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Proto-Borean Root Variation

Ancestral Constructions

FormCase(1st pers.)(2nd pers.)(3rd pers.)
Form 1Nom:imi-eleiti-eleiki-ele
Form 2Nom:ele-imiele-itiele-iki

Form 1imi-eleunu-ereiki-ene
Form 2ele-imiere-unuene-iki
Hybrid 1imi-eleere-unuiki-ene
Hybrid 2ele-imiunu-ereene-iki

Form 1ara-udu-eleara-udu-ereara-udu-ene
Form 2ele-udu-araere-udu-araene-udu-ara
Hybrid 1ara-udu-eleere-udu-araara-udu-ene
Hybrid 2ele-udu-araara-udu-ereene-udu-ara

Lineage A

FormCase(1st pers.)(2nd pers.)(3rd pers.)
Form 1Nom:im-elit-elik-el
Form 2Nom:el-imel-itel-ik

Form 1im-elun-erik-en
Form 2el-imer-unen-ik
Hybrid 1im-eler-unik-en
Hybrid 2el-imun-eren-ik

Form 1ar-ud-elar-ud-erar-ud-en
Form 2el-ud-arer-ud-aren-ud-ar
Hybrid 1ud-ar-eler-ud-arud-ar-en
Hybrid 2el-ar-udar-ud-eren-ar-ud

The first known Lineage A language was Old Chthonic.

Lineage B

FormCase(1st pers.)(2nd pers.)(3rd pers.)
Form 1Nom:mi-leti-leki-le
Form 2Nom:le-mile-tile-ki

Form 1mi-lenu-reki-ne
Form 2le-mire-nune-ki
Hybrid 1mi-lere-nuki-ne
Hybrid 2le-minu-rene-ki

Form 1ra-du-lera-du-rera-du-ne
Form 2le-du-rare-du-rane-du-ra
Hybrid 1du-ra-lere-du-radu-ra-ne
Hybrid 2le-ra-dura-du-rene-ra-du

The earliest attested Lineage B language was Old Borean.

The language spoken by the Elves and sylvan-folk was a Lineage B, Form 1 language.

The languages spoken by the stepps nomads were Lineage A, Form 2 languages.

Many languages spoken throughout Borea were Lineage A, Hybrid 1 languages.

Many languages spoken throughout Borea were Lineage A, Hybrid 2 languages.

Lineage C

FormCase(1st pers.)(2nd pers.)(3rd pers.)
Form 1Nom:im-leit-leik-le
Form 2Nom:el-miel-tiel-ki

Form 1im-leun-reik-ne
Form 2el-mier-nuen-ki
Hybrid 1im-leer-nuik-ne
Hybrid 2el-miun-reen-ki

Form 1ud-ar-leud-ar-reud-ar-ne
Form 2el-du-raer-du-raen-du-ra

The earliest attested Lineage C language was Old Merrish.

III.b-1.) Root Variations


III.b-1A.) Parenthetical Suppletion: Onset & Coda


III.b-1B.) Nuclear Suppletion


III.b-1C.) Primary Root Derivation: Class

The verb class system of the Proto-Borean language is a system of derivation by which the root’s nucleus is altered to create a new word. This system itself derived from a form of voice inflection present in earlier forms of the language.

When used in the form of a verb, these forms take on the following meanings:

Dialect #1

Passiveanerenemille/ anɛɾɛnɛmɪlle /“I become”
Intransitiveenerenemille/ ɛnɛɾɛnɛmɪlle /“I am”
Descriptiveinerenemille / ɪnɛɾɛnɛmɪlle / “I match”
Transitiveunerenemille/ ʊnɛɾɛnɛmɪlle /“I influence”
Causativeonerenemille/ ɔnɛɾɛnɛmɪlle /“I create”

Passiveaderenemille/ adɛɾɛnɛmɪlle /“I defeat/complete”
Intransitiveederenemille/ ɛdɛɾɛnɛmɪlle /“I do”
Descriptiveiderenemille / ɪdɛɾɛnɛmɪlle / “I simulate”
Transitiveuderenemille/ ʊdɛɾɛnɛmɪlle /“I direct”
Causativeoderenemille/ ɔdɛɾɛnɛmɪlle /“I cause/motivate”

Dialect #2

Passivemille anerene/ mɪlle anɛɾɛne /“I become”
Intransitivemille enerene/ mɪlle ɛnɛɾɛne /“I am”
Descriptivemille inerene / mɪlle ɪnɛɾɛne / “I match”
Transitivemille unerene/ mɪlle ʊnɛɾɛne /“I influence”
Causativemille onerene/ mɪlle ɔnɛɾɛne /“I create”

Passivemille aderene/ mɪlle adɛɾɛne /“I defeat/complete”
Intransitivemille ederene/ mɪlle ɛdɛɾɛne /“I do”
Descriptivemille iderene / mɪlle ɪdɛɾɛne / “I simulate”
Transitivemille uderene/ mɪlle ʊdɛɾɛne /“I direct”
Causativemille oderene/ mɪlle ɔdɛɾɛne /“I cause/motivate”

Dialect #3

Passivemiye anerenemille/ mɪje anɛɾɛnɛmɪlle /“Me, I become”
Intransitivemiye enerenemille/ mɪje ɛnɛɾɛnɛmɪlle /“Me, I am”
Descriptivemiye inerenemille / mɪje ɪnɛɾɛnɛmɪlle / “Me, I match”
Transitivemiye unerenemille/ mɪje ʊnɛɾɛnɛmɪlle /“Me, I influence”
Causativemiye onerenemille/ mɪje ɔnɛɾɛnɛmɪlle /“Me, I create”

Passivemiye aderenemille/ mɪje adɛɾɛnɛmɪlle /“Me, I finish”
Intransitivemiye ederenemille/ mɪje ɛdɛɾɛnɛmɪlle /“Me, I do”
Descriptivemiye iderenemille / mɪje ɪdɛɾɛnɛmɪlle / “Me, I mimick”
Transitivemiye uderenemille/ mɪje ʊdɛɾɛnɛmɪlle /“Me, I direct”
Causativemiye oderenemille/ mɪje ɔdɛɾɛnɛmɪlle /“Me, I cause/motivate”

Dialect #4

Passivemille ne anere/ mɪlle ne anɛɾɛe /“I become”
Intransitivemille ne enere/ mɪlle ne ɛnɛɾe /“I am”
Descriptivemille ne inere / mɪlle ne ɪnɛɾe / “I match”
Transitivemille ne unere/ mɪlle ne ʊnɛɾe /“I influence”
Causativemille ne onere/ mɪlle ne ɔnɛɾe /“I create”

Passivemille ne adere/ mɪlle ne adɛɾɛe /“I defeat/complete”
Intransitivemille ne edere/ mɪlle ne ɛdɛɾe /“I do”
Descriptivemille ne idere / mɪlle ne ɪdɛɾe / “I simulate”
Transitivemille ne udere/ mɪlle ne ʊdɛɾe /“I direct”
Causativemille ne odere/ mɪlle ne ɔdɛɾe /“I cause/motivate”

When used in the form of a verb, these forms take on the following meanings:

Passive class —
<aderenemille> / adɛɾɛnɛmɪlle / — “I complete”
Intransitive class —
<ederenemille> / ɛdɛɾɛnɛmɪlle / — “I do”
Descriptive class —
<iderenemille> / ɪdɛɾɛnɛmɪlle / — “I simulate”
Transitive class —
<uderenemille> / ʊdɛɾɛnɛmɪlle / — “I direct”
Causative class —
<oderenemille> / ɔdɛɾɛnɛmɪlle / — “I cause”

When used in the form of a verb, these forms take on the following meanings:

Passive class —
<aterenemille> / atɛɾɛnɛmɪlle / — “I rest”
Intransitive class —
<eterenemille> / ɛtɛɾɛnɛmɪlle / — “I finish”
Descriptive class —
<iterenemille> / ɪtɛɾɛnɛmɪlle / — “I end”
Transitive class —
<uterenemille> / ʊtɛɾɛnɛmɪlle / — “I guide”
Causative class —
<oterenemille> / ɔtɛɾɛnɛmɪlle / — “I motivate”

In the example below, the consonantal root *r-d- has the morphonetic meaning of r, “to come into”, “to become”, or “to move toward” in relationship to the following morphoneme, d, which signifies the primordial abyss of infinite wisdom that was believed to be the initial source of all existence and potentiality [and was therefore the container of all knowledge, whether actual, theoretical, or hypothetical] (cf. the “abyss” of occult philosophy; the Akasha of Eastern mysticism), and takes on various derivative, related meanings, such as “a beginning or primordial state”, “a wild, feral, untamed, chaotic, or natural state”, “a state of pre-formation”, “a state of increased wisdom and understanding”, or, simply, “darkness” or “abyss”. The intransitive basal form, *red-, via semantic shift, developed the meaning of “to return to the source or initial state; to tap into the primordial abyss of infinite knowledge”, hence, “to become feral or wild; to be wild, deviant, or radical; to egregate” and “to learn; to gain wisdom and understanding; to evolve”. The descriptive form, *rid-, took the meaning of “to be going toward the darkness or initial, wild, or feral state; to be going toward the spiritual source”; hence, “to travel through the wild; to seek wisdom or enlightenment; to wander, travel, or pilgrim; to be away from society”. The transitive form, *rud-, gained the meaning of “to put out toward the darkness; to cause to go outward into the [surrounding] dark and/or cold; to return to an initial state of unbeing”, hence, “to make pervade the darkness or cold; to return to ashes”, and therefore, “to set aflame or alight; to fire or burn; to heat or cook; to redden [or ‘to blacken [with heat or flame]’, which brings us back to the concept of returning to darkness]”. The passive form, *rad-, acquired the meaning of “to be put out toward or into the primordial darkness, cold, or chaos; to have tapped into the abyss of infinite knowledge”; variously interpreted as, “to be caused to pervade the [surrounding] darkness”, “to have been placed away in the wild; apart from the group or society”, or “to have found [possibly innate] knowledge”; hence, “to shine; to be bright [with the metaphorical meaning, ‘to be intelligent’] or radiating [with the metaphorical meaning, ‘to be splendorous or beautiful’]; to stand out or apart [also with the metaphorical meaning of being unusually intelligent and/or beautiful]; to be radical [with connotations of both radical intellect or cunning and radical beauty]; to be radiant, splendorous, or beautiful; to be radically clever or knowledgeable; to be wild, or to be wildly brilliant or radiant [whether referring to intelligence, literal ‘brightness’, or beauty]; et cetera”. Finally, the causative form, *rod-, developed the meaning of “to cause to become unformed”, hence, “to erode away or gnaw at; to fight; to assay to disperse”.

When used in the form of a verb, these forms take on the following meanings:

Passive class —
raderenemille / ɹadɛɾɛnɛmɪlle / — “I shine/radiate; I standout”
Intransitive class —
rederenemille / ɹɛdɛɾɛnɛmɪlle / — “I learn; I evolve; I egregate; I set myself apart; antigregate”
Descriptive class —
riderenemille / ɹɪdɛɾɛnɛmɪlle / — “I travel; I wander; I pilgrim”
Transitive class —
ruderenemille / ɹʊdɛɾɛnɛmɪlle / — “I heat; I redden [or blacken]”
Causative class —
roderenemille / ɹɔdɛɾɛnɛmɪlle / — “I erode away; I eat/gnaw at; I fight against”

III.b-1D.) Secondary Root Derivation: Intensity

When used in the form of a verb, these forms take on the following meanings:

Moderative —
aderenemille / adɛɾɛnɛmɪlle / — “I complete”
Approximative —
aaderenemille / a:dɛɾɛnɛmɪlle / — “I nearly complete; I attempt”
Frequentative —
aederenemille / ædɛɾɛnɛmɪlle / — “I dabble”
Attenuative —
aiderenemille / aɪdɛɾɛnɛmɪlle / — “I hone; I practice”
Intensive —
auderenemille / aʊdɛɾɛnɛmɪlle / — “I over-do/over-achieve”
Evolutive —
aoderenemille / æʊdɛɾɛnɛmɪlle / — “I go from attempting to over-achieving; I get better”

When used in the form of a verb, these forms take on the following meanings:

Moderative —
aterenemille / atɛɾɛnɛmɪlle / — “I rest”
Approximative —
aaterenemille / a:tɛɾɛnɛmɪlle / — “I pause”
Frequentative —
aeterenemille / ætɛɾɛnɛmɪlle / — “I procrastinate”
Attenuative —
aiterenemille / aɪtɛɾɛnɛmɪlle / — “I delay; I stall”
Intensive —
auterenemille / aʊtɛɾɛnɛmɪlle / — “I sleep”
Evolutive —
aoterenemille / æʊtɛɾɛnɛmɪlle / — “I go from taking a break to sleeping”

When used in the form of a verb, these forms take on the following meanings:

Moderative —
iterenemille / ɪtɛɾɛnɛmɪlle / — “I end; I destroy/ruin; I complete”
Approximative —
iaterenemille / ɪatɛɾɛnɛmɪlle / — “I impede/wound/injure/discourage; I slow; I assay (to end)”
Frequentative —
ieterenemille / ɪnɛtɛɾɛnɛmɪlle / — “I make headway”
Attenuative —
iiterenemille / ɪ:tɛɾɛnɛmɪlle / — “I complete (a small step in a larger series of tasks)”
Intensive —
iuterenemille / ɪʊtɛɾɛnɛmɪlle / — “I overcome; I annihilate”
Evolutive —
ioterenemille / ɪʊtɛɾɛnɛmɪlle / — “I go from trying to overcoming; I go from impeding/discouraging to destroying/annihilating”

When used in the form of a verb, these forms take on the following meanings:

Moderative —
raderenenille / ɹadɛɾɛnɛnɪlle / — “It shines; It radiates”
Approximative —
raaderenenille / ɹa:dɛɾɛnɛnɪlle / — “It nearly shines; It glows”
Frequentative —
raederenenille / ɹædɛɾɛnɛnɪlle / — “It sparkles; It shimmers; It glitters”
Attenuative —
raiderenenille / ɹaɪdɛɾɛnɛnɪlle / — “It glimmers; It sparks”
Intensive —
rauderenenille / ɹaʊdɛɾɛnɛnɪlle / — “It glares; It burn/rages”
Evolutive —
raoderenenille / ɹæʊdɛɾɛnɛnɪlle / — “It grows brighter and brighter; It lightens”

III.b-1E.) Primary & Secondary Root Derivation in Nouns

When used in the form of a noun, the primary and secondary nuclear derivations take on other, similar meanings:

Passive-Moderative —
radille / ɹadɪlle / — “That which shines/radiates; light”
Passive-Approximative —
raadille / ɹa:dɪlle / —
Passive-Frequentative —
raedille / ɹædɪlle / —
Passive-Attenuative —
raidille / ɹaɪdɪlle / —
Passive-Intensive —
raudille / ɹaʊdɪlle / —
Passive-Evolutive —
raodille — / ɹæʊdɪlle / —
Intransitive-Moderative —
redille / ɹɛdɪlle / —
Intransitive-Approximative —
readille / ɹɛadɪlle / —
Intransitive-Frequentative —
reedille / ɹɛ:dɪlle / —
Intransitive-Attenuative —
reidille / ɹɛɪdɪlle / —
Intransitive-Intensive —
reudille / ɹɛʊdɪlle / —
Intransitive-Evolutive —
reodille / ɹeʊdɪlle / —
Descriptive-Moderative —
ridille / ɹɪdɪlle / — “That which is away from the source: an outsider”
Descriptive-Approximative —
riadille / ɹɪadɪlle / — “That which moves around [such as in circles] or is elusive”
Descriptive-Frequentative —
riedille / ɹɪɛdɪlle / — “That which moves around [such as in circles]; that which is squirmy”
Descriptive-Attenuative —
riidille / ɹɪdɪlle / —
Descriptive-Intensive —
riudille / ɹɪʊdɪlle / —
Descriptive-Evolutive —
riodille / ɹiʊdɪlle / —
Transitive-Moderative —
rudille / ɹʊdɪlle / — “That which is red or hot”
Transitive-Approximative —
ruadille / ɹʊadɪlle / — “That which is warm or tepid”
Transitive-Frequentative —
ruedille / ɹʊɛdɪlle / —
Transitive-Attenuative —
ruidille / ɹʊɪdɪlle / —
Transitive-Intensive —
ruudille / ɹʊ:dɪlle / —
Transitive-Evolutive —
ruodille / ɹuʊdɪlle / —
Causative-Moderative —
rodille / ɹɔdɪlle / — “That which gnaws away at or eats at; that which is biting or corrosive”
Causative-Approximative —
roadille / ɹɔadɪlle / —
Causative-Frequentative —
rœdille / ɹɔɛddɪlle / — “That which gnaws or nibbles; a rodent” (rœdelle = “nibbler”)
Causative-Attenuative —
roidille / ɹɔɪdɪlle / —
Causative-Intensive —
roudille / ɹɔʊdɪlle / —
Causative-Evolutive —
roodille / ɹoʊdɪlle / —

Root Variations
Parenthetical Suppletion
Nuclear Suppletion
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Variational Paradigms
Root Variations
Primary Lexical Derivations
Nominal Vocality
Nominal Number
Nominal Derivations
Nominal Derivational Vocality
Nominal Derivations & Dual Numerality
Verbal Vocality
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Root Construction
Variational Paradigms
Particular Conjunctions
Adverbial Subordinates
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Phylogeny & Distribution
Phonology & Orthography
Morphosyntactic Alignment
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Borean Food
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Writing Systems
Spoken Languages
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Civilization & Culture
Borean Technology
Borean Food
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Ancient Borea
The Borean World
The Palæoboreanica
Civilization & Culture
People & Races
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Ancient Borea
Red the Blue Devil
The Nocturnals
The Spacebunnies
Solar Civil War
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