D. J. Scott D. J. Scott
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The Palæoboreanica

III.b-10B.) Modality

Modality in the Proto-Borean language.

III.b-10Bα.) Narrative Modality
Indicative — Radelenetille — Thou shinest
Energetic — Radelehetille — Thou dost shine; thou certainly shinest
Declarative — Radelebhetille — Thou shinest!
Capacitative — Radelechetille — Thou canst shine
Radeledretille — Thou darest shine
Requisitive — Radeleldetille — Thou needest shine
Negative — Radelenhetille — Thou shinest not
Oppositional — Radeledetille — Thou de-shinest; thou darkenest
Subjunctive Radelmhenetithe That thou [wouldst/shouldst/might] shine
Remotive Subjunctive — Radelmheunetille[phai] — [If] thou shone

III.b-10Bβ.) Alethic & Non-alethic Modality
Alethic Narrative — Radelenetille — Thou shinest
Non-Alethic Narrative — Radelenlhetille — Thou shinest [because I refuse to believe otherwise]

III.b-10Bγ.) Speculative Modality
Hypothetical — Radelemlhetille — Thou might/may be shining
Presumptive — Radelemmhetille — Thou might shine
Tentative — Radelemhetille — Thou wouldst shine
Tentative Eventive — Lecgheradelemhetille — Thou wouldst likely/probably shine
Potential — Radelechmhetille — Thou couldst shine
Potential Eventive — Lecgheradelechmhetille — Thou couldst probably/likely shine
Conditional — Radeleshmhetille — Thou shouldst [in that case] shine

III.b-10Bδ.) Epistemic Modality


III.b-10Bδ-α.) Summative Epistemic Modality
Dubitative — Radelegnhetille — It is doubtful / not confirmed/proven that thou shinest
Probabilitative — Radelecchetille — Thou dost possibly shine
Superprobabilitative — Radelecghetille — Thou probably dost shine
Hyperprobabilitative — Radelegghetille — Thou must shine (likelihood)
Obligative — Radeleshlhetille — Thou shouldst/ought to shine (expectation)
Reputative — Radeleldlhetille — Thou art supposed to shine; thou shinest [by reputation]
Approximative — Radelenlhetille — Thou seemest to shine
Deductive — Radelelclhetille — Thou must [therefore] shine (not a directive)

III.b-10Bδ-β.) Relative Epistemic Modality
Sarcastic — Radeleghetille — Thou shinest [not] (spoken sardonically)
Facetious — Radelemlhetille — Thou might shine (spoken playfully/teasingly)
Infelicitous — Radelemdlhetille — I hear that thou shinest [and would like to know if this is true]
Felicitous — Radelendlhetille — It is said [by a reputable source] that thou shinest
Inferential — Radelendhlhetille — It is inferred [by some/someone] that thou shinest
Admirative — Radelemghetille — Surprisingly [or to my surprise], thou shinest
Confirmative — Radelegnetille — It is confirmed/proven that thou dost definitely shine

III.b-10Bε.) Sensory-Evidental Modality
Aural Sensory — Radeledlhetille — I hear that thou shinest
Cognitive Sensory — Radelegnlhetille — I figure that thou shinest
Extrasensory — Radelepslhetille — I divine that thou shinest
Generic Sensory — Radelemtlhetille — I sense that thou shinest
Gnostic Sensory — Radelegnlhetille — I know that thou shinest
Instinctive Sensory — Radelemnlhetille — I feel in my gut that thou shinest
Olfactory Sensory — Radelestlhetille — I smell that thou shinest
Savory Sensory — Radelesplhetille — I taste that thou shinest
Tactile Sensory — Radelemplhetille — I feel that thou shinest
Visual Sensory — Radelebhslhetille — I see that thou shinest

III.b-10Bζ.) Deontic Modality


III.b-10Bζ-α.) Volitive Deontic Modality
Desiderative — Radelembmhetille — Thou might shine (a hope or wish)
Desiderative subj. — Radelmhembmhetille — Thou wouldst shine (a hope or wish)
Imprecative — Radelembmhetille — Thou might shine (a curse or hex)
Imprecative subj. — Radelmhembmhetille — Thou wouldst shine (a curse or hex)
Commissive — Radeleshetille — Thou shalt shine (declaration; promise; guarantee)
Hortative — Radeletslhemille — Let me shine
Cohortative — Radeletslhemhialle — Let’s/let us shine
Jussive — Radeletslhetille — Let thyself shine
Optative — Radeletslhenille — Let it shine

III.b-10Bζ-β.) Directive Deontic Modality
Permissive — Radelumblhetille — Thou mayest shine
Prohibitive — Lenheradelumblhetille — Thou mayest not shine
Suggestive — Radelmhunmhetille — Thou ought to shine
Injunctive — Radelunshetille
Necessitative — Radelunshetille — Thou shalt shine (demand)
Imperative — Radelulhetilhe — Shine, thou

III.b-10Bη.) Interrogative Modality
Informal inquisitive — Radelecmhetille? — Thou shinest?
Formal inquisitive — Lecmheradelenetille? — Dost thou shine?
Precative — Lecmheradelemhetille? — Wouldst thou shine?
Deliberative — Lecmheradelenmhetille? — Ought thou shine?
Ejaculative — Lecmheradeleshmhemhialle? — Shall we shine?
Conjunctive — Radelumhetille — Thou shalt shine (request)

III.b-10Bθ.) Attributive Modality
Adjectival — Radiliniradille — Bright light
Adverbial — Radiliniradelenetille — Thou shinest brightly

Narrative Modality
Alethic & Non-Alethic Modality
Speculative Modality
Epistemic Modality
Deontic Modality
Interrogative Modality
Attributive Modality
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Tensile Aspect
Predicative Aspect
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Variational Paradigms
Root Variations
Primary Lexical Derivations
Nominal Vocality
Nominal Number
Nominal Derivations
Nominal Derivational Vocality
Nominal Derivations & Dual Numerality
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Root Construction
Variational Paradigms
Particular Conjunctions
Adverbial Subordinates
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Phylogeny & Distribution
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Morphosyntactic Alignment
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I’m currently trying to rebuild my life after having suffered some devastating losses in my battles against public corruption in Pacific County, Washington and Lewis County, Washington. I lost a great deal of my artwork and writing during those battles, among other possessions, and was forced into homelessness by the corrupt authorities in those counties on more than one occasion. If you support the arts and sciences and disdain public corruption, please consider donating to me via PayPal or supporting me on Patreon. All donations will go toward funding my school career and giving me more time to create content.