D. J. Scott D. J. Scott
SciencePhysicsChemistryBiologyEukaryologyZoology ► Ethology ► Art ► My Art ► Fiction & Woldbuilding ► Fantasy

The Palæoboreanica

Root system
Root Construction


III.b-3.) Nominal Vocality

Nouns have only five voices, a far simpler vocal paradigm than that of verbs. The BLANK voice typically indicates some sort of taxonym.

Receptive —
radalle / ɹadalle / — “That which is lit or brightened:”
Active —
radelle / ɹadɛlle / — “That which lights: a candle or lanthorn”
Descriptive —
radille / ɹadɪlle / — “That which is light / that which shines/radiates: a light”
Agentive —
radulle / ɹadʊlle / — “That which lights something[s]: a torch or splint”
Causative —
radolle / ɹadɔlle / — “That which causes [something[s]] to light: a flame”

III.b-4.) Nominal Number

Singular —
radille / ɹadɪlle / — “A light (unmarked); One light”
Dual —
radialle / ɹadɪalle / — “Two lights”
Trial —
radielle / ɹadɪɛlle / — “Three lights”
Paucal —
radiille / ɹadɪ:lle / — “Some lights”
Plural —
radiulle / ɹadɪʊlle / — “Many lights”
Mass —
radiolle / ɹadiʊlle / — “Light (referring to the non-quantifiable substance)”
Null singular —
radilŋe / ɹadɪlɲje / — “No light; No one light; Not one light”
Null dual —
radialŋe / ɹadɪalɲje / — “No two lights”
Null trial —
radielŋe / ɹadɪlɲje / — “No three lights”
Null plural —
radiilŋe / ɹadɪ:lɲje / — “No lights”
Paucal by null —
radiulŋe / ɹadɪʊlɲje / — “Not many lights”
Null mass —
radiolŋe / ɹadiʊlɲje / — “No light” (referring to the lack of non-quantified substance)

III.b-5.) Nominal Derivations

Zero —
Radille / ɹadɪlle / — Light
Diminutive —
Radip[p]ille / ɹadɪpɪlle / — Little light; point of light
Augmentative —
Radimbille / ɹadɪmbɪlle / — Great light
Abilitative —
Radibhlhille / ɹadɪvjɪlle / — That which is able to be light; lightable
Negative —
Radiŋille / ɹadɪŋɪlle / — That which is without light; lightless
Double Negative —
Radiŋilŋe / ɹadɪŋɪlɲje / — That which is without lightlessness; without darkness (or used ironically to mean dark or lightless)
Pejorative —
Radilgille / ɹadɪlgɪlle / — Fucking light
Repletive —
Radissille / ɹadɪsɪlle / — That which is full of light; lightful
Reflective —
Radic[c]ille / ɹadɪkɪlle / — Light-like (that which is light-like)
Zero —
Radille / ɹadɪlle / — Light
-able —
Radabhlhille / ɹadavjɪlle / —
-ability —
Radabhlhilli / ɹadavjɪlli / —
-aria, -ary —
Radarilli / ɹadarɪlli / —
-er, -or —
Raderellu / ɹadɛrɛllu / —
-ress, -rix —
Raderella / ɹadɛrɛlla / —
-ria, ry, eria, ery —
Raderilli / ɹadɛrɪlli / —
-iance —
Radialli / ɹadɪalli / — Radiance —
-ient —
Radiilli / ɹadilli / —
-ible —
Radibhlhille / ɹadɪvjɪlle / —
-ibility —
Radibhlhilli / ɹadɪvjɪlli / —
-ical —
Radic[c]alle / ɹadɪkalle / —
-ican —
Radic[c]alle / ɹadɪkalle / —
-icality —
Radic[c]alli / ɹadɪkalli / —
-ic —
Radic[c]ille / ɹadɪkɪlle / —
-icity —
Radic[c]illi / ɹadɪkɪlli / —
-icator —
Radic[c]urollu / ɹadɪkʊrɔllu / —
-acatrix —
Radic[c]urolla / ɹadɪkʊrɔlla / —
-icon —
Radic[c]olle / ɹadɪikɔlle / —
-ator —
Radurollu / ɹadʊrɔllu / —
-atrix —
Radurolla / ɹadʊrɔlla / —
-atoria, atory —
Radurolli / ɹadʊrɔlli / —
-ocution —
Radoclhulli / ɹadɔkjʊlli / —
-er, -or —
Radullu / ɹadʊllu / —
-ress, -rix —
Radulla / ɹadʊlla / —

III.b-6.) Nominal Derivational Vocality

Abilitative —
Radibhlhalle — That which is enabled to be light
Radibhlhelle — That which enables itself to be light
Radibhlhille — That which is able to be light; lightable
Radibhlhulle — That which enables something[s] to be light
Radibhlholle — That which causes [something[s]] to be light-able
Abilitative —
Radic[c]ille — Light-like (that which is light-like)
Radic[c]ulle — That which concerns light or radiance;
Radic[c]olle — That which relates [something[s]] to light; that which refers to light
(Describe also in verbs in section immediately following verbal vocality / adjectives and adverbs following attributive modality)

III.b-7.) Nominal Derivations & Dual Numerality

Monosingular —
Radimbille — One of a great light
Bisingular —
Radimbialle — Two of a great light
Trisingular —
Radimbielle Three of a great light
Multisingular —
Radimbiille — A few of a great light
Polysingular —
Radimbiulle — Many of a great light
Omnisingular —
Radimbiolle — All of a great light
Monodual —
Radiambille — One of two great lights
Bidual —
Radiambialle — Two of two great lights
Tridual —
Radiambielle — Three of two great lights
Multidual —
Radiambiille — A few of two great lights
Polydual —
Radiambiulle — Many of two great lights
Omnidual —
Radiambiolle — All of two great lights
Monotrial —
Radiembille — One of three great lights
Bitrial —
Radiembialle — Two of three great lights
Tritrial —
Radiembielle — Three of three great lights
Multitrial —
Radiembiille — A few of three great lights
Polytrial —
Radiembiulle — Many of three great lights
Omnitrial —
Radiembiolle — All of three great lights
Monopaucal —
Radiimbille — One of a few great lights
Bipaucal —
Radiimbialle — Two of a few great lights
Tripaucal —
Radiimbielle — Three of a few great lights
Multipaucal —
Radiimbiille — A few of a few great lights
Polypaucal —
Radiimbiulle — Many of a few great lights
Omnipaucal —
Radiimbiolle — All of a few great lights
Monoplural —
Radiumbille — One of many great lights
Biplural —
Radiumbialle — Two of many great lights
Triplural —
Radiumbielle — Three of many great lights
Multiplural —
Radiumbiille — A few of many great lights
Polyplural —
Radiumbiulle — Many of many great lights
Omniplural —
Radiumbiolle — All of many great lights
Monomass —
Radiombille — A bit of the great light
Bimass —
Radiombialle — A fraction of the great light
Trimass —
Radiombielle — Some of the great light
Multimass —
Radiombiille — Much of the great light
Polymass —
Radiombiulle — Most of the great light
Omnimass —
Radiombiolle — All of the great light

III.b-8.) Case

The declination paradigm making up the case system of the Old Borean language is multi-tiered and complex. The language’s grammar divides them into two main categories: central declensions and peripheral declensions. These are further divided into seven distinct groups: primary central declensions, secondary central declensions, tertiary central declensions, quaternary central declensions, primary peripheral declensions, secondary peripheral declensions, and tertiary peripheral declensions.

III.b-8A.) Central Declensions


III.b-8Aα.) Primary Central Declensions
Vocative —
Radilhe — Marks the addressee of a statement
Nominative —
Radille — Marks the subject of a verb
Objective —
Radinne — Marks the object of a verb
Subjunctive —
Radithe — Marks both the object of one clause and the subject of the next

III.b-8Aβ.) Secondary Central Declensions
Relative —
Radilmhe — What/which light
Interrogative —
Radilcmhe — What/which light [?]
Demonstrative —
Generic —
Radillhe — The light
Proximal —
Radillhea — This light
Medial —
Radillheu — That light
Distal —
Radillheo — Yon light
Quantifying —
Radilclhe Some light
Inclusive —
Radilplhe — Any light
Universal —
Radilpghe — Every light
Negative —
Radilnhe — No light

III.b-8Aγ.) Tertiary Central Declensions
Articulate —
Proprietary —
Radille — Light (represented by the so-called “zero article”)
Indefinite —
Radille — A light (used for any grammatical number; marked by “zero article”)
Definite —
Radillhe — The light
Partitive —
Radiollei — Some/any light
Radiolleii — Some light / a bit of light
Radiolleiu — Much light / a lot of light
Generic —
Radillee — The light / a light / some/any light
Proximal —
Radillea — This light
Medial —
Radilleu — That light
Distal —
Radilleo — Yon light

III.b-8Aδ.) Quaternary Central Declensions
Ergative —
Radilles[si] — Marks the agent of a transitive, passive, or causative verb
Absolutive —
Radille — Marks the experiencer of an intransitive verb (by being left unmarked)
Radillet[ti] — Marks the patient of a passive verb
Indirective —
Radinnet[ti] — Marks the indirect object of a ditransitive verb
Reciprocative —
Radillest[i] — Marks the experiencer or patient if it is also the agent

III.b-8B.) Peripheral Declensions


III.b-8Bα.) Primary Peripheral Declensions: Postpositional Case
Ubiquitous —
Radinlhepao — All around the light
Radinlhepei — At / in the direction of the light
Proximal —
Radinlhepi — At/near the light
Persuant —
Radinlhepu — Upon/near the light
Distributive —
Radinlhepmhei — Per / for each of the light
Sublative —
Radinlheptua — To [the destination of] the light
Terminal —
Radinlheptue — Unto [the location of] the light
Posterior —
Radinlhepsa — Behind/after the light
Anterior —
Radinlheprai — In front of / before the light
Desiderative —
Radinlhepro — For the light
Causal —
Radinlhebaa — Because of the light
Purposive —
Radinlhebao — For reason of the light
Benefactive —
Radinlhebu — For the light
Prosecutive —
Radinlhembheu — Through way of the light
Illative —
Radinlhemtu — Into the light
Inessive —
Radinlhemni — In / inside the light
Diapedetive —
Radinlhemzu — Through the light
Aversive —
Radinlhephobaa — For fear of the light
Invocative —
Radinlhebhai — In the name of the light
Surpassive —
Radinlhebhei — [Going] by the light
Prolative —
Radinlhebhia — By way of the light
Instructive —
Radinlhebhie By means of the light
Instrumental —
Radinlhebhuu — Using the light
Causal-final —
Radinlhebhobaa For want of the light
Associative —
Radinlhemhai — With the light
Comitative —
Radinlhemhei — Together/in company with the light
Dative —
Radinlhettu — To the light
Lative —
Radinlhetto — To/into the light
Equative —
Radinlhetsa — As the light
Co-temporal —
Radinlhetsi — At the time of the light; as [of] the light
Essive —
Radinlhetsu — As long as the light; to the point that the light ends
Genitive —
Radinlhedda — Of/from the light
Delative —
Radinlhedsai — Off of the light
Sociative —
Radinlhenmhai — Together/companioned with the light
Translative —
Radinlhethu — To/into [being] the light
Radinlhedha — From [being] the light
Abessive —
Radinlhenhai — Lacking the light
Elative —
Radinlhesaa — Out of the light
Delative —
Radinlhesdaa — Issued from the light
Ablative —
Radinlhesha — Off of the light
Possessive —
Radinlheca — Of the light
Dedative —
Radinlhecai — Relating to the light
Topical —
Radinlhecao — In the matter of the light
Respective —
Radinlhecei — Regarding the light
Affective —
Radinlhecu — To [or from the perspective of] the light
Radinlhecta — From the outside of the light
Exterior —
Radinlhecti — Without / outside of the light
Excessive —
Radinlhectu — To the outside of the light
Post-temporal —
Radinlhecraa — After/eft the light
Temporal —
Radinlhecrai — At the time of the light
Radinlhecrau — Before/ere the light
Initiative —
Radinlhecrao — At the beginning of, and causal to, the light
Terminative —
Radinlhertu — Until the light
Superessive —
Radinlhehai — On/upon the light
Radinlhehei — Over the light
Adessive —
Radinlhehii — Atop/on top of the light
Allative —
Radinlhehui — Onto the light

III.b-8Bβ.) Secondary Peripheral Declensions

These declensions are applied either to the noun or the pronominal suffix of the verb, depending on whether the conjunction applies to the individual[s], or whether the conjunction applies to the action[s]. There is no conjunctive agreement between the agent of a verb and the verb’s pronominal suffix. If a pronoun is used to refer to a verb’s agent, and a conjunction is needed, the pronoun cannot simply be dropped, as it would be in most other cases, as inflecting the verb’s pronominal suffix with a conjunctive suffix would indicate that the conjunction applied to the verb rather than the pronoun.

Conjunctive suffixes should only be used when conjoining two nouns having the same relationship to a verb (“Jack and Jill went up the hill...”), two verbs having the same relationship to a noun (“Jack went up the hill and fetched a pail of water”), or both (“Jack and Jill went up the hill and fetched a pail of water”). Conventions for conjoining what might otherwise be separate sentences (“Jack went up the hill, and Jill fetched a pail of water”) are similar to the conventions used in English and most other languages. More specifically, the conjunctions used for this purpose are not conjunctive inflections, or any kind of inflection at all, but independent words — just as they are in English. These non-inflective conjunctions are not discussed in this section in any depth, but see particular conjunctions for more details.

Correlating conjunctive suffixes

Radillhendmhei — Both the light [and...]
Radillheldlhei — Either the light [or...]
Radillhelnhei — Neither the light [nor...]
Radillhelcmhei — Whether the light [or...]
Radillhelnhi — Not the light [but...]

Coordinating conjunctive suffixes

Radillhentmhai — And the light
Radillheltlhai — Or the light
Radillhelnhai — Nor the light
Radillhentlhai — But the light

A correlating conjunctive suffix must always be placed on a word preceding a word inflected with a coordinating conjunctive suffix. For example, the form Dzaecillu Dzilillantmhai, literally, “Jack and Jill”, is completely unacceptable, while the form Dzaecillundmhei Dzilillantmhai, literally, “both Jack and Jill”, is the proper construction. Whenever two words are conjoined, each word must be inflected with a conjunctive suffix. It is important to stress that this applies only to correlating conjunctive suffixes and coordinating conjunctive suffixes, and not to subordinating conjunctive suffixes or particular conjunctions.

The same rules that apply to correlating conjunctive suffixes and coordinating conjunctive suffixes also apply to subordinating conjunctive suffixes, except that [1] subordinating conjunctive suffixes can only be applied to the pronominal suffixes of verbs, and [2] subordinating conjunctive suffixes are only applied to a single word.

Subordinating conjunctive suffixes

? Temporal subordinating conjunctive suffixes

Radelaanenilletsai — Eft it shone; after it shone
Radelaanenilletsui — Ere it shone; before it shone
Radelaanenilletsei — Whilst it shone; whenas it shone
Radelaanenilletsii — As it shone; while it shone
Radelaanenilletsaa — Sith it shone; since it shone
Radelaanenilletsuu — Till it shone; until it shone

? Causal subordinating conjunctive suffixes

Radelaanenilledlhia — Because it shone
Radelaanenilledlhaa — Sithence it shone
Radelaanenilletsmhaa — Now that it shone
Radelaanenilletslhaa — As/because it shone
Radelaanenillebhlhoa — In order that it shone
Radelaanenillebhlhoi — So [that] it shone

? Oppositional subordinating conjunctive suffixes

Radelaanenillenlha — Although it shone
Radelaanenillenlhai — Though it shone
Radelaanenillenlhae — Even though it shone
Radelaanenillentlhai — Whereas it shone
Radelaanenilletslhai — While it shone

? Conditional subordinating conjunctive suffixes

Radelaanenillephai — An it shone / if it shone
Radelaanenillenhphai — Unless it shone
Radelaanenillectmhai — Whether or not it shone
Radelaanenillephlhai — Even if it shone
Radelaanenillencmhai — In case it shone
Radelaanenillephobaa — Lest it shone; for fear that it shone

III.b-8Bγ.) Tertiary Peripheral Declensions
Aversive — Radinnephobaa — For fear of the light
Causal — Radinnebaa — Because of the light
Purposive — Radinnebao — For reason of the light
Benefactive — Radinnebu — For the light

Variational Paradigms
Root Variations
Primary Lexical Derivations
Nominal Vocality
Nominal Derivations
Nominal Derivational Vocality
Nominal Derivations & Dual Numerality
Verbal Vocality
⚑ = You Are Here.

Root Construction
Variational Paradigms
Particular Conjunctions
Adverbial Subordinates
⚑ = You Are Here.

Phylogeny & Distribution
Phonology & Orthography
Morphosyntactic Alignment
⚑ = You Are Here.

Borean Food
⚑ = You Are Here.

Writing Systems
Spoken Languages
⚑ = You Are Here.

Civilization & Culture
Borean Technology
Borean Food
⚑ = You Are Here.

Ancient Borea
The Borean World
The Palæoboreanica
Civilization & Culture
People & Races
⚑ = You Are Here.

Ancient Borea
Red the Blue Devil
The Nocturnals
The Spacebunnies
Solar Civil War
⚑ = You Are Here.

Donate via PayPal
Support via Patreon

Current Status

I’m currently trying to rebuild my life after having suffered some devastating losses in my battles against public corruption in Pacific County, Washington and Lewis County, Washington. I lost a great deal of my artwork and writing during those battles, among other possessions, and was forced into homelessness by the corrupt authorities in those counties on more than one occasion. If you support the arts and sciences and disdain public corruption, please consider donating to me via PayPal or supporting me on Patreon. All donations will go toward funding my school career and giving me more time to create content.