D. J. Scott
[Last Update: June 28th, 2018]

Notice


This

Contents

Introduction
Glossopœia
I. Phylogeny & Geographical Distribution
II. Phonology & Orthography
II.a. Phoneme Inventory
II.a-1.) Consoneme Inventory
II.a-1A.) Labial Group
II.a-1B.) Coronal Group
II.a-1C.) Liquid Coronal Group
II.a-1D.) Dorsal Group
II.a-1E.) Glottal Group
II.a-2.) Volonome Inventory
II.a-2A.) Monophthongs
II.a-2B.) Diphthongs
II.a-2Bα.) “A”-Diphthongs
II.a-2Bη.) “E”-Diphthongs
II.a-2Bι.) “I”-Diphthongs
II.a-2Bυ.) “U”-Diphthongs
II.a-2Bω.) “O”-Diphthongs
II.b. Phonotactic Summary
III. Morphology
III.a. Root Construction
III.a-1.) Consonantal (C-Type) Roots
III.a-1A.) Uniconsonantal (C1-Type) Roots
III.a-1B.) Biconsonantal (C2-Type) Roots
III.a-1C.) Triconsonantal (C3-Type) Roots
III.a-1D.) Quadruconsonantal (C4-Type) Roots
III.a-2.) Syllabic (S-Type) Roots
III.a-2A.) Monosyllabic (S1-Type) Roots
III.a-2B.) Disyllabic (S2-Type) Roots
III.a-2C.) Trisyllabic (S3-Type) Roots
III.a-2D.) Tetrasyllabic (S4-Type) Roots
III.a-2E.) Pentasyllabic (S5-Type) Roots
III.a-3.) Polytypical (P-Type) Roots
III.a-4.) Root Variations
III.b. Variational Paradigms
III.b-1.) Root Variations
III.b-1A.) Root Suppletion: Onset & Coda
III.b-1B.) Nuclear Root Suppletion
III.b-1C.) Primary Root Suppletion: Class
III.b-1D.) Secondary Root Suppletion: Intensity
III.b-1E.) Primary & Secondary Root Derivation in Nouns
III.b-2.) Primary Lexical Derivations
III.b-3.) Nominal Vocality
III.b-4.) Nominal Number
III.b-5.) Nominal Derivations
III.b-6.) Nominal Derivational Vocality
III.b-7.) Nominal Derivations & Dual Numerality
III.b-8.) Case
III.b-8A.) Central Declensions
III.b-8Aα.) Primary Central Declensions
III.b-8Aβ.) Secondary Central Declensions
III.b-8Aγ.) Tertiary Central Declensions
III.b-8Aδ.) Quaternary Central Declensions
III.b-8B.) Peripheral Declensions
III.a-8Bα.) Primary Peripheral Declensions
III.b-8Bβ.) Secondary Peripheral Declensions
III.b-8Bγ.) Tertiary Peripheral Declensions
III.b-9.) Verbal Vocality
III.b-10.) Tense
III.b-10A.) Tensile Aspect
III.b-10B.) Modality
III.b-10Bα.) Narrative Modality
III.b-10Bβ.) Alethic & Non-alethic Modality
III.b-10Bγ.) Speculative Modality
III.b-10Bδ.) Epistemic Modality
III.b-10Bδ-α.) Summative Epistemic Modality
III.b-10Bδ-β.) Relative Epistemic Modality
III.b-10Bε.) Sensory-Evidental Modality
III.b-10Bζ.) Deontic Modality
III.b-10Bζ-α.) Volitive Deontic Modality
III.b-10Bζ-β.) Directive Deontic Modality Modality
III.b-10Bη.) Interrogative Modality
III.b-10Bθ.) Attributive Modality
III.b-10C.) Time
III.b-10D.) [BLANK] Aspect
III.b-10E.) Telicity
III.b-10F.) Predicative Aspect
III.c. Particular Conjunctions
IV. Morphosyntactic Alignment
V. Semantics
V.a. Predicative Logic
VI. Vocabulary
VI.a. Common Phrases
VI.b. Lexicon


Other Languages


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Elder Faeryn
Faenaril


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D. Jon Scott’s WebsiteArtFiction ► Fantasy ► Palæoboreanica
D. J. Scott

The Proto-Borean Language

(Elder Dialect)
Copyright © 2000 C.E. by Dustin Jon Scott
[Last Update: November 24th, 2018]

Introduction

Introduction



Glossopœia

I began developing this language mainly to test several different linguistic hypotheses. The language is therefore first and foremost an experimental language, or Exlang. Firstly, since I am of the firm opinion that all natural languages ultimately share a common ancestor, the hypothetical, aptly-named “Proto-World” language, I wanted to demonstrate that all of the world's morphological types could descend from a single, ancestral type. While it’s already fairly well-established that languages can undergo typological changes in their morphology, as has happened in English and Mandarin, both having descended from more synthetic ancestors, or the Romance languages, all of which have grown more analytic since diverging from their fusional, Vulgar Latin ancestor, which, along with English, descended in-turn from the ancestral Proto-Indo-European tongue, the most ancient forms of which, so far as can be reconstructed via internal analysis of the already unattested PIE language, were likely root-inflecting and at least partly tonal, I needed to demonstrate that analytic languages, isolating languages, fusional languages, agglutinative languages, and polysynthetic languages could all have evolved from a common ancestor.

But what would this ancestral tongue look like?

To determine this I had to pay attention to the trends which have taken place in the recorded history of language. Perhapse the most obvious trend is that toward reducing inflectionality in favor of more analytic or isolating typologies.

In short, I needed a language of ambiguous morphological typology.

I soon realized that to accomplish this goal, I would need to have units of meaning more general than morphemes.

The difference between function morphemes and content morphemes would have to break down.

Phonaesthemes.

Every language has its own unique phonaestheme inventory, although the degree of internal phonaesthemic consistency varies from language to language. In general, highly conservative languages which resist borrowings seem to demonstrate a greater degree of internal phonaesthemic consistency.

This brings us to my second hypothesis: That phonemes aren’t truly arbitrary. Rather, the appearance of arbitrariness is an illusion created by comparing the phonemes which make up words of equivalent meaning from languages so distantly related to each other, whose phonaestheme inventories have been evolving and diverging for so long, that no common origin can presently be discerned, or by looking at phonaesthemic inconsistencies in “conquering” languages like English, Latin, and Mandarin, which have particularly long histories of particularly intensive contact with particularly large numbers of other languages. Deeming phonemes to be arbitrary, therefore, is somewhat like concluding that since we have numerous instances of convergent evolution among living organisms showing that vastly different nucleotide sequences can result in roughly the same sorts of adaptations in widely divergent lineages, genes must therefore be completely arbitrary. Yes, a rose by any other name would still smell as sweet, but by the same token, a wing still provides lift whether it be made of skin as in bats and pterosaurs, feathers as in birds, or gossamer as in insects. To conclude from this that the genes which control limb-growth are arbitrary would be folly, just as it is folly to conclude from the English word tree and the Japanese word ki both referring to roughly the same group of organisms that the phonemes making up those words must be arbitrary. The semantics of a language are its phenotype, the phonemes its genotype.

What I ended up with was an oligosynthetic language, but far more information-dense than is typically predicted to be possible for an oligosynthetic language, and also requiring far fewer morphemes than the “perhaps only a hundred” predicted necessary for an oligosynthetic language to function. While I don’t have the language fully fleshed-out yet, I’ve derived enough widely divergent meanings and subtle nuances from the couple of single roots I created, which were in-turn built up from smaller morphemes (which I called “morphonemes”, but which were basically just phonaesthemes), that I have no doubts as to whether this language can be as expressive as any natural language.

Whether this or any oligosynthetic language, for that matter, can legitimately be considered a language, however, is a bit of a sticky subject. The arbitrariness of phonemes is dubious in polysynthetic languages, and moreso in oligosynthetic languages, since single phonemes often have morphemic functions. In Proto-Borean, the distinction between phonemes and morphemes is nonexistent (hence my term morphonemes), making the phonemes in this language completely and unambiguously non-arbitrary, a condition which was likely true of the common ancestor of all modern human languages (as stted above, the appearance of arbitrariness is an illusion created by millennia of linguistic divergence and reconvergence).

A secondary goal of mine for this language, something I feel I failed utterly at with earlier languages like Faenaril and Mal’naril in spite of it actually having been a primary goal for those languages, was to create something which was aesthetically beautiful. I wanted to see if I could turn this Exlang into the Artlang that I had intended Faenaril and Mal’naril to be. I’d heard some people describe certain Native North American languages as reminding of the rustling of leaves, and this so impressed me that I decided I wanted something that rolled smoothly off the tongue and reminded of the sounds of nature, particularly trickling water, cascading streams and babbling brooks, that I would toward this end employ frequent use of sibilants, approximants, and other liquid consonants with an phonetically elegant consonant-vowel-consonant-vowel sort of structure similar to that seen in Japanese (which sounds like rustling leaves) or Finnish (which sounds like falling rain), avoiding consonant clusters for the most part and ensuring that any consonant clusters I included would flow smoothly and be relatively easy to pronounce for speakers of most other languages. In other words, I wanted this to be a language that would be highly productive of “cellar doors”.

Another priority, somewhere between a primary and secondary goal, was to make this a philosophical language, or Philang. I wanted it to betray an underlying belief in duality, as seen in hermetic occult traditions, neopagan religions like Wicca, syncreto-pagan religions like Stregheria, and other religions like Zoroastrianism. Lots of complementary pairs of opposites. For example, the voiced denti-alveolar plosive morphoneme/phonaestheme d generally means something like “beginning, starting-point, origin” while the voiceless denti-alveolar plosive morphoneme t means something like “end-point, destination, target”. At first one might think this would cause confusion; if a listener didn’t hear the speaker clearly, the listener mightn’t know whether the speaker was talking about a beginning or an end. However, just as the English language can easily handle concepts like “terminal, bookend”, with constructions like “from one end to the other” being just as intelligible, albeit somewhat more vague, than, “from start to finish”, so too would mis-hearing a d for a t or vice versa in Proto-Borean result in a somewhat more vague yet still perfectly intelligible interpretation on the part of the listener. In cases where a mis-hearing could result in confusion, like *d-t- “from start to finish / from this terminal to that” being misheard for *t-d- “from finish to start / to this terminal from that”, the speaker always as the option of simply slowing down and enunciating more clearly, as in any language. What’s more, since the speakers of Proto-Borean would’ve had these sorts of relationships (such as an origin and destination both being types of terminal) constantly reinforced to them, nesting pairs of opposites within higher conceptual categories that render opposites the same, simply as a mechanical function of the language, native speakers of the Proto-Borean tongue would likely have less difficulty with ambiguity between opposites than the average English-speaker would. Thus, as a Philang, Proto-Borean is an example of linguistic relativity and can be considered something of a test of the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis.

What inspired me to arrange the language’s categoricality in this way was hearing sound-bytes like, “hate isn’t the opposite of love, apathy is,” when, in the context of our own, English-speaking culture, love and hate are actually two opposite forms of passion, and passion is the opposite of apathy. This makes both love and hate opposite kinds of the same thing (passion), and that same thing is in-turn the opposite of something else (apathy). Such distinctions between categorical levels aren’t really reflected in the European languages, and so confusion between levels of categorization (such as either love or hate, but not both, being referred to as the opposite of apathy) are all-too common. Consider the number of English-speakers who, for example, think that humans aren’t apes, that humans aren’t primates, or that humans aren’t animals, while contradictorilly admitting that humans are in fact a mammal (even though mammals are a type of animal), or who seem unaware that birds are a type of dinosaur or a type of reptile, even though they might be aware that birds are more similar to certain types of dinosaurs than those dinosaurs are to other types of dinosaur and that dinosaurs are a sort of reptile. This has the effect of making English-speakers seem utterly incompetent to speak their own language, and while I certainly didn’t want to reflect in this language the exact same conceptual categories we more educated speakers of the English language use, I wanted a language that would make it difficult for its speakers to make themselves sound stupid by demonstrating ignorance of their own language’s conceptual categories; a language which constantly reminds its speakers and listeners of the relationships between things and the categorical levels those relationships take place at.

Since Proto-Borean needed to obey a system of internal logic to accomplish this, it also serves as a sort of logical language, or Loglang. This was something I had in mind throughout the entire creation process, but it’s also an area in which I felt I needed to tread carefully. Refined, formal systems of logic are inherently culturally specific, and there’s absolutely no reason to believe that speakers of another language would be impressed by any of the formal systems of logic that English-speakers have created. Even when it comes to logical concepts that multiple different European languages more-or-less agree on, the European languages have been culturally influencing each other for thousands of years and there’s no reason to think the formal systems of logic that work across language barriers within the Indo-European language family would be seen as particularly meaningful or important outside of European-influenced societies. Languages like Loglan and its derivative, Lojban, essentially therefore do with logic what Esperanto does with phonology: endorsing the culturally-specific elements of the creator’s own native language and culture as though somehow objectively superior to (or objectively deserving of preferential treatment over) all others. It is in this way that Artlangs actually tend to be more logical than the Loglangs themselves; Artlangs attempt to create within them their own distinct philosophies and unique systems of logical relativity, whereas Loglangs tend to be deplorably ethnocentric cyphers for the Loglanger’s own native tongue. Loglangers rush in where Artlangers fear to tread.

And, lastly, of course, since this language was intended to be used in a fictional universe, it is a fictional language, or Ficlang.

Another inspiration was the Voynich manuscript.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=awGN5NApDy4



I. Phylogeny & Geographical Distribution



I.a. Sound Changes

<p> /p/
<ph> /ɸ/, /f/_[j]
<b> /b/
<bh> /β/, /v/_[j]
<m> /m/
<mh> /w/
<t> /t/
<th> /θ/
<d> /d/
<dh> /ð/
<n> /n/
<nh> or <nhr> /ɹ/
<s> /s/
<sh> /ʃ/
<z> /z/
<zh> /ʒ/
<l> /l/
<lh> /lɣ/ or /j/
<c> /k/ or /c/
<ch> /kx/, /x/, /cç/ or /tʃ/
<g> /g/ or /ɟ/

<gh> /gɣ/, /ɣ/, /ɟʝ/ or /dʒ/
<ŋ> /ŋ/, /ɲj/[l]_V
<ŋh> /ɰ/ or /j/
<q> /ʔ/
<qh> /h/
<’> /./
<r> _V or <nhr> /ɹ/
<r> V_V or <lhr> /r/


II. Phonology & Orthography



II.a. Phoneme Inventory



II.a-1.) Consoneme Inventory



II.a-1A.) Labial Group
Voiceless Bilabial Plosive
<p> /p/
Voiceless Bilabial Fricative
<ph> /ɸ/, /f/_[j]
Voiced Bilabial Plosive
<b> /b/
Voiced Bilabial Fricative
<bh> /β/, /v/_[j]
Bilabial Nasal
<m> /m/
Bilabial Approximant
<mh> /w/


II.a-1B.) Coronal Group
Voiceless Denti-alveolar Plosive
<t> /t/
Voiceless Denti-alveolar Fricative
<th> /θ/
Voiced Denti-alveolar Plosive
<d> /d/
Voiced Denti-alveolar Fricative
<dh> /ð/
Denti-alveolar Nasal
<n> /n/
Alveolar Approximant
<nh> or <nhr> /ɹ/


II.a-1C.) Liquid Coronal Group
Voiceless Alveolar Sibilant Fricative
<s> /s/
Voiceless Palato-alveolar Sibilant Fricative
<sh> /ʃ/_[h] or <sh> /ʃ/
Voiced Alveolar Sibilant Fricative
<z> /z/
Voiced Palato-alveolar Sibilant Fricative
<zh> /ʒ/_[h] or <zh> /ʒ/
Voiced Denti-alveolar, Alveolar, or Post-alveolar Lateral Approximant
<l> /l/
Velaraized Voiced Denti-alveolar, Alveolar, or Post-alveolar Lateral Approximant
<lh> /lɣ/ or /j/ or /ɾ/


II.a-1D.) Dorsal Group
Voiceless Palatal or Velar Plosive
<c> /k/ or /c/
Voiceless Palatal or Velar Affricate or Fricative
<ch> /kx/, /x/, /cç/ or /tʃ/
Voiced Palatal or Velar Plosive
<g> /g/ or /ɟ/
Voiced Palatal or Velar Affricate or Fricative
<gh> /gɣ/, /ɣ/, /ɟʝ/ or /dʒ/
Velar or Palatized Palatal Nasal
<ŋ> /ŋ/, /ɲj/[l]_V
Palatalized Palatal Nasal or Velarized Palatal Approximant
<ŋh> /ɰ/ or /jɟ/


II.a-1E.) Glottal Group
<q> /ʔ/
<qh> /h/
<’> /./
<r> /r/_V, /ɹ/C_V, or /r/V_V


II.a-2.) Volonome Inventory



II.a-2A.) Monophthongs
Open Front Vowel
<a> /a/
Mid/Front-Mid Front Vowel
<e> /ɛ/
Close/Close-Mid Front Vowel
<i> /ɪ/
Close/Close-Mid Back Vowel
<u> /ʊ/
Open-Mid Back Vowel
<o> /ɔ/


II.a-2B.) Diphthongs


II.a-2Bα.) “A”-Diphthongs
Long
<aa> /a:/ or //
Closing
<ae> /aɛ/ or /æ/
Closing
<ai> /aɪ/ or //
Closing
<au> /aʊ/(C)_C or /œ:/C_
Closing
<ao> /æʊ/_C, /aɔ/C_ or /œ/C_C


II.a-2Bη.) “E”-Diphthongs
Opening
<ea> /ɛa/ or //
Long
<ee> /ɛ:/ or /e/
Closing
<ei> /ɛɪ/ or /ɛ/
Closing
<eu> /ɛʊ/(C)_C or /œ/C_
Height-Harmonic
<eo> /eʊ/_C, /ɛɔ/C_, or /ø/C_C


II.a-2Bι.) “I”-Diphthongs
Opening
<ia> /ɪa/ or //
Opening
<ie> /ɪɛ/ or /i/
Long
<ii> /ɪ:/(C)_C or /i:/C_
Height-Harmonic
<iu> /ɪʊ/_C, /ʏ/C_C, /y/C_
Opening
<io> /iʊ/_C, /ɪɔ/C_, or /y/C_C


II.a-2Bυ.) “U”-Diphthongs
Opening
<ua> /ʊa/ or //
Opening
<ue> /ʊɛ/ or //
Height-Harmonic
<ui> /ʊɪ/ or //
Long
<uu> /u/(C)_C or /u:/C_
Opening
<uo> /uʊ/_C, /ʊɔ/C_C or /ʊo/C_


II.a-2Bω.) “O”-Diphthongs
Opening
<oa> /ɔa/ or //
Height-Harmonic
<œ> /ɔɛ/ or /œ/
Closing
<oi> /ɔɪ/ or //
Closing
<ou> /ɔʊ/ or //
Long
<oo> /ɔ:/ or /oʊ/


II.b. Phonotactic Summary

<p> /p/
<ph> /ɸ/, /f/_[j]
<b> /b/
<bh> /β/, /v/_[j]
<m> /m/
<mh> /w/
<t> /t/
<th> /θ/
<d> /d/
<dh> /ð/
<n> /n/
<nh> or <nhr> /ɹ/
<s> /s/
<sh> /ʃ/
<z> /z/
<zh> /ʒ/
<l> /l/
<lh> /lɣ/ or /j/
<c> /k/ or /c/
<ch> /kx/, /x/, /cç/ or /tʃ/
<g> /g/ or /ɟ/
<gh> /gɣ/, /ɣ/, /ɟʝ/ or /dʒ/
<ŋ> /ŋ/, /ɲj/[l]_V
<ŋh> /ɰ/ or /j/
<q> /ʔ/
<qh> /h/
<’> /./
<r> /r/_V, /ɹ/C_V, or /r/V_V

When a consonant bridges two syllables (i.e. when positioned between two vowels), it is pronounced as being the onset of the next syllable. However, when a consonant cluster sits at the bridge of two syllables, the phonotactics are a bit more complicated:

When a consonant cluster begins with a plosive consonant, and the next consonant is neither an approximant, a lateral, nor a semi-vowel, there follows a very slight schwa [ ? ] preceeding that next consonant, unless the consonant cluster is itself preceeded by a vowel [even if said vowel appears at the end of the previous word], in which case the plosive is re-analyzed as the final consonant on the coda of the preceeding syllable. When a consonant cluster begins with a nasal consonant, however, said consonant is syllablized unless the nasal consonant is preceeded by another vowel [again, even if said vowel appears at the end of the preceeding word], which causes the nasal consonant to be pronounced as the final consonant of the previous syllable’s coda. When preceeding a liquid consonant or semi-vowel, the plosive digraphs ph, bh, th, and dh (/ ph, bh, th, dh /) are modified into fricative consonants (/ f, , ?, /) , whilst the fricative digraph sh (/ sj /) is modified into an affricative consonant (/ ? /); these digraphs may not be followed by any other type of consonant, except when bridging two syllables or at a syllable’s coda preceeding the nasal consonant n. When preceeding a liquid consonant or semi-vowel, or when following any other type of consonant, the plosive palatal digraphs ch and gh (/ ch, ?h /) become fricative consonants (/ , ? /). The digraph lh (/ l?? /) becomes a semi-vowel (/ j /) when preceeded by any type of consonant, but cannot itself preceed a consonant. When following any type of consonant, the aspirated nasal digraph mh becomes a semi-vowel (/ w /), but when preceeding the liquid consonant r or the digraph rh, merely rounds the following consonant; the digraph mh may not preceed any other consonant with the exception of the digraph lh, with the pronunciation of mhlh being uncertain (though the most likely pronunciation is simply / w / followed by / j / with a slight schwa buffering the two). The digraph nh may not be preceeded by any type of cons0nant at the coda, though otherwise its pronunciation remains largely unchanged from that given on the chart to the left, except when modified to / ? / preceeding any consonant, in any position (onset, bridge, or coda).

The standard formula for consonant clusters in the Proto-Borean language, therefore, is:

[Formula]

No consonant cluster may contain more than three distinct consonantal phonemes, allowing a maximum of six characters [if each phoneme is a digraph].

Vowels



III. Morphology



III.a. Root Construction

Paragraph



III.a-1.) Consonantal (C-Type) Roots

The simplest roots are those made up of a single morphoneme. Most often this is a consonantal monograph or digraph, although consonant clusters are lexically more numerous (though when consonant clusters are used as roots, the nucleic morphoneme is considered able to be broken down into smaller morphonemes; these consonant clusters may thus be thought of as “semi-archmorphemes”).



III.a-1A.) Uniconsonantal (C1-Type) Roots

Uniconsonantal roots are made up of a single consonantal monograph or digraph. Examples include *m-, a reflexive morphoneme with the morphonetic meaning, “ ”, in the first-person pronoun mille, and *n-, a pseudo-demonstrative or -articular morphoneme with the morphonetic meaning, “to be” [generally distal, definite, or unequivocal, as opposed to *l-, which is typically proximal, indefinite, or remotive], in the third-person pronoun nille or the [pro-]verb nelene-.



III.a-1B.) Biconsonantal (C2-Type) Roots

S.



III.a-1C.) Triconsonantal C3-Type) Roots

S.



III.a-1D.) Quadruconsonantal (C4-Type) Roots

S.



III.a-2.) Syllabic (S-Type) Roots

S.



III.a-2A.) Monosyllabic (S1-Type) Roots

Monosyllabic roots. Examples include *mpad-, in the nouns mpaderillu, “brother”, mpadurellu, “father”, mpadurella, “mother”, mpadorellu, “begetter, sire”, mpadorella, “matrix”, et cetera, the verb mpaderene-, “to parent”, or the adjective mpaduralini-, “parental”, *mpad-’s relative, *mpodh-, in the nouns Mpodherillu, “Father (God)”, and Mpodherilla, “Mother (Goddess)”, and *rid-, in the phrase ninna ridutaenemillu, “I recently exiled her”.



III.a-2B.) Disyllabic (S2-Type) Roots

S.



III.a-2C.) Trisyllabic (S3-Type) Roots

S.



III.a-2D.) Tetrasyllabic (S4-Type) Roots

S.



III.a-2E.) Pentasyllabic (S5-Type) Roots

S.



III.a-3.) Consonantal Versus Syllabic Roots

Monosyllabic roots, containing at least three morphonemes each, could be root-inflected by ablaut (changing the monophthong or diphthong that sat fixed between the root’s consonants or consonant clusters). Later, these inflected forms became derivations, not unlike the process that rendered the frequentative aspectual inflection of “drip”, dribble, or “chat”, chatter, a derivational rather than inflectional form in the history of the English language.



III.a-3.) Polytypical (P-Type) Roots

S.



III.a-4.) Root Variations

S.



III.b. Variational Paradigms

Those who spoke the earliest attested forms of the Proto-Borean tongue, and probably those who spoke some of the later pre-attested forms, considered the substitution of any morphoneme, even the nucleic morphoneme or semi-archmorpheme of a monoconsonantal root, to be but a mere derivation of whatever lexeme said morphoneme was contained in. Educated speakers of the earliest attested forms of the language almost unanimously considered the language’s lexicon in its entirety to be simply a massive derivational paradigm of a single word, in the same way that many thousands of word forms in a polysynthetic language are considered part of the inflectional paradigm.



III.b-1.) Root Variations

S.



III.b-1A.) Parenthetical Suppletion: Onset & Coda

S.



III.b-1B.) Nuclear Suppletion

S.



III.b-1C.) Primary Root Derivation: Class

The verb class system of the Proto-Borean language is a system of derivation by which the root’s nucleus is altered to create a new word. This system itself derived from a form of voice inflection present in earlier forms of the language.

When used in the form of a verb, these forms take on the following meanings:

Passive class —
<anerenemille> / anɛɾɛnɛmɪlle / — “I become”
Intransitive class —
<enerenemille> / ɛnɛɾɛnɛmɪlle / — “I am”
Descriptive class —
<inerenemille> / ɪnɛɾɛnɛmɪlle / — “I match”
Transitive class —
<unerenemille> / ʊnɛɾɛnɛmɪlle / — “I influence”
Causative class —
<onerenemille> / ɔnɛɾɛnɛmɪlle / — “I create”

When used in the form of a verb, these forms take on the following meanings:

Passive class —
<aderenemille> / adɛɾɛnɛmɪlle / — “I complete”
Intransitive class —
<ederenemille> / ɛdɛɾɛnɛmɪlle / — “I do”
Descriptive class —
<iderenemille> / ɪdɛɾɛnɛmɪlle / — “I simulate”
Transitive class —
<uderenemille> / ʊdɛɾɛnɛmɪlle / — “I direct”
Causative class —
<oderenemille> / ɔdɛɾɛnɛmɪlle / — “I cause”

When used in the form of a verb, these forms take on the following meanings:

Passive class —
<aterenemille> / atɛɾɛnɛmɪlle / — “I rest”
Intransitive class —
<eterenemille> / ɛtɛɾɛnɛmɪlle / — “I finish”
Descriptive class —
<iterenemille> / ɪtɛɾɛnɛmɪlle / — “I end”
Transitive class —
<uterenemille> / ʊtɛɾɛnɛmɪlle / — “I guide”
Causative class —
<oterenemille> / ɔtɛɾɛnɛmɪlle / — “I motivate”

In the example below, the consonantal root *r-d- has the morphonetic meaning of r, “to come into”, “to become”, or “to move toward” in relationship to the following morphoneme, d, which signifies the primordial abyss of infinite wisdom that was believed to be the initial source of all existence and potentiality [and was therefore the container of all knowledge, whether actual, theoretical, or hypothetical] (cf. the “abyss” of occult philosophy; the Akasha of Eastern mysticism), and takes on various derivative, related meanings, such as “a beginning or primordial state”, “a wild, feral, untamed, chaotic, or natural state”, “a state of pre-formation”, “a state of increased wisdom and understanding”, or, simply, “darkness” or “abyss”. The intransitive basal form, *red-, via semantic shift, developed the meaning of “to return to the source or initial state; to tap into the primordial abyss of infinite knowledge”, hence, “to become feral or wild; to be wild, deviant, or radical; to egregate” and “to learn; to gain wisdom and understanding; to evolve”. The descriptive form, *rid-, took the meaning of “to be going toward the darkness or initial, wild, or feral state; to be going toward the spiritual source”; hence, “to travel through the wild; to seek wisdom or enlightenment; to wander, travel, or pilgrim; to be away from society”. The transitive form, *rud-, gained the meaning of “to put out toward the darkness; to cause to go outward into the [surrounding] dark and/or cold; to return to an initial state of unbeing”, hence, “to make pervade the darkness or cold; to return to ashes”, and therefore, “to set aflame or alight; to fire or burn; to heat or cook; to redden [or ‘to blacken [with heat or flame]’, which brings us back to the concept of returning to darkness]”. The passive form, *rad-, acquired the meaning of “to be put out toward or into the primordial darkness, cold, or chaos; to have tapped into the abyss of infinite knowledge”; variously interpreted as, “to be caused to pervade the [surrounding] darkness”, “to have been placed away in the wild; apart from the group or society”, or “to have found [possibly innate] knowledge”; hence, “to shine; to be bright [with the metaphorical meaning, ‘to be intelligent’] or radiating [with the metaphorical meaning, ‘to be splendorous or beautiful’]; to stand out or apart [also with the metaphorical meaning of being unusually intelligent and/or beautiful]; to be radical [with connotations of both radical intellect or cunning and radical beauty]; to be radiant, splendorous, or beautiful; to be radically clever or knowledgeable; to be wild, or to be wildly brilliant or radiant [whether referring to intelligence, literal ‘brightness’, or beauty]; et cetera”. Finally, the causative form, *rod-, developed the meaning of “to cause to become unformed”, hence, “to erode away or gnaw at; to fight; to assay to disperse”.

When used in the form of a verb, these forms take on the following meanings:

Passive class —
raderenemille / ɹadɛɾɛnɛmɪlle / — “I shine/radiate; I standout”
Intransitive class —
rederenemille / ɹɛdɛɾɛnɛmɪlle / — “I learn; I evolve; I egregate; I set myself apart; antigregate”
Descriptive class —
riderenemille / ɹɪdɛɾɛnɛmɪlle / — “I travel; I wander; I pilgrim”
Transitive class —
ruderenemille / ɹʊdɛɾɛnɛmɪlle / — “I heat; I redden [or blacken]”
Causative class —
roderenemille / ɹɔdɛɾɛnɛmɪlle / — “I erode away; I eat/gnaw at; I fight against”


III.b-1D.) Secondary Root Derivation: Intensity

When used in the form of a verb, these forms take on the following meanings:

Moderative —
aderenemille / adɛɾɛnɛmɪlle / — “I complete”
Approximative —
aaderenemille / a:dɛɾɛnɛmɪlle / — “I nearly complete; I attempt”
Frequentative —
aederenemille / ædɛɾɛnɛmɪlle / — “I dabble”
Attenuative —
aiderenemille / aɪdɛɾɛnɛmɪlle / — “I hone; I practice”
Intensive —
auderenemille / aʊdɛɾɛnɛmɪlle / — “I over-do/over-achieve”
Evolutive —
aoderenemille / æʊdɛɾɛnɛmɪlle / — “I go from attempting to over-achieving; I get better”

When used in the form of a verb, these forms take on the following meanings:

Moderative —
aterenemille / atɛɾɛnɛmɪlle / — “I rest”
Approximative —
aaterenemille / a:tɛɾɛnɛmɪlle / — “I pause”
Frequentative —
aeterenemille / ætɛɾɛnɛmɪlle / — “I procrastinate”
Attenuative —
aiterenemille / aɪtɛɾɛnɛmɪlle / — “I delay; I stall”
Intensive —
auterenemille / aʊtɛɾɛnɛmɪlle / — “I sleep”
Evolutive —
aoterenemille / æʊtɛɾɛnɛmɪlle / — “I go from taking a break to sleeping”

When used in the form of a verb, these forms take on the following meanings:

Moderative —
iterenemille / ɪtɛɾɛnɛmɪlle / — “I end; I destroy/ruin; I complete”
Approximative —
iaterenemille / ɪatɛɾɛnɛmɪlle / — “I impede/wound/injure/discourage; I slow; I assay (to end)”
Frequentative —
ieterenemille / ɪnɛtɛɾɛnɛmɪlle / — “I make headway”
Attenuative —
iiterenemille / ɪ:tɛɾɛnɛmɪlle / — “I complete (a small step in a larger series of tasks)”
Intensive —
iuterenemille / ɪʊtɛɾɛnɛmɪlle / — “I overcome; I annihilate”
Evolutive —
ioterenemille / ɪʊtɛɾɛnɛmɪlle / — “I go from trying to overcoming; I go from impeding/discouraging to destroying/annihilating”

When used in the form of a verb, these forms take on the following meanings:

Moderative —
raderenenille / ɹadɛɾɛnɛnɪlle / — “It shines; It radiates”
Approximative —
raaderenenille / ɹa:dɛɾɛnɛnɪlle / — “It nearly shines; It glows”
Frequentative —
raederenenille / ɹædɛɾɛnɛnɪlle / — “It sparkles; It shimmers; It glitters”
Attenuative —
raiderenenille / ɹaɪdɛɾɛnɛnɪlle / — “It glimmers; It sparks”
Intensive —
rauderenenille / ɹaʊdɛɾɛnɛnɪlle / — “It glares; It burn/rages”
Evolutive —
raoderenenille / ɹæʊdɛɾɛnɛnɪlle / — “It grows brighter and brighter; It lightens”


III.b-1E.) Primary & Secondary Root Derivation in Nouns

When used in the form of a noun, the primary and secondary nuclear derivations take on other, similar meanings:

Passive-Moderative —
radille / ɹadɪlle / — “That which shines/radiates; light”
Passive-Approximative —
raadille / ɹa:dɪlle / —
Passive-Frequentative —
raedille / ɹædɪlle / —
Passive-Attenuative —
raidille / ɹaɪdɪlle / —
Passive-Intensive —
raudille / ɹaʊdɪlle / —
Passive-Evolutive —
raodille — / ɹæʊdɪlle / —
Intransitive-Moderative —
redille / ɹɛdɪlle / —
Intransitive-Approximative —
readille / ɹɛadɪlle / —
Intransitive-Frequentative —
reedille / ɹɛ:dɪlle / —
Intransitive-Attenuative —
reidille / ɹɛɪdɪlle / —
Intransitive-Intensive —
reudille / ɹɛʊdɪlle / —
Intransitive-Evolutive —
reodille / ɹeʊdɪlle / —
Descriptive-Moderative —
ridille / ɹɪdɪlle / — “That which is away from the source: an outsider”
Descriptive-Approximative —
riadille / ɹɪadɪlle / — “That which moves around [such as in circles] or is elusive”
Descriptive-Frequentative —
riedille / ɹɪɛdɪlle / — “That which moves around [such as in circles]; that which is squirmy”
Descriptive-Attenuative —
riidille / ɹɪdɪlle / —
Descriptive-Intensive —
riudille / ɹɪʊdɪlle / —
Descriptive-Evolutive —
riodille / ɹiʊdɪlle / —
Transitive-Moderative —
rudille / ɹʊdɪlle / — “That which is red or hot”
Transitive-Approximative —
ruadille / ɹʊadɪlle / — “That which is warm or tepid”
Transitive-Frequentative —
ruedille / ɹʊɛdɪlle / —
Transitive-Attenuative —
ruidille / ɹʊɪdɪlle / —
Transitive-Intensive —
ruudille / ɹʊ:dɪlle / —
Transitive-Evolutive —
ruodille / ɹuʊdɪlle / —
Causative-Moderative —
rodille / ɹɔdɪlle / — “That which gnaws away at or eats at; that which is biting or corrosive”
Causative-Approximative —
roadille / ɹɔadɪlle / —
Causative-Frequentative —
rœdille / ɹɔɛddɪlle / — “That which gnaws or nibbles; a rodent” (rœdelle = “nibbler”)
Causative-Attenuative —
roidille / ɹɔɪdɪlle / —
Causative-Intensive —
roudille / ɹɔʊdɪlle / —
Causative-Evolutive —
roodille / ɹoʊdɪlle / —


III.b-2.) Primary Lexical Derivations

Verbal —
raderene- / ɹadɛɾɛnɛmɪlle / — “Shine; radiate”
Nominal —
radille / ɹadɪlle / — “That which shines/radiates; light”


III.b-3.) Nominal Vocality

Nouns have only five voices, a far simpler vocal paradigm than that of verbs. The BLANK voice typically indicates some sort of taxonym.

Receptive —
radalle / ɹadalle / — “That which is lit or brightened:”
Active —
radelle / ɹadɛlle / — “That which lights: a candle or lanthorn”
Descriptive —
radille / ɹadɪlle / — “That which is light / that which shines/radiates: a light”
Agentive —
radulle / ɹadʊlle / — “That which lights something[s]: a torch or splint”
Causative —
radolle / ɹadɔlle / — “That which causes [something[s]] to light: a flame”


III.b-4.) Nominal Number

Singular —
radille / ɹadɪlle / — “A light (unmarked); One light”
Dual —
radialle / ɹadɪalle / — “Two lights”
Trial —
radielle / ɹadɪɛlle / — “Three lights”
Paucal —
radiille / ɹadɪ:lle / — “Some lights”
Plural —
radiulle / ɹadɪʊlle / — “Many lights”
Mass —
radiolle / ɹadiʊlle / — “Light (referring to the non-quantifiable substance)”
Null singular —
radilŋe / ɹadɪlɲje / — “No light; No one light; Not one light”
Null dual —
radialŋe / ɹadɪalɲje / — “No two lights”
Null trial —
radielŋe / ɹadɪlɲje / — “No three lights”
Null plural —
radiilŋe / ɹadɪ:lɲje / — “No lights”
Paucal by null —
radiulŋe / ɹadɪʊlɲje / — “Not many lights”
Null mass —
radiolŋe / ɹadiʊlɲje / — “No light” (referring to the lack of non-quantified substance)


III.b-5.) Nominal Derivations

Zero —
Radille / ɹadɪlle / — Light
Diminutive —
Radip[p]ille / ɹadɪpɪlle / — Little light; point of light
Augmentative —
Radimbille / ɹadɪmbɪlle / — Great light
Abilitative —
Radibhlhille / ɹadɪvjɪlle / — That which is able to be light; lightable
Negative —
Radiŋille / ɹadɪŋɪlle / — That which is without light; lightless
Double Negative —
Radiŋilŋe / ɹadɪŋɪlɲje / — That which is without lightlessness; without darkness (or used ironically to mean dark or lightless)
Pejorative —
Radilgille / ɹadɪlgɪlle / — Fucking light
Repletive —
Radissille / ɹadɪsɪlle / — That which is full of light; lightful
Reflective —
Radic[c]ille / ɹadɪkɪlle / — Light-like (that which is light-like)
Zero —
Radille / ɹadɪlle / — Light
-able —
Radabhlhille / ɹadavjɪlle / —
-ability —
Radabhlhilli / ɹadavjɪlli / —
-aria, -ary —
Radarilli / ɹadarɪlli / —
-er, -or —
Raderellu / ɹadɛrɛllu / —
-ress, -rix —
Raderella / ɹadɛrɛlla / —
-ria, ry, eria, ery —
Raderilli / ɹadɛrɪlli / —
-iance —
Radialli / ɹadɪalli / — Radiance —
-ient —
Radiilli / ɹadilli / —
-ible —
Radibhlhille / ɹadɪvjɪlle / —
-ibility —
Radibhlhilli / ɹadɪvjɪlli / —
-ical —
Radic[c]alle / ɹadɪkalle / —
-ican —
Radic[c]alle / ɹadɪkalle / —
-icality —
Radic[c]alli / ɹadɪkalli / —
-ic —
Radic[c]ille / ɹadɪkɪlle / —
-icity —
Radic[c]illi / ɹadɪkɪlli / —
-icator —
Radic[c]urollu / ɹadɪkʊrɔllu / —
-acatrix —
Radic[c]urolla / ɹadɪkʊrɔlla / —
-icon —
Radic[c]olle / ɹadɪikɔlle / —
-ator —
Radurollu / ɹadʊrɔllu / —
-atrix —
Radurolla / ɹadʊrɔlla / —
-atoria, atory —
Radurolli / ɹadʊrɔlli / —
-ocution —
Radoclhulli / ɹadɔkjʊlli / —
-er, -or —
Radullu / ɹadʊllu / —
-ress, -rix —
Radulla / ɹadʊlla / —


III.b-6.) Nominal Derivational Vocality

Abilitative —
Radibhlhalle — That which is enabled to be light
Radibhlhelle — That which enables itself to be light
Radibhlhille — That which is able to be light; lightable
Radibhlhulle — That which enables something[s] to be light
Radibhlholle — That which causes [something[s]] to be light-able
Abilitative —
Radic[c]alle
Radic[c]elle
Radic[c]ille — Light-like (that which is light-like)
Radic[c]ulle — That which concerns light or radiance;
Radic[c]olle — That which relates [something[s]] to light; that which refers to light
(Describe also in verbs in section immediately following verbal vocality / adjectives and adverbs following attributive modality)


III.b-7.) Nominal Derivations & Dual Numerality

Monosingular —
Radimbille — One of a great light
Bisingular —
Radimbialle — Two of a great light
Trisingular —
Radimbielle Three of a great light
Multisingular —
Radimbiille — A few of a great light
Polysingular —
Radimbiulle — Many of a great light
Omnisingular —
Radimbiolle — All of a great light
Monodual —
Radiambille — One of two great lights
Bidual —
Radiambialle — Two of two great lights
Tridual —
Radiambielle — Three of two great lights
Multidual —
Radiambiille — A few of two great lights
Polydual —
Radiambiulle — Many of two great lights
Omnidual —
Radiambiolle — All of two great lights
Monotrial —
Radiembille — One of three great lights
Bitrial —
Radiembialle — Two of three great lights
Tritrial —
Radiembielle — Three of three great lights
Multitrial —
Radiembiille — A few of three great lights
Polytrial —
Radiembiulle — Many of three great lights
Omnitrial —
Radiembiolle — All of three great lights
Monopaucal —
Radiimbille — One of a few great lights
Bipaucal —
Radiimbialle — Two of a few great lights
Tripaucal —
Radiimbielle — Three of a few great lights
Multipaucal —
Radiimbiille — A few of a few great lights
Polypaucal —
Radiimbiulle — Many of a few great lights
Omnipaucal —
Radiimbiolle — All of a few great lights
Monoplural —
Radiumbille — One of many great lights
Biplural —
Radiumbialle — Two of many great lights
Triplural —
Radiumbielle — Three of many great lights
Multiplural —
Radiumbiille — A few of many great lights
Polyplural —
Radiumbiulle — Many of many great lights
Omniplural —
Radiumbiolle — All of many great lights
Monomass —
Radiombille — A bit of the great light
Bimass —
Radiombialle — A fraction of the great light
Trimass —
Radiombielle — Some of the great light
Multimass —
Radiombiille — Much of the great light
Polymass —
Radiombiulle — Most of the great light
Omnimass —
Radiombiolle — All of the great light


III.b-8.) Case

The declination paradigm making up the case system of the Old Borean language is multi-tiered and complex. The language’s grammar divides them into two main categories: central declensions and peripheral declensions. These are further divided into seven distinct groups: primary central declensions, secondary central declensions, tertiary central declensions, quaternary central declensions, primary peripheral declensions, secondary peripheral declensions, and tertiary peripheral declensions.



III.b-8A.) Central Declensions

S.



III.b-8Aα.) Primary Central Declensions
Vocative —
Radilhe — Marks the addressee of a statement
Nominative —
Radille — Marks the subject of a verb
Objective —
Radinne — Marks the object of a verb
Subjunctive —
Radithe — Marks both the object of one clause and the subject of the next


III.b-8Aβ.) Secondary Central Declensions
Relative —
Radilmhe — What/which light
Interrogative —
Radilcmhe — What/which light [?]
Demonstrative —
Generic —
Radillhe — The light
Proximal —
Radillhea — This light
Medial —
Radillheu — That light
Distal —
Radillheo — Yon light
Quantifying —
Exclusive
Radilclhe Some light
Inclusive —
Radilplhe — Any light
Universal —
Radilpghe — Every light
Negative —
Radilnhe — No light


III.b-8Aγ.) Tertiary Central Declensions
Articulate —
Proprietary —
Radille — Light (represented by the so-called “zero article”)
Indefinite —
Radille — A light (used for any grammatical number; marked by “zero article”)
Definite —
Radillhe — The light
Partitive —
Radiollei — Some/any light
Radiolleii — Some light / a bit of light
Radiolleiu — Much light / a lot of light
Hypothetical
Generic —
Radillee — The light / a light / some/any light
Proximal —
Radillea — This light
Medial —
Radilleu — That light
Distal —
Radilleo — Yon light


III.b-8Aδ.) Quaternary Central Declensions
Ergative —
Radilles[si] — Marks the agent of a transitive, passive, or causative verb
Absolutive —
Radille — Marks the experiencer of an intransitive verb (by being left unmarked)
Radillet[ti] — Marks the patient of a passive verb
Indirective —
Radinnet[ti] — Marks the indirect object of a ditransitive verb
Reciprocative —
Radillest[i] — Marks the experiencer or patient if it is also the agent


III.b-8B.) Peripheral Declensions

S.



III.b-8Bα.) Primary Peripheral Declensions: Postpositional Case
Ubiquitous —
Radinlhepao — All around the light
—?
Radinlhepei — At / in the direction of the light
Proximal —
Radinlhepi — At/near the light
Persuant —
Radinlhepu — Upon/near the light
Distributive —
Radinlhepmhei — Per / for each of the light
Sublative —
Radinlheptua — To [the destination of] the light
Terminal —
Radinlheptue — Unto [the location of] the light
Posterior —
Radinlhepsa — Behind/after the light
Anterior —
Radinlheprai — In front of / before the light
Desiderative —
Radinlhepro — For the light
Causal —
Radinlhebaa — Because of the light
Purposive —
Radinlhebao — For reason of the light
Benefactive —
Radinlhebu — For the light
Prosecutive —
Radinlhembheu — Through way of the light
Illative —
Radinlhemtu — Into the light
Inessive —
Radinlhemni — In / inside the light
Diapedetive —
Radinlhemzu — Through the light
Aversive —
Radinlhephobaa — For fear of the light
Radinlhephlha
Invocative —
Radinlhebhai — In the name of the light
Surpassive —
Radinlhebhei — [Going] by the light
Prolative —
Radinlhebhia — By way of the light
Instructive —
Radinlhebhie By means of the light
Instrumental —
Radinlhebhuu — Using the light
Causal-final —
Radinlhebhobaa For want of the light
Associative —
Radinlhemhai — With the light
Comitative —
Radinlhemhei — Together/in company with the light
Dative —
Radinlhettu — To the light
Lative —
Radinlhetto — To/into the light
Equative —
Radinlhetsa — As the light
Co-temporal —
Radinlhetsi — At the time of the light; as [of] the light
Essive —
Radinlhetsu — As long as the light; to the point that the light ends
Genitive —
Radinlhedda — Of/from the light
Delative —
Radinlhedsai — Off of the light
Sociative —
Radinlhenmhai — Together/companioned with the light
Translative —
Radinlhethu — To/into [being] the light
—?
Radinlhedha — From [being] the light
Abessive —
Radinlhenhai — Lacking the light
Elative —
Radinlhesaa — Out of the light
Delative —
Radinlhesdaa — Issued from the light
Ablative —
Radinlhesha — Off of the light
Possessive —
Radinlheca — Of the light
Dedative —
Radinlhecai — Relating to the light
Topical —
Radinlhecao — In the matter of the light
Respective —
Radinlhecei — Regarding the light
Affective —
Radinlhecu — To [or from the perspective of] the light
—?
Radinlhecta — From the outside of the light
Exterior —
Radinlhecti — Without / outside of the light
Excessive —
Radinlhectu — To the outside of the light
Post-temporal —
Radinlhecraa — After/eft the light
Temporal —
Radinlhecrai — At the time of the light
Pro-temporal
Radinlhecrau — Before/ere the light
Initiative —
Radinlhecrao — At the beginning of, and causal to, the light
Terminative —
Radinlhertu — Until the light
Superessive —
Radinlhehai — On/upon the light
Radinlhehei — Over the light
Adessive —
Radinlhehii — Atop/on top of the light
Allative —
Radinlhehui — Onto the light


III.b-8Bβ.) Secondary Peripheral Declensions

These declensions are applied either to the noun or the pronominal suffix of the verb, depending on whether the conjunction applies to the individual[s], or whether the conjunction applies to the action[s]. There is no conjunctive agreement between the agent of a verb and the verb’s pronominal suffix. If a pronoun is used to refer to a verb’s agent, and a conjunction is needed, the pronoun cannot simply be dropped, as it would be in most other cases, as inflecting the verb’s pronominal suffix with a conjunctive suffix would indicate that the conjunction applied to the verb rather than the pronoun.

Conjunctive suffixes should only be used when conjoining two nouns having the same relationship to a verb (“Jack and Jill went up the hill...”), two verbs having the same relationship to a noun (“Jack went up the hill and fetched a pail of water”), or both (“Jack and Jill went up the hill and fetched a pail of water”). Conventions for conjoining what might otherwise be separate sentences (“Jack went up the hill, and Jill fetched a pail of water”) are similar to the conventions used in English and most other languages. More specifically, the conjunctions used for this purpose are not conjunctive inflections, or any kind of inflection at all, but independent words — just as they are in English. These non-inflective conjunctions are not discussed in this section in any depth, but see particular conjunctions for more details.

Correlating conjunctive suffixes

Radillhendmhei — Both the light [and...]
Radillheldlhei — Either the light [or...]
Radillhelnhei — Neither the light [nor...]
Radillhelcmhei — Whether the light [or...]
Radillhelnhi — Not the light [but...]

Coordinating conjunctive suffixes

Radillhentmhai — And the light
Radillheltlhai — Or the light
Radillhelnhai — Nor the light
Radillhentlhai — But the light

A correlating conjunctive suffix must always be placed on a word preceding a word inflected with a coordinating conjunctive suffix. For example, the form Dzaecillu Dzilillantmhai, literally, “Jack and Jill”, is completely unacceptable, while the form Dzaecillundmhei Dzilillantmhai, literally, “both Jack and Jill”, is the proper construction. Whenever two words are conjoined, each word must be inflected with a conjunctive suffix. It is important to stress that this applies only to correlating conjunctive suffixes and coordinating conjunctive suffixes, and not to subordinating conjunctive suffixes or particular conjunctions.

The same rules that apply to correlating conjunctive suffixes and coordinating conjunctive suffixes also apply to subordinating conjunctive suffixes, except that [1] subordinating conjunctive suffixes can only be applied to the pronominal suffixes of verbs, and [2] subordinating conjunctive suffixes are only applied to a single word.

Subordinating conjunctive suffixes

? Temporal subordinating conjunctive suffixes

Radelaanenilletsai — Eft it shone; after it shone
Radelaanenilletsui — Ere it shone; before it shone
Radelaanenilletsei — Whilst it shone; whenas it shone
Radelaanenilletsii — As it shone; while it shone
Radelaanenilletsaa — Sith it shone; since it shone
Radelaanenilletsuu — Till it shone; until it shone

? Causal subordinating conjunctive suffixes

Radelaanenilledlhia — Because it shone
Radelaanenilledlhaa — Sithence it shone
Radelaanenilletsmhaa — Now that it shone
Radelaanenilletslhaa — As/because it shone
Radelaanenillebhlhoa — In order that it shone
Radelaanenillebhlhoi — So [that] it shone

? Oppositional subordinating conjunctive suffixes

Radelaanenillenlha — Although it shone
Radelaanenillenlhai — Though it shone
Radelaanenillenlhae — Even though it shone
Radelaanenillentlhai — Whereas it shone
Radelaanenilletslhai — While it shone

? Conditional subordinating conjunctive suffixes

Radelaanenillephai — An it shone / if it shone
Radelaanenillenhphai — Unless it shone
Radelaanenillectmhai — Whether or not it shone
Radelaanenillephlhai — Even if it shone
Radelaanenillencmhai — In case it shone
Radelaanenillephobaa — Lest it shone; for fear that it shone


III.b-8Bγ.) Tertiary Peripheral Declensions
Aversive — Radinnephobaa — For fear of the light
Causal — Radinnebaa — Because of the light
Purposive — Radinnebao — For reason of the light
Benefactive — Radinnebu — For the light


III.b-9.) Verbal Vocality

Passive class —

True passive — Radarenemillet — I am enshone/brightened [by something]
Reciprocal — Radaarenemhiallest — We are enshone/brightened by one another
Middle — Radaerenemillet
Mediopassive — Radairenemillet
Radaurenemillet
Instrumental — Radaorenemillet

Intransitive class

True intransitive — Raderenemille — I shine/radiate
Comitative — Radearenemille
Radeerenemille
Radeirenemille
Locative — Radeurenemille — I shine [on/onto/upon/at/&c] [something]
Benefactive — Radeorenemille — I shine [for something]
Stative class
True stative — Radirenemille — I am bright/radical/radiating/splendorous
Radiarenemille
Radierenemille
Radiirenemille
Radiurenemille
Radiorenemille

Transitive class

Monotransitive — Radurenemilles — I enshine/bright [something]
Reflexive — Raduarenemilles — I enshine/bright myself
Trans-Reciprocal — Raduerenemhiallest — We both enshine/bright [one another]
— Raduirenemilles —
Ditransitive — Raduurenemilles — I enshine/bright [something] [to] [something]
Dibenefactive — Raduorenemilles — I enshine/brighten [something] [for] [something]

Causative class

True causative — Radorenemilles — I cause [something] to shine/radiate; I brighten or enlighten [something]
Respective — Radoarenemilles — I shine/radiate [about] [something]
Causal-Reciprocal — Radœrenemhiallest — We both enshine/brighten [one another]
Causal — Radoirenemilles — I cause [something] to be bright/radical/radiating/splendorous
Dicausative — Radourenemilles — I light [something] [to] [something]
Radoorenemilles

Note that verbs rendered in voices belonging to the stative class — called stative verbs — indicate predicative adjectives by default. Attributive adjectives are indicated only by specific morphological alteration. For more information, see the section on attributive modality.



III.b-10.) Tense

Just as the concept of “tenses” the English language conflates time with aspect, tense in the Proto-Borean language represents a complex interaction between tensile aspect, modality, time, BLANK aspect, telicity, and predicative aspect.



III.b-10A.) Tensile Aspect
Simple — Raderenemille — I learn/evolve
Emphatic — Reneraderenemille — I do learn/evolve
Perfect — Reneraderanemille — I have learnt/evolved


III.b-10B.) Modality

Modality in the Proto-Faerish language.



III.b-10Bα.) Narrative Modality
Indicative — Radelenetille — Thou shinest
Energetic — Radelehetille — Thou dost shine; thou certainly shinest
Declarative — Radelebhetille — Thou shinest!
Capacitative — Radelechetille — Thou canst shine
Radeledretille — Thou darest shine
Requisitive — Radeleldetille — Thou needest shine
Negative — Radelenhetille — Thou shinest not
Oppositional — Radeledetille — Thou de-shinest; thou darkenest
Subjunctive Radelmhenetithe That thou [wouldst/shouldst/might] shine
Remotive Subjunctive — Radelmheunetille[phai] — [If] thou shone


III.b-10Bβ.) Alethic & Non-alethic Modality
Alethic Narrative — Radelenetille — Thou shinest
Non-Alethic Narrative — Radelenlhetille — Thou shinest [because I refuse to believe otherwise]


III.b-10Bγ.) Speculative Modality
Hypothetical — Radelemlhetille — Thou might/may be shining
Presumptive — Radelemmhetille — Thou might shine
Tentative — Radelemhetille — Thou wouldst shine
Tentative Eventive — Lecgheradelemhetille — Thou wouldst likely/probably shine
Potential — Radelechmhetille — Thou couldst shine
Potential Eventive — Lecgheradelechmhetille — Thou couldst probably/likely shine
Conditional — Radeleshmhetille — Thou shouldst [in that case] shine


III.b-10Bδ.) Epistemic Modality

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III.b-10Bδ-α.) Summative Epistemic Modality
Dubitative — Radelegnhetille — It is doubtful / not confirmed/proven that thou shinest
Probabilitative — Radelecchetille — Thou dost possibly shine
Superprobabilitative — Radelecghetille — Thou probably dost shine
Hyperprobabilitative — Radelegghetille — Thou must shine (likelihood)
Obligative — Radeleshlhetille — Thou shouldst/ought to shine (expectation)
Reputative — Radeleldlhetille — Thou art supposed to shine; thou shinest [by reputation]
Approximative — Radelenlhetille — Thou seemest to shine
Deductive — Radelelclhetille — Thou must [therefore] shine (not a directive)


III.b-10Bδ-β.) Relative Epistemic Modality
Sarcastic — Radeleghetille — Thou shinest [not] (spoken sardonically)
Facetious — Radelemlhetille — Thou might shine (spoken playfully/teasingly)
Infelicitous — Radelemdlhetille — I hear that thou shinest [and would like to know if this is true]
Felicitous — Radelendlhetille — It is said [by a reputable source] that thou shinest
Inferential — Radelendhlhetille — It is inferred [by some/someone] that thou shinest
Admirative — Radelemghetille — Surprisingly [or to my surprise], thou shinest
Confirmative — Radelegnetille — It is confirmed/proven that thou dost definitely shine


III.b-10Bε.) Sensory-Evidental Modality
Aural Sensory — Radeledlhetille — I hear that thou shinest
Cognitive Sensory — Radelegnlhetille — I figure that thou shinest
Extrasensory — Radelepslhetille — I divine that thou shinest
Generic Sensory — Radelemtlhetille — I sense that thou shinest
Gnostic Sensory — Radelegnlhetille — I know that thou shinest
Instinctive Sensory — Radelemnlhetille — I feel in my gut that thou shinest
Olfactory Sensory — Radelestlhetille — I smell that thou shinest
Savory Sensory — Radelesplhetille — I taste that thou shinest
Tactile Sensory — Radelemplhetille — I feel that thou shinest
Visual Sensory — Radelebhslhetille — I see that thou shinest


III.b-10Bζ.) Deontic Modality

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III.b-10Bζ-α.) Volitive Deontic Modality
Desiderative — Radelembmhetille — Thou might shine (a hope or wish)
Desiderative subj. — Radelmhembmhetille — Thou wouldst shine (a hope or wish)
Imprecative — Radelembmhetille — Thou might shine (a curse or hex)
Imprecative subj. — Radelmhembmhetille — Thou wouldst shine (a curse or hex)
Commissive — Radeleshetille — Thou shalt shine (declaration; promise; guarantee)
Hortative — Radeletslhemille — Let me shine
Cohortative — Radeletslhemhialle — Let’s/let us shine
Jussive — Radeletslhetille — Let thyself shine
Optative — Radeletslhenille — Let it shine


III.b-10Bζ-β.) Directive Deontic Modality
Permissive — Radelumblhetille — Thou mayest shine
Prohibitive — Lenheradelumblhetille — Thou mayest not shine
Suggestive — Radelmhunmhetille — Thou ought to shine
Injunctive — Radelunshetille
Necessitative — Radelunshetille — Thou shalt shine (demand)
Imperative — Radelulhetilhe — Shine, thou


III.b-10Bη.) Interrogative Modality
Informal inquisitive — Radelecmhetille? — Thou shinest?
Formal inquisitive — Lecmheradelenetille? — Dost thou shine?
Precative — Lecmheradelemhetille? — Wouldst thou shine?
Deliberative — Lecmheradelenmhetille? — Ought thou shine?
Ejaculative — Lecmheradeleshmhemhialle? — Shall we shine?
Conjunctive — Radelumhetille — Thou shalt shine (request)


III.b-10Bθ.) Attributive Modality
Adjectival — Radiliniradille — Bright light
Adverbial — Radiliniradelenetille — Thou shinest brightly


III.b-10C.) Time

The Proto-Boreans had a similar conception of time to that of the Aymara: they conceived of the past as being before them and the future as being behind them. Speakers of the Aymara language will even gesture in front of them to indicate the past (pacha nayra) and gesture behind them to indicate the future (pacha qhipa). This is sensible considering we can see the past but not the future. Additionally, the past seems to grow larger as we move through time, as though we were moving toward a destination the past. In order for the Standard European conception of time to work, with humans constantly moving toward the future, we would essentially have to be walking backward through time, with our backs to the future and our eyes to the past, allowing us to see more of the past as we move away from it. Either way, the European view of the past being somehow "behind" us and the future lying "before" us is exceedingly difficult to rationalize compared to the much more logical Proto-Borean and Aymara concepts of time.

Immediate Past — Radelanenille — Just now it shone/radiated
Hodiernal Past — Radelaanenille — Earlier it shone/radiated
Recent Past — Radelaenenille — Recently it shone/radiated
Pre-hodiernal — Radelainenille — Before today it shone/radiated
Remote Past — Radelaunenille — A while ago it shone/radiated
Distant Past — Radelaonenille — Back in the day, it shone/radiated
Non-future — Radelinenille — It hither (until now) shone/radiated
Remissive — Radelianenille — Since then [has] it shone/radiated
Radelienenille
Radeliinenille
Residual — Radeliunenille — It still shines/radiates
Radelionemille
Present — Radelenenille — It shines/radiates
Radeleanenille
Radeleenenille
Radeleinenille
Remotive — Radeleunenille — [If; had; et cetera] it shone/radiated
Immediate Future — Radeleonenille
Non-past — Radelunenille — It shines/radiates [as of this moment]
Projective — Radeluanenille — Until then it will shine/radiate
Radeluenenille
Radeluinenille
Radeluunenille
Radeluonenille
Immediate Future — Radelonenille — Now it will shine/radiate
Hodiernal Future — Radeloanenille — Later it will shine/radiate
Near Future — Radelœnemille — Soon/shortly it will shine/radiate
Post-hodiernal — Radeloinenille — After today it will shine/radiate
Remote Future — Radelounenille — One of these days it will shine/radiate
Distant Future — Radeloonenille — Someday it will shine/radiate



III.b-10D.) Perfectivity
Perfective — Radelenemille
Imperfective — Radessenemille
Positive — Radelenemille


III.b-10E.) Telicity
Atelic — Radelenenille — It shines/radiates
Progressive — Radelrhenenille — It is shining/radiating
Telic — Radelhhenenille — It shines brightly


III.b-10F.) Predicative Aspect
Momentane — Radelenamille — I flash (sometimes known as the punctual predicative aspect)
Semelfactive — Radelenaamille — I flash many times all at once; I flash many times “all in one swoop”
Simulfactive — Radelenaamhiallea — We both flash at once; we both flash simultaneously
Iterative — Radelenaemille — I shine/radiate/flash over and over again
Repetitive — Radelenaimille — I repeatedly shine/radiate/flash; I strobe
Experiential — Leneradelaunau- — [I] have shone/radiated before (dœs not work well in simple present)
Habitual — Radelenaomille — I often shine/radiate; I am used to shining/radiating
Usitative — Radelanaomille — I used to shine/radiate (past tense of the habitual predicative aspect)
Indicative — Radelenemille — I shine/radiate [currently; at this general point in time]
Conative — Radeleneamille — I try/attempt to shine/radiate
Contrastive — Radeleneemille — I shine/radiate more brightly
Alternative [1] — Radeleneimhialle — We shine one after another
Alternative [2] — Radeleneimille — I shine/radiate [and [another verb]] in succession
Distributive — Raduleneimille — I shine upon/lighten [some things] one by one (affects the plural noun)
Perdurative — Radeleneumille — I shine/radiate for an unusually long duration
Terminative — Radeleneomille — I finish shining/radiating; I completely and wholly/totally radiate/shine
Incompletive — Lenheradeleneo- — [I] partially / incompletely radiate/shine; I do not finish shining/radiating
Adjective — Radelenimille — I am shining/radiating (does not imply progressive tensile aspect)
Apparentive — Radeleniamille — I appear to shine; I look shiny
Comparative — Radeleniemille — I am shinier/more radiant
Generic — Radeleniimille — I shine/radiate/standout; I am radiant/radical/tenacious/brilliant/bright
Superlative — Radeleniumille — I am shiniest/brightest/most radiant
Inchoative — Radeleniomille — I become shiny/radiant/radical/brilliant/bright
Durative — Radelenumille — I shine/radiate for a time; I shine/radiate for [some span of time]
Delimitative — Radelenuamille — I shine/radiate for a bit; I shine/radiate for a little while
Pausative — Lenuaradelenhe- — [I], for a little while, do not shine/radiate
Continuative — Radelenuemille — I keep shining/radiating; I continue to shine/radiate
Cessative — Lenheradelenue- — [I] do not keep shining/radiating; I cease shining/radiating
Perfective — Radelenuimille — I shine/radiate as/in synchronization with [event/occurrence + aspect]
Protractive — Radelenuumille — I shine/radiate for an indefinitely long duration, possibly forever
Superfective — Radelenuomille — I keep shining/radiating far after/further than the time/place to cease
Inceptive — Radelenomille — I begin/start to shine/radiate
Recessive — Lenoradelenhe- — [I] begin/start to not shine/radiate; I cease/stop shining/radiating
Prospective — Radelenoamille — I am fixin’ to shine/radiate; I am going to radiate/shine
Utilitative — Radelenœmille — I shine/radiate so there will be light for myself or others
Intentional — Radelenoimille — I intentionally shine/radiate; I shine/radiate for a reason
Accidental — Lenheradelenoi- — [I] accidentally shine/radiate [and call unwanted attention to myself?]
Resumptive — Radelenoumille — I resume shining/radiating; I keep shining/radiating
Excessive — Radelenoomille — I excessively shine/radiate; I shine/radiate too brightly


III.c. Particular Conjunctions

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III.d. Adverbial Subordinates

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IV. Morphosyntactic Alignment

Passive — Luctinlhessibaalnhei dhinlhessibaalnhai leneradalanemille
Intransitive — Minnussibaa radelanenille luctille


V. Semantics

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V.a. Predicative Logic

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VI. Vocabulary

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VI.a. Common Phrases

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VI.b. Lexicon

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