! Farewells & Goodbyes (Phrases of Parting) Other Interjections Common Questions (Phrases of Inquiry) Common Directives (Commands & Directions) Common Compliments (Phrases of Compliment) Common Insults (Phrases of Insult) Other Common Phrases Habitations & Accommodations Food & Drink Occupations & Professions The Races The Pantheon Common Names Positive Epithets (Endearments) Negative Epithets (Slurs & Pejoratives) Cardinal Directions Times of the Day Eve Evening Eventide Sunset Dusk Night Day Dawn Sunrise Morrow Morn Morning Morningtide Days of the Week Weeks of the Month Months of the Year Houses of the Year Seasons of the Year Holidays of the Year Years of the Decade The Alphabet Numbers Zero One Two Dmhilli? Three Trelhilli? Four Five Pencmhilli? Six Smhecsilli? Seven Eight Qocthmhilli? Nine Delta Gamma Etta Ages Dates Birthdays Old Borean Wordlist Word forms as they appear in the Standard Elder Dialect. English to Old Borean (Standard Elder Dialect) In the alphabetical order of the Elderunes pastor *päsdhörillo rope *pÿcsilli father *päqdhërillo brother *präqdhërillo Fates, The *Phäëlhátollaeth fate *phäëlhátelly fated *phäëlhatinia’-??? Fay *Phäëlhilleo fairness *phäëlhérally Fairy *Phäëlhérillyo me *minne us (dual) *minnea us (trial) *minnee us (paucal) *minnei us (plural) *minney I *mille we (dual) *millea we (trial) *millee we (paucal) *millei we (plural) *milley Mortifer *Mürtibhërollo corpse *mërtalle ghost *mërtaille??? come to an end *mërterene’- death *mërtully martyr *märtorene’- murder *mörtorene’- martyr *märtárylle murderess *mörtórella murderer *mörtórello mortal (slain?) *mürtalle kill *mürtorene’- killer *mürtórelle mother *mäqhdhërilla englut *mpülhorene’- us (dual, incl.) *mhinnea us (trial, incl.) *mhinnee us (paucal, incl.) *mhinnei us (plural, incl.) *mhinney wheel *mhëlelli wheel *mhëlerene’- we (dual, incl.) *mhillea we (trial, incl.) *mhillee we (paucal, incl.) *mhillei we (plural, incl.) *mhilley water *mhëtilly water *mhötdhërilli people *tëmhdhalli God *Dhëllo offering *nëmendrenello??? offer *nëmendene’- allotment *nëmalli allotment *nëmolly??? offering *nëïmally??? taxonomy *nämolly? name *nämolli distribute *nëmerene’- give *nëmerene’- take (bring) *nëmurene’- allot *nëmorene’- assign *nëämorene’- offer *nëïmorene’- name *nämorene’-? dub *nämorene’-? concubine *nëmáárylla lover, female *nëmáárylla spouse *nëmáárylle lover, male *nëmááryllo swain *nëmááryllo harlot *nëmáérella whore *nëmáóralla distributor *nëmórelle pimp *nëmórollo Nymph *Nïmbylla? her *ninna him or her *ninne them (dual) *ninnea them (trial) *ninnee them (paucal) *ninnei them (plural) *ninney it *ninni him *ninno she *nilla s/he (he or she) *nille they (dual) *nillea they (trial) *nillee they (paucal) *nillei they (plural) *nilley it *nilli he *nillo be *nerene’- I am *nerene’mille we (both) are *nerene’mhillea thou art *nerene’tille she is *nerene’nilla he is *nerene’nillo to be *nerenellu decline *nhëïmorene’-? tongue (speech) *lÿ?galli language *lÿ?gally live *llïbherene’- live, exist *llëbherene’- Lucifer *Llöctibhërollo light *llöctilli light *llöctilly live *llerene’- axe *cäbhéralli who *cmhille what *cmhilli wherefore *cmhilly?abhu die *cëhhallerene’-??? send *csënturene’- sentry *csëntáárylle eye *csëlmolli eyes (pair) *csëlmollia vise *csëlmilli envisage *csëlmuacine’-??? see *csëlmerene’- see *csëlmurene’- envision *csëlmuirine’-??? reveal *csëlmorene’- vision *csëlmerenilly sight *csëlmerinilly crow *cörbhulle bereave *?hëmerene’-? reave *?hëmorene’-? Sun *Hëlello Sun *Hëlillo hierodule *hÿëranëmáárylla hierogamy *hÿëra-? Sun *Hhello radiate *räderene’- cook *röderene’- bake *röïderene’- Sun *Rädillo spark *räädarene’- glow *rääderene’- queen *rëgella king *rëgello reign *rëgilly regulate *rëgúlorene’- rule *rëgúlerene’- reign *rëgirene’- rigor *rÿgórelly anarchy *antärgqhhilly orphan *örbhalle treacher *örbhelle orphan *örbhorene’- archon *ärgqhholle Old Borean (Standard Elder Dialect) to English In the alphabetical order of the Latin script, English mode Something really should be written here. Proto-Borean Roots As Appeared in the Elder Dialect *par- *per- direct toward; place; point to; narrow into; *por- *pher- *ber- *bhemh- Purposeful existence (be, future). PIE: *bheu?-. *bher- Bear or carry, to bring forth, to convey PIE: *bher-. *m?- “(to) measure” PIE: *me-. *mens-? “month” or “moon” PIE: *mens-. *menos-? “month” PIE: *menos-. *mer- *mhet- “year” PIE: *wet-. *mhether- “yearling” PIE: *wether-. *mhel- “rolling or turning motion”? PIE: *wel-. *mher- “rolling or turning motion”? PIE: *wer-. *temhd- End together from our source; a people. PIE: *teut-. ENG: teuton. CELT: tuatha. *ten-? “thin”? PIE: *ten-, *tenu-. *tec-? “thick”? PIE: *tegu-. *tec- “to birth or bear” PIE: *tek-. *ter- “to cross over” PIE: *ter?-. *th- Demonstrative stem PIE: *to-. *ther- *dus- “bad, ill”? PIE: *dus-. *decm- “ten” PIE: *dekm-. *der- *dh?- “to set, put”? PIE: *dhe-. *dher- *nomen- “name” PIE: *no-men-, “name”. PIE: *no-men- bher-, “to bear a name”. *nemh- “new”? PIE: *newo-. *nemhn- “nine” PIE: *newn-. *ner- *nher- *lecmh- “light”? (weight) PIE: *legwh-. *legh- “to lie”? PIE: *legh-. *ler- *lhemh- “youthful vigor” PIE: *yeu- *lher-? “year” PIE: *yer-. *slh- “good, well”? PIE: *(e)su-. *sept- “seven” PIE: *septm-. *sem- “one” PIE: *sem-. *dmh- “two” PIE: *duwo-. *trelh- “three” PIE: *trei-, *treyes. *pencmh- “five” PIE: *penkwe- *s(mh)ecs- “six” PIE: *s(w)eks- *samhel-? “Sun” PIE: *sawel-. *sem- “summer” PIE: *sem-. *mhesr- “spring” PIE: *wes-r-. *sed- “to sit”? PIE: *sed-. *sen- “old”? PIE: *sen-. *sen- “old”? (the waning of the moon) PIE: *seno-. *secmh- “to follow”? PIE: *sekw-. *ser- *st?- “to stand” PIE: *sta-. *ster-? “star” PIE: *ster-. (see *(q)aus-) *sher- *zer- *zher- *cmh- Interrogative stem PIE: *kwo-. *celh- “to lie”? PIE: *kei-. *celh- “to set in motion”? PIE: *kei-. *cer- *cmhetmher- “four” PIE: *kwetwer-, *kwetwores-. *cher- *ghen- “to birth or bear”. Generate, generation, genus, general, gene; kin, kind; race. PIE: *gen?-. *ger- *gmhel- “rolling or turning motion” PIE: *kwel-. *gmhaelh- To come forth; to come around. PIE: *gwa-. *gmhielh- “to live”. Alive, quick. To quicken. PIE: *gwi- or *gwei-. *gmher- “heavy”? PIE: *gwer?. *gelh- “winter” PIE: *ghei-. *gher- *?er- *?her- *her- *hher- *(q)at- “year” (Lat. “annus” > annual”) PIE: *at- *(q)ed- “eating/drinking”? PIE: *ed-. *(q)an- “one” PIE: *oi-no-. *(q)elh- “to go”? PIE: *ei-. *(q)aus-? “to shine”; “dawn”? PIE: *aus- *(q)es- Exist; existence; running the course of being. PIE: *es-. *((q)e)slh- “good, well”? PIE: *(e)su- *(q)acmh- *(q)ecmh- “to drink”? PIE: *egwh- *(q)octhmh- “eight” PIE: *octo(u)- *(q)er- *qher- *rer- *rher- Conjunctions Correlating Conjunctions Coordinating Conjunctions Both/all bhoa’mh-dh’ua [vôwþÿ] And [qh]ua’nd-a [ûndo] Only [qh]onl’u [onlÿ] And not ?hua’nd-a [ñûndo] Not nhey’lh-u [ne?ÿ] But [qh]ua’lt-a [ûlto] Not only nhey’lh-onl’u [ne?onlÿ] But also [qh]ua’lt-a’ls-a [ûltaltso] An/any [qh]yll’u [ynnÿ] But not nhey’lh-ua’lt-a [ñûlto] Either [qh]ey’lh-dher’u [e?þerÿ] Or [qh]eo’rh-lh’a [er?o] Neither ?hey’lh-dher’u [ñe?þerÿ] Nor ?heo’rh-lh’a [ñer?o] Whether mhey’lh-dher’u [we?þerÿ] Or mheo’rh-lh’a [wer?o] Whether bhey’lh-dher’u [ve?þerÿ] Or not bheo’rh-nh’a [verno] Temporal Subordinating Conjunctions Causal Subordinating Conjunctions After cro’th-nh’ua [kroþnû] Because pai’cou-ss’ai [pekòssä] Before/ere cro’dh-nh’ue [kroðnú] Since ssi’dh-iens’ai [ssiðínsä] When/whenas cro’mh-n’ee [krowné] Now that pai’cro-qhts’ai [päkro’tsä] While/whenas/as cro’mh-n’yi [krownÿ] As [qh]ae’lh-s’ai [á?sä] (Ever) since ssi’th-iant’ai [ssiþîntä] In Order To tsei-qhct’ou [tsë’ktò] Until [qh]ue’nd-qht’oi [únd’tö] So/that/so that lley’lh-qhts’ai [lle?’tsä] Oppositional Subordinating Conjunctions Conditional Subordinating Conjunctions Although [qh]a’lt-soc’ua [altsokû] An / if lhya’ph-ayn [?yfan] Though tso’c-qh’ua [tsok’û] Unless ?hya’ph-ayn [ñyfan] Even Though hai-qha’lt-soc’ua [hä’altsokû] If only lhya’ph-aonl’yi [?yfanlÿ] Whereas mhai’lh-qher’ya [wä?’ery] Only if [qh]onl’yi-q’yaph [only-yf] While mhai’lh-qhyl’ya [wä?’yly] Even If hai-lhya’ph-ayn [hä?yfan] -- -- In Case llao-lhy’qh-ayn [lla?y’an] aglaec-wif, aglaeca, aeglaeca I recall no war declared whereof the declarators have threatened apprehension of any physician who would do naught but treat his own countrymen’s sick and wounded. Yet this they do unto us, declaring no war but proclaiming themselves our governing authority with the self-given right to suffer us such malignance, calling it justice; they grant their own words the authority of divine mandate, yet do so with no evidence of divine authorization, save perchance that of baneful, diresome Mortifer. These __ who compose now the Sovereignty and occupy the state of what once was the confederal government of the peoples of Eurinth at once declare upon us war of the most grotesquely amain nature and yet demand of us allegiance, claiming us, neath the duress of isen fists, a part of their united people. And in doing so they evermore thus prove themselves deranged ___, and our people no less so for pledging allegiance unto them. This we can do nary a mote longer; for we must submit not to such captivity within our own lands. They must be at all costs, with whatever risks may be associated and by whatever means be necessary, excised now and forevermore from this our midst; driven aback to whence they came, and allotted nevermore a mote of reign above our people, nor mote of foothold on our lands. Toke up, Smoke Weed, Get Hella Stoned. You found a seed? Dude, you got boned. This you should heed, if weed you're loaned: Pay back with speed, or again get boned.