D. J. Scott D. J. Scott
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Proto-Borean Tenses

III.b-10.) Tense
III.b-10A.) Tensile Aspect
III.b-10B.) Modality
III.b-10Bα.) Narrative Modality
III.b-10Bβ.) Alethic & Non-Alethic Modality
III.b-10Bγ.) Speculative Modality
III.b-10Bδ.) Epistemic Modality
III.b-10Bδi.) Summative Epistemic Modality
III.b-10Bδii.) Relative Epistemic Modality
III.b-10Bε.) Sensory-Evidential Epistemic Modality
III.b-10Bε.) Deontic Modality
III.b-10Bεi.) Volitive Deontic Modality
III.b-10Bεii.) Directive Deontic Modality
III.b-10Bζ.) Interrogative Modality
III.b-10Bη.) Attributive Modality
III.b-10C.) Time
III.b-10D.) Perfectivity
III.b-10E.) Telicity
III.b-10F.) Predicative Aspect

III.b-10.) Tense

Just as the concept of “tenses” the English language conflates time with aspect, tense in the Proto-Borean language represents a complex interaction between tensile aspect, modality, time, BLANK aspect, telicity, and predicative aspect.

III.b-10A.) Tensile Aspect
Simple — Raderenemille — I learn/evolve
Emphatic — Reneraderenemille — I do learn/evolve
Perfect — Reneraderanemille — I have learnt/evolved

III.b-10B.) Modality

Modality in the Proto-Borean language.

III.b-10Bα.) Narrative Modality
Indicative — Radelenetille — Thou shinest
Energetic — Radelehetille — Thou dost shine; thou certainly shinest
Declarative — Radelebhetille — Thou shinest!
Capacitative — Radelechetille — Thou canst shine
Radeledretille — Thou darest shine
Requisitive — Radeleldetille — Thou needest shine
Negative — Radelenhetille — Thou shinest not
Oppositional — Radeledetille — Thou de-shinest; thou darkenest
Subjunctive Radelmhenetithe That thou [wouldst/shouldst/might] shine
Remotive Subjunctive — Radelmheunetille[phai] — [If] thou shone

III.b-10Bβ.) Alethic & Non-alethic Modality
Alethic Narrative — Radelenetille — Thou shinest
Non-Alethic Narrative — Radelenlhetille — Thou shinest [because I refuse to believe otherwise]

III.b-10Bγ.) Speculative Modality
Hypothetical — Radelemlhetille — Thou might/may be shining
Presumptive — Radelemmhetille — Thou might shine
Tentative — Radelemhetille — Thou wouldst shine
Tentative Eventive — Lecgheradelemhetille — Thou wouldst likely/probably shine
Potential — Radelechmhetille — Thou couldst shine
Potential Eventive — Lecgheradelechmhetille — Thou couldst probably/likely shine
Conditional — Radeleshmhetille — Thou shouldst [in that case] shine

Tensile Aspect
Predicative Aspect
⚑ = You Are Here.

Variational Paradigms
Root Variations
Primary Lexical Derivations
Nominal Vocality
Nominal Number
Nominal Derivations
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Nominal Derivations & Dual Numerality
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I’m currently trying to rebuild my life after having suffered some devastating losses in my battles against public corruption in Pacific County, Washington and Lewis County, Washington. I lost a great deal of my artwork and writing during those battles, among other possessions, and was forced into homelessness by the corrupt authorities in those counties on more than one occasion. If you support the arts and sciences and disdain public corruption, please consider donating to me via PayPal or supporting me on Patreon. All donations will go toward funding my school career and giving me more time to create content.