D. J. Scott D. J. Scott
SciencePhysicsChemistryBiologyEukaryologyZoology ► Ethology ► Art ► My Art ► Fiction & Woldbuilding ► Fantasy

The Palæoboreanica

Root system
Root Construction


III.b-9.) Verbal Vocality

Passive class —

True passive — Radarenemillet — I am enshone/brightened [by something]
Reciprocal — Radaarenemhiallest — We are enshone/brightened by one another
Middle — Radaerenemillet
Mediopassive — Radairenemillet
Instrumental — Radaorenemillet

Intransitive class

True intransitive — Raderenemille — I shine/radiate
Comitative — Radearenemille
Locative — Radeurenemille — I shine [on/onto/upon/at/&c] [something]
Benefactive — Radeorenemille — I shine [for something]
Stative class
True stative — Radirenemille — I am bright/radical/radiating/splendorous

Transitive class

Monotransitive — Radurenemilles — I enshine/bright [something]
Reflexive — Raduarenemilles — I enshine/bright myself
Trans-Reciprocal — Raduerenemhiallest — We both enshine/bright [one another]
— Raduirenemilles —
Ditransitive — Raduurenemilles — I enshine/bright [something] [to] [something]
Dibenefactive — Raduorenemilles — I enshine/brighten [something] [for] [something]

Causative class

True causative — Radorenemilles — I cause [something] to shine/radiate; I brighten or enlighten [something]
Respective — Radoarenemilles — I shine/radiate [about] [something]
Causal-Reciprocal — Radœrenemhiallest — We both enshine/brighten [one another]
Causal — Radoirenemilles — I cause [something] to be bright/radical/radiating/splendorous
Dicausative — Radourenemilles — I light [something] [to] [something]

Note that verbs rendered in voices belonging to the stative class — called stative verbs — indicate predicative adjectives by default. Attributive adjectives are indicated only by specific morphological alteration. For more information, see the section on attributive modality.

III.b-10.) Tense

Just as the concept of “tenses” the English language conflates time with aspect, tense in the Proto-Borean language represents a complex interaction between tensile aspect, modality, time, BLANK aspect, telicity, and predicative aspect.

III.b-10A.) Tensile Aspect
Simple — Raderenemille — I learn/evolve
Emphatic — Reneraderenemille — I do learn/evolve
Perfect — Reneraderanemille — I have learnt/evolved

III.b-10B.) Modality

Modality in the Proto-Faerish language.

III.b-10Bα.) Narrative Modality
Indicative — Radelenetille — Thou shinest
Energetic — Radelehetille — Thou dost shine; thou certainly shinest
Declarative — Radelebhetille — Thou shinest!
Capacitative — Radelechetille — Thou canst shine
Radeledretille — Thou darest shine
Requisitive — Radeleldetille — Thou needest shine
Negative — Radelenhetille — Thou shinest not
Oppositional — Radeledetille — Thou de-shinest; thou darkenest
Subjunctive Radelmhenetithe That thou [wouldst/shouldst/might] shine
Remotive Subjunctive — Radelmheunetille[phai] — [If] thou shone

III.b-10Bβ.) Alethic & Non-alethic Modality
Alethic Narrative — Radelenetille — Thou shinest
Non-Alethic Narrative — Radelenlhetille — Thou shinest [because I refuse to believe otherwise]

III.b-10Bγ.) Speculative Modality
Hypothetical — Radelemlhetille — Thou might/may be shining
Presumptive — Radelemmhetille — Thou might shine
Tentative — Radelemhetille — Thou wouldst shine
Tentative Eventive — Lecgheradelemhetille — Thou wouldst likely/probably shine
Potential — Radelechmhetille — Thou couldst shine
Potential Eventive — Lecgheradelechmhetille — Thou couldst probably/likely shine
Conditional — Radeleshmhetille — Thou shouldst [in that case] shine

III.b-10Bδ.) Epistemic Modality


III.b-10Bδ-α.) Summative Epistemic Modality
Dubitative — Radelegnhetille — It is doubtful / not confirmed/proven that thou shinest
Probabilitative — Radelecchetille — Thou dost possibly shine
Superprobabilitative — Radelecghetille — Thou probably dost shine
Hyperprobabilitative — Radelegghetille — Thou must shine (likelihood)
Obligative — Radeleshlhetille — Thou shouldst/ought to shine (expectation)
Reputative — Radeleldlhetille — Thou art supposed to shine; thou shinest [by reputation]
Approximative — Radelenlhetille — Thou seemest to shine
Deductive — Radelelclhetille — Thou must [therefore] shine (not a directive)

III.b-10Bδ-β.) Relative Epistemic Modality
Sarcastic — Radeleghetille — Thou shinest [not] (spoken sardonically)
Facetious — Radelemlhetille — Thou might shine (spoken playfully/teasingly)
Infelicitous — Radelemdlhetille — I hear that thou shinest [and would like to know if this is true]
Felicitous — Radelendlhetille — It is said [by a reputable source] that thou shinest
Inferential — Radelendhlhetille — It is inferred [by some/someone] that thou shinest
Admirative — Radelemghetille — Surprisingly [or to my surprise], thou shinest
Confirmative — Radelegnetille — It is confirmed/proven that thou dost definitely shine

III.b-10Bε.) Sensory-Evidental Modality
Aural Sensory — Radeledlhetille — I hear that thou shinest
Cognitive Sensory — Radelegnlhetille — I figure that thou shinest
Extrasensory — Radelepslhetille — I divine that thou shinest
Generic Sensory — Radelemtlhetille — I sense that thou shinest
Gnostic Sensory — Radelegnlhetille — I know that thou shinest
Instinctive Sensory — Radelemnlhetille — I feel in my gut that thou shinest
Olfactory Sensory — Radelestlhetille — I smell that thou shinest
Savory Sensory — Radelesplhetille — I taste that thou shinest
Tactile Sensory — Radelemplhetille — I feel that thou shinest
Visual Sensory — Radelebhslhetille — I see that thou shinest

III.b-10Bζ.) Deontic Modality


III.b-10Bζ-α.) Volitive Deontic Modality
Desiderative — Radelembmhetille — Thou might shine (a hope or wish)
Desiderative subj. — Radelmhembmhetille — Thou wouldst shine (a hope or wish)
Imprecative — Radelembmhetille — Thou might shine (a curse or hex)
Imprecative subj. — Radelmhembmhetille — Thou wouldst shine (a curse or hex)
Commissive — Radeleshetille — Thou shalt shine (declaration; promise; guarantee)
Hortative — Radeletslhemille — Let me shine
Cohortative — Radeletslhemhialle — Let’s/let us shine
Jussive — Radeletslhetille — Let thyself shine
Optative — Radeletslhenille — Let it shine

III.b-10Bζ-β.) Directive Deontic Modality
Permissive — Radelumblhetille — Thou mayest shine
Prohibitive — Lenheradelumblhetille — Thou mayest not shine
Suggestive — Radelmhunmhetille — Thou ought to shine
Injunctive — Radelunshetille
Necessitative — Radelunshetille — Thou shalt shine (demand)
Imperative — Radelulhetilhe — Shine, thou

III.b-10Bη.) Interrogative Modality
Informal inquisitive — Radelecmhetille? — Thou shinest?
Formal inquisitive — Lecmheradelenetille? — Dost thou shine?
Precative — Lecmheradelemhetille? — Wouldst thou shine?
Deliberative — Lecmheradelenmhetille? — Ought thou shine?
Ejaculative — Lecmheradeleshmhemhialle? — Shall we shine?
Conjunctive — Radelumhetille — Thou shalt shine (request)

III.b-10Bθ.) Attributive Modality
Adjectival — Radiliniradille — Bright light
Adverbial — Radiliniradelenetille — Thou shinest brightly

III.b-10C.) Time

The Proto-Boreans had a similar conception of time to that of the Aymara: they conceived of the past as being before them and the future as being behind them. Speakers of the Aymara language will even gesture in front of them to indicate the past (pacha nayra) and gesture behind them to indicate the future (pacha qhipa). This is sensible considering we can see the past but not the future. Additionally, the past seems to grow larger as we move through time, as though we were moving toward a destination the past. In order for the Standard European conception of time to work, with humans constantly moving toward the future, we would essentially have to be walking backward through time, with our backs to the future and our eyes to the past, allowing us to see more of the past as we move away from it. Either way, the European view of the past being somehow "behind" us and the future lying "before" us is exceedingly difficult to rationalize compared to the much more logical Proto-Borean and Aymara concepts of time.

Immediate Past — Radelanenille — Just now it shone/radiated
Hodiernal Past — Radelaanenille — Earlier it shone/radiated
Recent Past — Radelaenenille — Recently it shone/radiated
Pre-hodiernal — Radelainenille — Before today it shone/radiated
Remote Past — Radelaunenille — A while ago it shone/radiated
Distant Past — Radelaonenille — Back in the day, it shone/radiated
Non-future — Radelinenille — It hither (until now) shone/radiated
Remissive — Radelianenille — Since then [has] it shone/radiated
Residual — Radeliunenille — It still shines/radiates
Present — Radelenenille — It shines/radiates
Remotive — Radeleunenille — [If; had; et cetera] it shone/radiated
Immediate Future — Radeleonenille
Non-past — Radelunenille — It shines/radiates [as of this moment]
Projective — Radeluanenille — Until then it will shine/radiate
Immediate Future — Radelonenille — Now it will shine/radiate
Hodiernal Future — Radeloanenille — Later it will shine/radiate
Near Future — Radelœnemille — Soon/shortly it will shine/radiate
Post-hodiernal — Radeloinenille — After today it will shine/radiate
Remote Future — Radelounenille — One of these days it will shine/radiate
Distant Future — Radeloonenille — Someday it will shine/radiate

III.b-10D.) Perfectivity
Perfective — Radelenemille
Imperfective — Radessenemille
Positive — Radelenemille

III.b-10E.) Telicity
Atelic — Radelenenille — It shines/radiates
Progressive — Radelrhenenille — It is shining/radiating
Telic — Radelhhenenille — It shines brightly

III.b-10F.) Predicative Aspect
Momentane — Radelenamille — I flash (sometimes known as the punctual predicative aspect)
Semelfactive — Radelenaamille — I flash many times all at once; I flash many times “all in one swoop”
Simulfactive — Radelenaamhiallea — We both flash at once; we both flash simultaneously
Iterative — Radelenaemille — I shine/radiate/flash over and over again
Repetitive — Radelenaimille — I repeatedly shine/radiate/flash; I strobe
Experiential — Leneradelaunau- — [I] have shone/radiated before (dœs not work well in simple present)
Habitual — Radelenaomille — I often shine/radiate; I am used to shining/radiating
Usitative — Radelanaomille — I used to shine/radiate (past tense of the habitual predicative aspect)
Indicative — Radelenemille — I shine/radiate [currently; at this general point in time]
Conative — Radeleneamille — I try/attempt to shine/radiate
Contrastive — Radeleneemille — I shine/radiate more brightly
Alternative [1] — Radeleneimhialle — We shine one after another
Alternative [2] — Radeleneimille — I shine/radiate [and [another verb]] in succession
Distributive — Raduleneimille — I shine upon/lighten [some things] one by one (affects the plural noun)
Perdurative — Radeleneumille — I shine/radiate for an unusually long duration
Terminative — Radeleneomille — I finish shining/radiating; I completely and wholly/totally radiate/shine
Incompletive — Lenheradeleneo- — [I] partially / incompletely radiate/shine; I do not finish shining/radiating
Adjective — Radelenimille — I am shining/radiating (does not imply progressive tensile aspect)
Apparentive — Radeleniamille — I appear to shine; I look shiny
Comparative — Radeleniemille — I am shinier/more radiant
Generic — Radeleniimille — I shine/radiate/standout; I am radiant/radical/tenacious/brilliant/bright
Superlative — Radeleniumille — I am shiniest/brightest/most radiant
Inchoative — Radeleniomille — I become shiny/radiant/radical/brilliant/bright
Durative — Radelenumille — I shine/radiate for a time; I shine/radiate for [some span of time]
Delimitative — Radelenuamille — I shine/radiate for a bit; I shine/radiate for a little while
Pausative — Lenuaradelenhe- — [I], for a little while, do not shine/radiate
Continuative — Radelenuemille — I keep shining/radiating; I continue to shine/radiate
Cessative — Lenheradelenue- — [I] do not keep shining/radiating; I cease shining/radiating
Perfective — Radelenuimille — I shine/radiate as/in synchronization with [event/occurrence + aspect]
Protractive — Radelenuumille — I shine/radiate for an indefinitely long duration, possibly forever
Superfective — Radelenuomille — I keep shining/radiating far after/further than the time/place to cease
Inceptive — Radelenomille — I begin/start to shine/radiate
Recessive — Lenoradelenhe- — [I] begin/start to not shine/radiate; I cease/stop shining/radiating
Prospective — Radelenoamille — I am fixin’ to shine/radiate; I am going to radiate/shine
Utilitative — Radelenœmille — I shine/radiate so there will be light for myself or others
Intentional — Radelenoimille — I intentionally shine/radiate; I shine/radiate for a reason
Accidental — Lenheradelenoi- — [I] accidentally shine/radiate [and call unwanted attention to myself?]
Resumptive — Radelenoumille — I resume shining/radiating; I keep shining/radiating
Excessive — Radelenoomille — I excessively shine/radiate; I shine/radiate too brightly

Tensile Aspect
Predicative Aspect
⚑ = You Are Here.

Variational Paradigms
Root Variations
Primary Lexical Derivations
Nominal Vocality
Nominal Number
Nominal Derivations
Nominal Derivational Vocality
Nominal Derivations & Dual Numerality
Verbal Vocality
⚑ = You Are Here.

Root Construction
Variational Paradigms
Particular Conjunctions
Adverbial Subordinates
⚑ = You Are Here.

Phylogeny & Distribution
Phonology & Orthography
Morphosyntactic Alignment
⚑ = You Are Here.

Borean Food
⚑ = You Are Here.

Writing Systems
Spoken Languages
⚑ = You Are Here.

Civilization & Culture
Borean Technology
Borean Food
⚑ = You Are Here.

Ancient Borea
The Borean World
The Palæoboreanica
Civilization & Culture
People & Races
⚑ = You Are Here.

Ancient Borea
Red the Blue Devil
The Nocturnals
The Spacebunnies
Solar Civil War
⚑ = You Are Here.

Donate via PayPal
Support via Patreon

Current Status

I’m currently trying to rebuild my life after having suffered some devastating losses in my battles against public corruption in Pacific County, Washington and Lewis County, Washington. I lost a great deal of my artwork and writing during those battles, among other possessions, and was forced into homelessness by the corrupt authorities in those counties on more than one occasion. If you support the arts and sciences and disdain public corruption, please consider donating to me via PayPal or supporting me on Patreon. All donations will go toward funding my school career and giving me more time to create content.