D. J. Scott D. J. Scott
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The Proto-Borean Language


Glossopœia
I. Phylogeny & Geographical Distribution
II. Phonology & Orthography
II.a. Phoneme Inventory
II.a-1.) Consoneme Inventory
II.a-1A.) Labial Group
II.a-1B.) Coronal Group
II.a-1C.) Dorsal Group
II.a-1D.) Glottal Group
II.a-2.) Voloneme Inventory
II.a-2A.) Monopthongs
II.a-2B.) Diphthongs
II.b. Phonotactic Summary
III. Morphology
III.a. Root Construction (Root system)
III.a-1.) Consonantal (C-Type) Roots (Root system)
III.a-1A.) Uniconsonantal (C1-Type) Roots (Root system)
III.a-1A.) Diconsonantal (C2-Type) Roots (Root system)
III.a-1A.) Triconsonantal (C3-Type) Roots (Root system)
III.a-1A.) Quadruconsonantal (C4-Type) Roots (Root system)
III.a-2.) Syllabic (S-Type) Roots (Root system)
III.a-2A.) Monosyllabic (S1-Type) Roots (Root system)
III.a-2A.) Bisyllabic (S2-Type) Roots (Root system)
III.a-2A.) Trisyllabic (S3-Type) Roots (Root system)
III.a-2A.) Tetrasyllabic (S4-Type) Roots (Root system)
III.a-2A.) Pentasyllabic (S5-Type) Roots (Root system)
III.a-3.) Consonantal Versus Syllabic Roots
III.a-4.) Polytypical (P-Type) Roots
III.a-5.) Root Variations
III.b. Variational Paradigms
III.b-1.) Root Variations (Root system)
III.b-1A.) Parenthetical Suppletion: Onset & Coda (Root system)
III.b-1B.) Nuclear Suppletion (Root system)
III.b-1C.) Primary Root Derivations: Class (Root system)
III.b-1D.) Secondary Root Derivations: Intensity (Root system)
III.b-1E.) Primary & Secondary Root Derivation in Nouns (Root system)
III.b-2.) Primary Lexical Derivations
III.b-3.) Nominal vocality (Nouns)
III.b-4.) Nominal number (Nouns)
III.b-5.) Nominal derivations (Nouns)
III.b-6.) Nominal derivational vocality (Nouns)
III.b-7.) Nominal derivations & dual numerality (Nouns)
III.b-8.) Case (Nouns)
III.b-8A.) Central Declesions (Nouns)
III.b-8Aα.) Primary Central Declensions (Nouns)
III.b-8Aβ.) Secondary Central Declensions (Nouns)
III.b-8Aγ.) Tertiary Central Declensions (Nouns)
III.b-8Aδ.) Quaternary Central Declensions (Nouns)
III.b-8B.) Peripheral Declensions (Nouns)
III.b-8Bα.) Primary Peripheral Declensions: Postpositional case (Nouns)
III.b-8Bβ.) Secondary Peripheral Declensions: Conjunctive suffixes (Nouns)
III.b-9.) Verbal vocality (Verbs)
III.b-10.) Tense (Verbs)
III.b-10A.) Tensile Aspect (Verbs)
III.b-10B.) Modality (Verbs)
III.b-10Bα.) Narrative Modality (Verbs)
III.b-10Bβ.) Alethic & Non-Alethic Modality (Verbs)
III.b-10Bγ.) Speculative Modality (Verbs)
III.b-10Bδ.) Epistemic Modality (Verbs)
III.b-10Bδi.) Summative Epistemic Modality (Verbs)
III.b-10Bδii.) Sensory-Evidential Epistemic Modality (Verbs)
III.b-10Bε.) Deontic Modality (Verbs)
III.b-10Bεi.) Volitive Deontic Modality (Verbs)
III.b-10Bεii.) Directive Deontic Modality (Verbs)
III.b-10Bζ.) Interrogative Modality (Verbs)
III.b-10Bη.) Attributive Modality (Verbs)
III.b-10C.) Time (Verbs)
III.b-10D.) Perfectivity (Verbs)
III.b-10E.) Telicity (Verbs)
III.b-10F.) Predicative Aspect (Verbs)
III.c. Particular Conjunctions
III.d. Adverbial Subordinates
IV. Morphosyntactic Alignment
V. Semantics
VI. Vocabulary
VI.a. Common Phrases
VI.b. Lexicon

II.a. Phoneme Inventory



II.a-1.) Consoneme Inventory



II.a-1A.) Labial Group
Voiceless Bilabial Plosive
<p> /p/
Voiceless Bilabial Fricative
<ph> /ɸ/, /f/_[j]
Voiced Bilabial Plosive
<b> /b/
Voiced Bilabial Fricative
<bh> /β/, /v/_[j]
Bilabial Nasal
<m> /m/
Bilabial Approximant
<mh> /w/


II.a-1B.) Coronal Group
Voiceless Denti-alveolar Plosive
<t> /t/
Voiceless Denti-alveolar Fricative
<th> /θ/
Voiced Denti-alveolar Plosive
<d> /d/
Voiced Denti-alveolar Fricative
<dh> /ð/
Denti-alveolar Nasal
<n> /n/
Alveolar Approximant
<nh> or <nhr> /ɹ/


II.a-1C.) Liquid Coronal Group
Voiceless Alveolar Sibilant Fricative
<s> /s/
Voiceless Palato-alveolar Sibilant Fricative
<sh> /ʃ/_[h] or <sh> /ʃ/
Voiced Alveolar Sibilant Fricative
<z> /z/
Voiced Palato-alveolar Sibilant Fricative
<zh> /ʒ/_[h] or <zh> /ʒ/
Voiced Denti-alveolar, Alveolar, or Post-alveolar Lateral Approximant
<l> /l/
Velaraized Voiced Denti-alveolar, Alveolar, or Post-alveolar Lateral Approximant
<lh> /lɣ/ or /j/ or /ɾ/


II.a-1D.) Dorsal Group
Voiceless Palatal or Velar Plosive
<c> /k/ or /c/
Voiceless Palatal or Velar Affricate or Fricative
<ch> /kx/, /x/, /cç/ or /tʃ/
Voiced Palatal or Velar Plosive
<g> /g/ or /ɟ/
Voiced Palatal or Velar Affricate or Fricative
<gh> /gɣ/, /ɣ/, /ɟʝ/ or /dʒ/
Velar or Palatized Palatal Nasal
<ŋ> /ŋ/, /ɲj/[l]_V
Palatalized Palatal Nasal or Velarized Palatal Approximant
<ŋh> /ɰ/ or /jɟ/


II.a-1E.) Glottal Group
<q> /ʔ/
<qh> /h/
<’> /./
<r> /r/_V, /ɹ/C_V, or /r/V_V


II.a-2.) Volonome Inventory



II.a-2A.) Monophthongs
Open Front Vowel
<a> /a/
Mid/Front-Mid Front Vowel
<e> /ɛ/
Close/Close-Mid Front Vowel
<i> /ɪ/
Close/Close-Mid Back Vowel
<u> /ʊ/
Open-Mid Back Vowel
<o> /ɔ/


II.a-2B.) Diphthongs


II.a-2Bα.) “A”-Diphthongs
Long
<aa> /a:/ or //
Closing
<ae> /aɛ/ or /æ/
Closing
<ai> /aɪ/ or //
Closing
<au> /aʊ/(C)_C or /œ:/C_
Closing
<ao> /æʊ/_C, /aɔ/C_ or /œ/C_C


II.a-2Bη.) “E”-Diphthongs
Opening
<ea> /ɛa/ or //
Long
<ee> /ɛ:/ or /e/
Closing
<ei> /ɛɪ/ or /ɛ/
Closing
<eu> /ɛʊ/(C)_C or /œ/C_
Height-Harmonic
<eo> /eʊ/_C, /ɛɔ/C_, or /ø/C_C


II.a-2Bι.) “I”-Diphthongs
Opening
<ia> /ɪa/ or //
Opening
<ie> /ɪɛ/ or /i/
Long
<ii> /ɪ:/(C)_C or /i:/C_
Height-Harmonic
<iu> /ɪʊ/_C, /ʏ/C_C, /y/C_
Opening
<io> /iʊ/_C, /ɪɔ/C_, or /y/C_C


II.a-2Bυ.) “U”-Diphthongs
Opening
<ua> /ʊa/ or //
Opening
<ue> /ʊɛ/ or //
Height-Harmonic
<ui> /ʊɪ/ or //
Long
<uu> /u/(C)_C or /u:/C_
Opening
<uo> /uʊ/_C, /ʊɔ/C_C or /ʊo/C_


II.a-2Bω.) “O”-Diphthongs
Opening
<oa> /ɔa/ or //
Height-Harmonic
<œ> /ɔɛ/ or /œ/
Closing
<oi> /ɔɪ/ or //
Closing
<ou> /ɔʊ/ or //
Long
<oo> /ɔ:/ or /oʊ/


II.b. Phonotactic Summary

<p> /p/
<ph> /ɸ/, /f/_[j]
<b> /b/
<bh> /β/, /v/_[j]
<m> /m/
<mh> /w/
<t> /t/
<th> /θ/
<d> /d/
<dh> /ð/
<n> /n/
<nh> or <nhr> /ɹ/
<s> /s/
<sh> /ʃ/
<z> /z/
<zh> /ʒ/
<l> /l/
<lh> /lɣ/ or /j/
<c> /k/ or /c/
<ch> /kx/, /x/, /cç/ or /tʃ/
<g> /g/ or /ɟ/
<gh> /gɣ/, /ɣ/, /ɟʝ/ or /dʒ/
<ŋ> /ŋ/, /ɲj/[l]_V
<ŋh> /ɰ/ or /j/
<q> /ʔ/
<qh> /h/
<’> /./
<r> /r/_V, /ɹ/C_V, or /r/V_V

When a consonant bridges two syllables (i.e. when positioned between two vowels), it is pronounced as being the onset of the next syllable. However, when a consonant cluster sits at the bridge of two syllables, the phonotactics are a bit more complicated:

When a consonant cluster begins with a plosive consonant, and the next consonant is neither an approximant, a lateral, nor a semi-vowel, there follows a very slight schwa [ ? ] preceeding that next consonant, unless the consonant cluster is itself preceeded by a vowel [even if said vowel appears at the end of the previous word], in which case the plosive is re-analyzed as the final consonant on the coda of the preceeding syllable. When a consonant cluster begins with a nasal consonant, however, said consonant is syllablized unless the nasal consonant is preceeded by another vowel [again, even if said vowel appears at the end of the preceeding word], which causes the nasal consonant to be pronounced as the final consonant of the previous syllable’s coda. When preceeding a liquid consonant or semi-vowel, the plosive digraphs ph, bh, th, and dh (/ ph, bh, th, dh /) are modified into fricative consonants (/ f, , ?, /) , whilst the fricative digraph sh (/ sj /) is modified into an affricative consonant (/ ? /); these digraphs may not be followed by any other type of consonant, except when bridging two syllables or at a syllable’s coda preceeding the nasal consonant n. When preceeding a liquid consonant or semi-vowel, or when following any other type of consonant, the plosive palatal digraphs ch and gh (/ ch, ?h /) become fricative consonants (/ , ? /). The digraph lh (/ l?? /) becomes a semi-vowel (/ j /) when preceeded by any type of consonant, but cannot itself preceed a consonant. When following any type of consonant, the aspirated nasal digraph mh becomes a semi-vowel (/ w /), but when preceeding the liquid consonant r or the digraph rh, merely rounds the following consonant; the digraph mh may not preceed any other consonant with the exception of the digraph lh, with the pronunciation of mhlh being uncertain (though the most likely pronunciation is simply / w / followed by / j / with a slight schwa buffering the two). The digraph nh may not be preceeded by any type of cons0nant at the coda, though otherwise its pronunciation remains largely unchanged from that given on the chart to the left, except when modified to / ? / preceeding any consonant, in any position (onset, bridge, or coda).

The standard formula for consonant clusters in the Proto-Borean language, therefore, is:

[Formula]

No consonant cluster may contain more than three distinct consonantal phonemes, allowing a maximum of six characters [if each phoneme is a digraph].

Vowels

IV. Morphosyntactic Alignment

Passive — Luctinlhessibaalnhei dhinlhessibaalnhai leneradalanemille
Intransitive — Minnussibaa radelanenille luctille


V. Semantics

S.



V.a. Predicative Logic

S.



VI. Vocabulary

S.



VI.a. Common Phrases

S.



VI.b. Lexicon

S.


Fiction
⚑ The Borean Cycle
Red the Blue Devil
The Nocturnals
The Spacebunnies
Metazoids
Solar Civil War
⚑ = You Are Here.