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Palæoboreanic Languages

Copyright © 2004-2020 C.E. by Dustin Jon Scott

Main branching patterns of the Palaeoboreanic Languages

This depicts the initial diversification patterns of the first few dialects of the Proto-Paleoboreanic language, or the main branches of the Palaeoboreanic language family.


Terran branch
+Back-Vowel Voicing
Agrarian-Montane subbranch
+Glottal Deconsonantalization
Sylvan-Agrarian subbranch
(Open syllables)
+Further Lenition
Sylvanic subbranch
+Consonantal Vowel Deletion
Agrarian subbranch
+Synalœpha
Montane-Nomadic subbranch
(Closed syllables)
+Further Lenition
Nomadic subbranch
+Synalœpha
Montane subbranch
+Consonantal Vowel Deletion
Chthonic subbranch
(Closed syllables)
+Glottal Assimilation
Colline subbranch
+Further Lenition
+Consonantal Vowel Deletion
Infernal subbranch
+Further Lenition
+Synalœpha
Aquan branch
+Round-Vowel Voicing
Marine subbranch
+Glottal Deconsonantalization
Abyssal-Pelagic subbranch
+Further Lenition
+Vowel consonantalization
Abyssal subbranch
(Closed Syllables)
Pelagic subbranch
(Open syllables)
Coastal-Islandic subbranch
+Further Lenition
+Synalœpha
Coastal subbranch
(Open syllables)
Islandic subbranch
(Closed syllables)
Lacustrine-Riparian subbranch
+Glottal Assimilation
Lacustrine-Palustrine subbranch
+Further Lenition
+Semivowel Reassimilation
Lacustrine subbranch
(Open syllables)
Palustrine subbranch
(Closed syllables)
Riparian-Potamic subbranch
+Further Lenition
+Consonantal Vowel Deletion
Potamic subbranch
(Closed syllables)
Riparian subbranch
(Open syllables)



Evolution of the Sylvanic Languages
Language Family SuffixingPrefixing
PreformativeAfformative PreformativeAfformative
OpenClosed OpenClosed OpenClosed OpenClosed
Proto-Palæoboreanic Taqa-toqi-tataqoAtaq-otiq-atatoq Qata-qito-qotataAqat-iqot-oqatat Tataqo-toqi-taqaAtatoq-otiq-ataq Qotata-qito-qataOqatat-iqot-aqat
Proto-Terran Daqa-doqi-dadaqoAdaq-odiq-adadoq Qada-qido-qodadaAqad-iqod-oqadad Dadaqo-doqi-daqaAdadoq-odiq-adaq Qodada-qido-qadaOqadad-iqod-aqad
Proto-Agrarian-Montane Daá-doí-dadaóAdá-odí-adadó Áda-ído-ódadaÁad-íod-óadad Dadaó-doí-daáAdadó-odí-adá Ódada-ído-ádaÓadad-íod-áad
Proto-Sylvan-Agrarian Naá-roí-raraóN/A Ána-íro-óraraN/A Raraó-roí-naáN/A Órara-íro-ánaN/A
Proto-Sylvanic Na-ri-nhoN/A An-ir-onhN/A Nho-ri-naN/A Onh-ir-anN/A
Sylvanic 1 Na-ri-loN/A An-ir-olN/A Lo-ri-naN/A Ol-ir-anN/A
Sylvanic 2 NariloN/A AnirolN/A LorinaN/A OliranN/A

  • Open, Preformative, Suffixing (Na-ri-nho) — OVS: Proto-Drayadic, Proto-Sylvan, Proto-Faerish
  • Open, Preformative, Suffixing (Na-ri-nho) — SVO: Proto-Aldelfish, Proto-Woodelfish
  • Formerly-open, Afformative, Suffixing (An-ir-onh) — OVS: Proto-Maenadic
  • Formerly-open, Afformative, Suffixing (An-ir-onh) — SVO: Proto-Darkelfish
  • Open, Preformative, Prefixing (Nho-ri-na) — OVS: Proto-Nightelfish? Proto-Huldric? Proto-Hesperidic?
  • Open, Preformative, Prefixing (Nho-ri-na) — SVO: Proto-Moonelfish? Proto-Huldric?
  • Formerly-open, Afformative, Prefixing (Onh-ir-an) — OVS: Proto-Arachnyadic
  • Formerly-open, Afformative, Prefixing (Onh-ir-an) — SVO: Proto-Swartelfish




Evolution of the Agrarian Languages
Language Family SuffixingPrefixing
PreformativeAfformative PreformativeAfformative
OpenClosed OpenClosed OpenClosed OpenClosed
Proto-Palæoboreanic Taqa-toqi-tataqoAtaq-otiq-atatoq Qata-qito-qotataAqat-iqot-oqatat Tataqo-toqi-taqaAtatoq-otiq-ataq Qotata-qito-qataOqatat-iqot-aqat
Proto-Terran Daqa-doqi-dadaqoAdaq-odiq-adadoq Qada-qido-qodadaAqad-iqod-oqadad Dadaqo-doqi-daqaAdadoq-odiq-adaq Qodada-qido-qadaOqadad-iqod-aqad
Proto-Agrarian-Montane Daá-doí-dadaóAdá-odí-adadó Áda-ído-ódadaÁad-íod-óadad Dadaó-doí-daáAdadó-odí-adá Ódada-ído-ádaÓadad-íod-áad
Proto-Sylvan-Agrarian Naá-roí-raraóN/A Ána-íro-óraraN/A Raraó-roí-naáN/A Órara-íro-ánaN/A
Proto-Agrarian Naa-roi-nhao?N/A Ana-iro-onha?N/A Nhao-roi-naa?N/A Onha-iro-ana?N/A
Agrarian 1 Naa-roi-lao?N/A Ana-iro-ola?N/A Lao-roi-naa?N/A Ola-iro-ana?N/A
Agrarian 2 Naaroilao?N/A Anairoola?N/A Laoroinaa?N/A Olairoana?N/A

  • Open, Preformative, Suffixing (Naa-roi-nhao) — OVS: Proto-Leimakidic, Proto-Leimoniadic, Proto-Epimelidic?
  • Open, Preformative, Suffixing (Naa-roi-nhao) — SVO: Proto-Meadowelfish
  • Open, Afformative, Suffixing (Ana-iro-onha) — OVS:
  • Open, Afformative, Suffixing (Ana-iro-onha) — SVO:
  • Open, Preformative, Prefixing (Nhao-roi-naa) — OVS:
  • Open, Preformative, Prefixing (Nhao-roi-naa) — SVO: Proto-Centaurian?
  • Open, Afformative, Prefixing (Onha-iro-ana) — OVS:
  • Open, Afformative, Prefixing (Onha-iro-ana) — SVO: Agrarian Proto-Dwarfish / Proto-Fielddwarfish?




Evolution of the Nomadic Languages
Language Family SuffixingPrefixing
PreformativeAfformative PreformativeAfformative
OpenClosed OpenClosed OpenClosed OpenClosed
Proto-Palæoboreanic Taqa-toqi-tataqoAtaq-otiq-atatoq Qata-qito-qotataAqat-iqot-oqatat Tataqo-toqi-taqaAtatoq-otiq-ataq Qotata-qito-qataOqatat-iqot-aqat
Proto-Terran Daqa-doqi-dadaqoAdaq-odiq-adadoq Qada-qido-qodadaAqad-iqod-oqadad Dadaqo-doqi-daqaAdadoq-odiq-adaq Qodada-qido-qadaOqadad-iqod-aqad
Proto-Agrarian-Montane Daá-doí-dadaóAdá-odí-adadó Áda-ído-ódadaÁad-íod-óadad Dadaó-doí-daáAdadó-odí-adá Ódada-ído-ádaÓadad-íod-áad
Proto-Montane-Nomadic N/AAná-orí-araró N/AÁan-íor-óarar N/AAraró-orí-aná N/AÓarar-íor-áan
Proto-Nomadic N/AAna-ori-anho? N/AAan-ior-aonh N/AAnho-ori-ana? N/AOanh-ior-aan?
Nomadic 1 N/AAna-ori-alo? N/AAan-ior-aol? N/AAlo-ori-ana? N/AOal-ir-aan?
Nomadic 2 N/AAnaorialo? N/AAanioraol? N/AAlooriana? N/AOalioraan?

  • Formerly-closed, Preformative, Suffixing (Ana-ori-anho) — OVS:
  • Formerly-closed, Preformative, Suffixing (Ana-ori-anho) — SVO: Proto-Trooping-Faerish?
  • Closed, Afformative, Suffixing (Aan-ior-oanh) — OVS:
  • Closed, Afformative, Suffixing (Aan-ior-oanh) — SVO:
  • Formerly-closed, Preformative, Prefixing (Anho-ori-ana) — OVS:
  • Formerly-closed, Preformative, Prefixing (Anho-ori-ana) — SVO:
  • Closed, Afformative, Prefixing (Oanh-ior-aan) — OVS:
  • Closed, Afformative, Prefixing (Oanh-ior-aan) — SVO:




Evolution of the Montane Languages
Language Family SuffixingPrefixing
PreformativeAfformative PreformativeAfformative
OpenClosed OpenClosed OpenClosed OpenClosed
Proto-Palæoboreanic Taqa-toqi-tataqoAtaq-otiq-atatoq Qata-qito-qotataAqat-iqot-oqatat Tataqo-toqi-taqaAtatoq-otiq-ataq Qotata-qito-qataOqatat-iqot-aqat
Proto-Terran Daqa-doqi-dadaqoAdaq-odiq-adadoq Qada-qido-qodadaAqad-iqod-oqadad Dadaqo-doqi-daqaAdadoq-odiq-adaq Qodada-qido-qadaOqadad-iqod-aqad
Proto-Agrarian-Montane Daá-doí-dadaóAdá-odí-adadó Áda-ído-ódadaÁad-íod-óadad Dadaó-doí-daáAdadó-odí-adá Ódada-ído-ádaÓadad-íod-áad
Proto-Montane-Nomadic N/AAná-orí-araró N/AÁan-íor-óarar N/AAraró-orí-aná N/AÓarar-íor-áan
Proto-Montane N/ANa-ri-rho N/AAn-ir-orh N/ARho-ri-na N/AOrh-ir-an
Montane 1 N/ANa-rhi-ro N/AAn-iŋr-or N/ARo-rhi-na N/AOrr-imhr-an
Montane 2 N/ANarhiro? N/AAniŋror N/ARorhina? N/AOrriwran

  • Formerly-closed, Preformative, Suffixing (Na-ri-rho?) — OVS: Proto-Oreiadic? Proto-Cryonyadic?
  • Formerly-closed, Preformative, Suffixing (Na-ri-rho?) — SVO:
  • Closed, Afformative, Suffixing (An-ir-orh) — OVS: Proto-Ogrish?
  • Closed, Afformative, Suffixing (An-ir-orh) — SVO: Proto-Ogrish
  • Formerly-closed, Preformative, Prefixing (Rho-ri-na?) — OVS:
  • Formerly-closed, Preformative, Prefixing (Rho-ri-na?) — SVO:
  • Closed, Afformative, Prefixing (Orh-ir-an) — OVS: Proto-Dwarfish?
  • Closed, Afformative, Prefixing (Orh-ir-an) — SVO: Proto-Dwarfish?




Evolution of the Colline Languages
Language Family SuffixingPrefixing
PreformativeAfformative PreformativeAfformative
OpenClosed OpenClosed OpenClosed OpenClosed
Proto-Palæoboreanic Taqa-toqi-tataqoAtaq-otiq-atatoq Qata-qito-qotataAqat-iqot-oqatat Tataqo-toqi-taqaAtatoq-otiq-ataq Qotata-qito-qataOqatat-iqot-aqat
Proto-Terran Daqa-doqi-dadaqoAdaq-odiq-adadoq Qada-qido-qodadaAqad-iqod-oqadad Dadaqo-doqi-daqaAdadoq-odiq-adaq Qodada-qido-qadaOqadad-iqod-aqad
Proto-Chthonic N/AAdáj-odíj-adadów? N/AÁjad-íjod-ówadad? N/AAdadów-odíj-adáj? N/AÓwadad-íjod-ájad?
Proto-Colline N/AAnáj-oríj-ararów? N/AÁjan-íjor-ówarar? N/AArarów-oríj-anáj? N/AÓwarar-íjor-ájan?
Colline 1 N/ANah-rij-nhow? N/AAhn-ijr-ownh? N/ANhow-rij-nah? N/AOwnh-ijr-ahn?
Colline 2 N/ANarhiljow? N/AAnhirjowl? N/ALorwinjah? N/AOlwirjahn?

  • Closed, Preformative, Suffixing (Nah-rij-nhow?) — OVS:
  • Closed, Preformative, Suffixing (Nah-rij-nhow?) — SVO: Proto-Wooddwarfish?
  • Closed, Afformative, Suffixing (Ahn-ijr-ownh?) — OVS:
  • Closed, Afformative, Suffixing (Ahn-ijr-ownh?) — SVO:
  • Closed, Preformative, Prefixing (Nhow-rij-nah?) — OVS:
  • Closed, Preformative, Prefixing (Nhow-rij-nah?) — SVO:
  • Closed, Afformative, Prefixing (Ownh-ijr-ahn) — OVS:
  • Closed, Afformative, Prefixing (Ownh-ijr-ahn) — SVO: Colline Proto-Dwarfish / Proto-Hilldwarfish




Evolution of the Infernal Languages
Language Family SuffixingPrefixing
PreformativeAfformative PreformativeAfformative
OpenClosed OpenClosed OpenClosed OpenClosed
Proto-Palæoboreanic Taqa-toqi-tataqoAtaq-otiq-atatoq Qata-qito-qotataAqat-iqot-oqatat Tataqo-toqi-taqaAtatoq-otiq-ataq Qotata-qito-qataOqatat-iqot-aqat
Proto-Terran Daqa-doqi-dadaqoAdaq-odiq-adadoq Qada-qido-qodadaAqad-iqod-oqadad Dadaqo-doqi-daqaAdadoq-odiq-adaq Qodada-qido-qadaOqadad-iqod-aqad
Proto-Chthonic N/AAdáh-odíj-adadów? N/AÁhad-íjod-ówadad? N/AAdadów-odíj-adáh? N/AÓwadad-íjod-áhad?
Proto-Infernal 1 N/AAnáh-oríj-ararów? N/AÁhan-íjor-ówarar? N/AArarów-oríj-anáh? N/AÓwarar-íjor-áhan?
Proto-Infernal 2a N/AAnáh-oríj-arrów? N/AÁhan-íjor-ówarr? N/AArrów-oríj-anáh? N/AÓwarr-íjor-áhan?
Proto-Infernal 2b N/AAnáh-oríj-arhów? N/AÁhan-íjor-ówarh? N/AArhów-oríj-anáh? N/AÓwarh-íjor-áhan?
Proto-Infernal 2c N/AAnáh-oríj-anhów? N/AÁhan-íjor-ówanh? N/AAnhów-oríj-anáh? N/AÓwanh-íjor-áhan?

  • Closed, Preformative, Suffixing (Anah-orij-anhow?) — OVS: Proto-Lampadic?
  • Closed, Preformative, Suffixing (Anah-orij-anhow?) — SVO:
  • Closed, Afformative, Suffixing (Ahan-ijor-owanh?) — OVS: Proto-Ortch? Proto-Fomorian?
  • Closed, Afformative, Suffixing (Ahan-ijor-owanh?) — SVO: Proto-Ortch? Proto-Fomorian?
  • Closed, Preformative, Prefixing (Anhow-orij-anah?) — OVS:
  • Closed, Preformative, Prefixing (Anhow-orij-anah?) — SVO:
  • Closed, Afformative, Prefixing (Owanh-ijor-ahan?) — OVS:
  • Closed, Afformative, Prefixing (Owanh-ijor-ahan?) — SVO: Infernal Proto-Dwarfish




Evolution of the Abyssal Languages
Language Family SuffixingPrefixing
PreformativeAfformative PreformativeAfformative
OpenClosed OpenClosed OpenClosed OpenClosed
Proto-Palæoboreanic Taqa-toqi-tataqoAtaq-otiq-atatoq Qata-qito-qotataAqat-iqot-oqatat Tataqo-toqi-taqaAtatoq-otiq-ataq Qotata-qito-qataOqatat-iqot-aqat
Proto-Aquan Taqa-doqi-tataqoAtaq-odiq-atatoq Qata-qido-qotataAqat-iqod-oqatat Tataqo-doqi-dataAtatoq-odiq-ataq Qotata-qido-qataOqatat-iqod-aqat
Proto-Marine Taá-doí-tataóAtá-odí-atató Áta-ído-ótataÁat-íod-óatat Tataó-doí-taáAtató-odí-atá Ótata-ído-átaÓatat-íod-áat
Proto-Abyssal-Pelagic Dwá-rwí-ddwóWdá-wrí-wddó? Ádw-írw-óddwÁwd-íwr-ówdd? Ddwó-rwí-dwáWddó-wrí-wdá? Ódada-íro-ádaÓwdd-íwr-áwd?
Proto-Abyssal N/AWdá-wrí-wðó? N/AÁwd-íwr-ówð? N/AWðó-wrí-wdá? N/AÓwð-íwr-áwd?

  • Closed, Preformative, Suffixing (Wda-wri-wðo?) — OVS: Proto-Oceanidic? Proto-Pegaeaic? Proto-Crinaeaic?
  • Closed, Preformative, Suffixing (Wda-wri-wðo?) — SVO:
  • Closed, Afformative, Suffixing (Awd-iwr-owð?) — OVS: Proto-(Sea-)Ortch? Proto-Fomorian?
  • Closed, Afformative, Suffixing (Awd-iwr-owð?) — SVO: Proto-(Sea-)Ortch? Proto-Fomorian?
  • Closed, Preformative, Prefixing (Wðo-wri-wda?) — OVS:
  • Closed, Preformative, Prefixing (Wðo-wri-wda?) — SVO: Proto-Merrowine?
  • Closed, Afformative, Prefixing (Owð-iwr-awd?) — OVS:
  • Closed, Afformative, Prefixing (Owð-iwr-awd?) — SVO: Abyssal Proto-(Sea)Dwarfish




Evolution of the Pelagic Languages
Language Family SuffixingPrefixing
PreformativeAfformative PreformativeAfformative
OpenClosed OpenClosed OpenClosed OpenClosed
Proto-Palæoboreanic Taqa-toqi-tataqoAtaq-otiq-atatoq Qata-qito-qotataAqat-iqot-oqatat Tataqo-toqi-taqaAtatoq-otiq-ataq Qotata-qito-qataOqatat-iqot-aqat
Proto-Aquan Taqa-doqi-tataqoAtaq-odiq-atatoq Qata-qido-qotataAqat-iqod-oqatat Tataqo-doqi-dataAtatoq-odiq-ataq Qotata-qido-qataOqatat-iqod-aqat
Proto-Marine Taá-doí-tataóAtá-odí-atató Áta-ído-ótataÁat-íod-óatat Tataó-doí-taáAtató-odí-atá Ótata-ído-átaÓatat-íod-áat
Proto-Abyssal-Pelagic Dwá-rwí-ddwóWdá-wrí-wddó? Ádw-írw-óddwÁwd-íwr-ówdd? Ddwó-rwí-dwáWddó-wrí-wdá? Ódada-íro-ádaÓwdd-íwr-áwd?
Proto-Pelagic Dwá-rwí-ðwóN/A Ádw-írw-óðwN/A Ðwó-rwí-dwáN/A Óðw-írw-ádwN/A

  • Open, Preformative, Suffixing (Dwa-rwi-ðwo) — OVS: Proto-Nereidic, Proto-Oceanidic?
  • Open, Preformative, Suffixing (Dwa-rwi-ðwo) — SVO: Proto-Sea-elfish
  • Formerly-open, Afformative, Suffixing (Adw-irw-oðw) — OVS: Proto-Sirenic
  • Formerly-open, Afformative, Suffixing (Adw-irw-oðw) — SVO: Dark Proto-Sea-elfish / Proto-Seadarkelfish
  • Open, Preformative, Prefixing (Ðwo-rwi-dwa) — OVS: Proto-Tritonic
  • Open, Preformative, Prefixing (Ðwo-rwi-dwa) — SVO: Proto-Merrowine
  • Formerly-open, Afformative, Prefixing (Oðw-irw-adw) — OVS:
  • Formerly-open, Afformative, Prefixing (Oðw-irw-adw) — SVO: Pelagic Proto-(Sea)Dwarfish




Evolution of the Coastal Languages
Language Family SuffixingPrefixing
PreformativeAfformative PreformativeAfformative
OpenClosed OpenClosed OpenClosed OpenClosed
Proto-Palæoboreanic Taqa-toqi-tataqoAtaq-otiq-atatoq Qata-qito-qotataAqat-iqot-oqatat Tataqo-toqi-taqaAtatoq-otiq-ataq Qotata-qito-qataOqatat-iqot-aqat
Proto-Aquan Taqa-doqi-tataqoAtaq-odiq-atatoq Qata-qido-qotataAqat-iqod-oqatat Tataqo-doqi-dataAtatoq-odiq-ataq Qotata-qido-qataOqatat-iqod-aqat
Proto-Marine Taá-doí-tataóAtá-odí-atató Áta-ído-ótataÁat-íod-óatat Tataó-doí-taáAtató-odí-atá Ótata-ído-átaÓatat-íod-áat
Proto-Coastal-Islandic Daá-roí-dadaóAdá-orí-adadó? Áda-íro-ódadaÁad-íor-óadad? Dadaó-roí-daáAdadó-orí-adá? Ódada-íro-ádaÓadad-íor-áad?
Proto-Coastal Daá-roí-ðaóN/A Áda-íro-óðaN/A Ðaó-roí-daáN/A Óða-íro-ádaN/A

  • Open, Preformative, Suffixing (Daa-roi-ðao) — OVS: Proto-Morean?
  • Open, Preformative, Suffixing (Daa-roi-ðao) — SVO: Proto-Illyrian?
  • Open, Afformative, Suffixing (Ada-iro-oða) — OVS: Proto-Morganic?
  • Open, Afformative, Suffixing (Ada-iro-oða) — SVO: Proto-Buccan?
  • Open, Preformative, Prefixing (Ðao-roi-daa) — OVS:
  • Open, Preformative, Prefixing (Ðao-roi-daa) — SVO: Proto-Eridanic?
  • Open, Afformative, Prefixing (Oða-iro-ada) — OVS:
  • Open, Afformative, Prefixing (Oða-iro-ada) — SVO: Proto-Suddenese?




Evolution of the Islandic Languages
Language Family SuffixingPrefixing
PreformativeAfformative PreformativeAfformative
OpenClosed OpenClosed OpenClosed OpenClosed
Proto-Palæoboreanic Taqa-toqi-tataqoAtaq-otiq-atatoq Qata-qito-qotataAqat-iqot-oqatat Tataqo-toqi-taqaAtatoq-otiq-ataq Qotata-qito-qataOqatat-iqot-aqat
Proto-Aquan Taqa-doqi-tataqoAtaq-odiq-atatoq Qata-qido-qotataAqat-iqod-oqatat Tataqo-doqi-dataAtatoq-odiq-ataq Qotata-qido-qataOqatat-iqod-aqat
Proto-Marine Taá-doí-tataóAtá-odí-atató Áta-ído-ótataÁat-íod-óatat Tataó-doí-taáAtató-odí-atá Ótata-ído-átaÓatat-íod-áat
Proto-Coastal-Islandic Daá-roí-dadaóAdá-orí-adadó? Áda-íro-ódadaÁad-íor-óadad? Dadaó-roí-daáAdadó-orí-adá? Ódada-íro-ádaÓadad-íor-áad?
Proto-Islandic N/AAdá-orí-aðó? N/AÁad-íor-óað? N/AAðó-orí-adá? N/AÓað-íor-áad?

  • Formerly-closed, Preformative, Suffixing (Ada-ori-aðo?) — OVS: Proto-Selkish?
  • Formerly-closed, Preformative, Suffixing (Ada-ori-aðo?) — SVO:
  • Closed, Afformative, Suffixing (Aad-ior-oað?) — OVS:
  • Closed, Afformative, Suffixing (Aad-ior-oað?) — SVO: Proto-Necrojan? Proto-Necrinthian?
  • Formerly-closed, Preformative, Prefixing (Aðo-ori-ada?) — OVS:
  • Formerly-closed, Preformative, Prefixing (Aðo-ori-ada?) — SVO: Proto-Cretan?
  • Closed, Afformative, Prefixing (Oað-ior-aad) — OVS:
  • Closed, Afformative, Prefixing (Oað-ior-aad) — SVO: Islandic Proto-Dwarfish




Evolution of the Lacustrine Languages
Language Family SuffixingPrefixing
PreformativeAfformative PreformativeAfformative
OpenClosed OpenClosed OpenClosed OpenClosed
Proto-Palæoboreanic Taqa-toqi-tataqoAtaq-otiq-atatoq Qata-qito-qotataAqat-iqot-oqatat Tataqo-toqi-taqaAtatoq-otiq-ataq Qotata-qito-qataOqatat-iqot-aqat
Proto-Aquan Taqa-doqi-tataqoAtaq-odiq-atatoq Qata-qido-qotataAqat-iqod-oqatat Tataqo-doqi-dataAtatoq-odiq-ataq Qotata-qido-qataOqatat-iqod-aqat
Proto-Lacustrine-Riparian Tahá-dowí-tatahóAtáw-odíh-atatów Háta-jído-wótataÁhat-íwod-óhatat Tatahó-dohí-taháAtatów-odíh-atáh Wótata-hído-wátaÓhatat-íwod-áhat
Proto-Lacustrine-Palustrine Dahá-rowí-dadahóAdáw-oríh-adadów? Háda-híro-wódadaÁhad-íwor-óhadad? Dadahó-rowí-daháAdadów-oríh-adáh? Wódada-híro-wádaÓhadad-íwor-áhad?
Proto-Lacustrine Dahá-rowí-ðahóN/A Háda-híro-wóðaN/A Ðahó-rowí-daháN/A Wóða-híro-wádaN/A

  • Open, Preformative, Suffixing (Daha-rowi-ðaho) — OVS: Proto-Limnadic
  • Open, Preformative, Suffixing (Daha-rowi-ðaho) — SVO:
  • Open, Afformative, Suffixing (Hada-hiro-woða) — OVS:
  • Open, Afformative, Suffixing (Hada-hiro-woða) — SVO:
  • Open, Preformative, Prefixing (Ðaho-rowi-daha) — OVS:
  • Open, Preformative, Prefixing (Ðaho-rowi-daha) — SVO:
  • Open, Afformative, Prefixing (Woða-hiro-wada) — OVS:
  • Open, Afformative, Prefixing (Woða-hiro-wada) — OVS:




Evolution of the Palustrine Languages
Language Family SuffixingPrefixing
PreformativeAfformative PreformativeAfformative
OpenClosed OpenClosed OpenClosed OpenClosed
Proto-Palæoboreanic Taqa-toqi-tataqoAtaq-otiq-atatoq Qata-qito-qotataAqat-iqot-oqatat Tataqo-toqi-taqaAtatoq-otiq-ataq Qotata-qito-qataOqatat-iqot-aqat
Proto-Aquan Taqa-doqi-tataqoAtaq-odiq-atatoq Qata-qido-qotataAqat-iqod-oqatat Tataqo-doqi-dataAtatoq-odiq-ataq Qotata-qido-qataOqatat-iqod-aqat
Proto-Lacustrine-Riparian Tahá-dowí-tatahóAtáw-odíh-atatów Háta-jído-wótataÁhat-íwod-óhatat Tatahó-dohí-taháAtatów-odíh-atáh Wótata-hído-wátaÓhatat-íwod-áhat
Proto-Lacustrine-Palustrine Dahá-rowí-dadahóAdáw-oríh-adadów? Háda-híro-wódadaÁhad-íwor-óhadad? Dadahó-rowí-daháAdadów-oríh-adáh? Wódada-híro-wádaÓhadad-íwor-áhad?
Proto-Palustrine N/AAdáw-oríh-aðów? N/AÁhad-íwor-óhað? N/AAðów-oríh-adáh? N/AÓhað-íwor-áhad?

  • Closed, Preformative, Suffixing (Adaw-orih-aðow?) — OVS: Proto-Heleionomaic / Proto-Eleiomomaic
  • Closed, Preformative, Suffixing (Adaw-orih-aðow?) — SVO:
  • Closed, Afformative, Suffixing (Ahad-iwor-ohað?) — OVS:
  • Closed, Afformative, Suffixing (Ahad-iwor-ohað?) — SVO:
  • Closed, Preformative, Prefixing (Aðow-orih-adah?) — OVS:
  • Closed, Preformative, Prefixing (Aðow-orih-adah?) — SVO:
  • Closed, Afformative, Prefixing (Ohað-iwor-ahad?) — OVS:
  • Closed, Afformative, Prefixing (Ohað-iwor-ahad?) — SVO:




Evolution of the Potamic Languages
Language Family SuffixingPrefixing
PreformativeAfformative PreformativeAfformative
OpenClosed OpenClosed OpenClosed OpenClosed
Proto-Palæoboreanic Taqa-toqi-tataqoAtaq-otiq-atatoq Qata-qito-qotataAqat-iqot-oqatat Tataqo-toqi-taqaAtatoq-otiq-ataq Qotata-qito-qataOqatat-iqot-aqat
Proto-Aquan Taqa-doqi-tataqoAtaq-odiq-atatoq Qata-qido-qotataAqat-iqod-oqatat Tataqo-doqi-dataAtatoq-odiq-ataq Qotata-qido-qataOqatat-iqod-aqat
Proto-Lacustrine-Riparian Tahá-dojí-tatawóAtáh-odíj-atatów Háta-jído-wótataÁhat-íjod-ówatat Tatawó-dojí-taháAtatów-odíj-atáh Wótata-jído-hátaÓwatat-íjod-áhat
Proto-Potamic-Riparian Dhá-rjí-ddwóDáh-ríj-ddów? Hád-jír-wóddÁhd-íjr-ówdd? Ddwó-rjí-dháDów-ríj-dáh? Wódd-jír-hádÓwdd-íjr-áhd?
Proto-Potamic N/ADáh-ríj-ðów? N/AÁhd-íjr-ówð? N/AÐów-ríj-dáh? N/AÓwð-íjr-áhd?

  • Closed, Preformative, Suffixing (Daw-rij-ðow?) — OVS: Proto-Potameidic
  • Closed, Preformative, Suffixing (Daw-rij-ðow?) — SVO:
  • Closed, Afformative, Suffixing (Ahd-ijr-owð?) — OVS: Proto-Kelpish?
  • Closed, Afformative, Suffixing (Ahd-ijr-owð?) — SVO:
  • Closed, Preformative, Prefixing (Ðow-rij-dah?) — OVS:
  • Closed, Preformative, Prefixing (Ðow-rij-dah?) — SVO: Proto-Padagnaic?
  • Closed, Afformative, Prefixing (Owð-ijr-ahd?) — OVS:
  • Closed, Afformative, Prefixing (Owð-ijr-ahd?) — SVO:




Evolution of the Riparian Languages
Language Family SuffixingPrefixing
PreformativeAfformative PreformativeAfformative
OpenClosed OpenClosed OpenClosed OpenClosed
Proto-Palæoboreanic Taqa-toqi-tataqoAtaq-otiq-atatoq Qata-qito-qotataAqat-iqot-oqatat Tataqo-toqi-taqaAtatoq-otiq-ataq Qotata-qito-qataOqatat-iqot-aqat
Proto-Aquan Taqa-doqi-tataqoAtaq-odiq-atatoq Qata-qido-qotataAqat-iqod-oqatat Tataqo-doqi-dataAtatoq-odiq-ataq Qotata-qido-qataOqatat-iqod-aqat
Proto-Lacustrine-Riparian Tahá-dojí-tatawóAtáh-odíj-atatów Háta-jído-wótataÁhat-íjod-ówatat Tatawó-dojí-taháAtatów-odíj-atáh Wótata-jído-hátaÓwatat-íjod-áhat
Proto-Potamic-Riparian Dhá-rjí-ddwóDáh-ríj-ddów? Hád-jír-wóddÁhd-íjr-ówdd? Ddwó-rjí-dháDów-ríj-dáh? Wódd-jír-hádÓwdd-íjr-áhd?
Proto-Riparian Dhá-rjí-ðwóN/A Hád-jír-wóðN/A Ðwó-rjí-dháN/A Wóð-jír-hádN/A

  • Open, Preformative, Suffixing (Dha-rji-ðwo) — OVS: Proto-Naiadic
  • Open, Preformative, Suffixing (Dha-rji-ðwo) — SVO: Proto-Riverelfish?
  • Formerly-open, Afformative, Suffixing (Had-jir-woð) — OVS: Proto-Kelpish?
  • Formerly-open, Afformative, Suffixing (Had-jir-woð) — SVO:
  • Open, Preformative, Prefixing (Ðwo-rij-dha) — OVS:
  • Open, Preformative, Prefixing (Ðwo-rij-dha) — SVO:
  • Formerly-open, Afformative, Prefixing (Woð-jir-had) — OVS:
  • Formerly-open, Afformative, Prefixing (Woð-jir-had) — OVS:




“Back-Vowel Voicing”

This refers to the voicing of consonants adjascent to shortened back-vowels.


Onset Voicing in Open-Syllable Dialects

This refers to the voicing of consonants before shortened back-vowels.



[p = /p/] > [p = /b/] /_[a]
[p = /p/] > [p = /p/] /_[e]
[p = /p/] > [p = /p/] /_[i]
[p = /p/] > [p = /p/] /_[y]
[p = /p/] > [p = /b/] /_[u]
[p = /p/] > [p = /b/] /_[o]

[p = /p/] > [p = /bβ/] /_[a]_[a]
[p = /p/] > [p = /pɸ/] /_[e]_[e]
[p = /p/] > [p = /pɸ/] /_[i]_[i]
[p = /p/] > [p = /pɸ/] /_[y]_[y]
[p = /p/] > [p = /bβ/] /_[u]_[u]
[p = /p/] > [p = /bβ/] /_[o]_[o]

[t = /t/] > [t = /d/] /_[a]
[t = /t/] > [t = /t/] /_[e]
[t = /t/] > [t = /t/] /_[i]
[t = /t/] > [t = /t/] /_[y]
[t = /t/] > [t = /d/] /_[u]
[t = /t/] > [t = /d/] /_[o]

[t = /t/] > [t = /dz/] /_[a]_[a]
[t = /t/] > [t = /ts/] /_[e]_[e]
[t = /t/] > [t = /ts/] /_[i]_[i]
[t = /t/] > [t = /ts/] /_[y]_[y]
[t = /t/] > [t = /dz/] /_[u]_[u]
[t = /t/] > [t = /dz/] /_[o]_[o]

[k = /k/] > [k = /g/] /_[a]
[k = /k/] > [k = /k/] /_[e]
[k = /k/] > [k = /k/] /_[i]
[k = /k/] > [k = /k/] /_[y]
[k = /k/] > [k = /g/] /_[u]
[k = /k/] > [k = /g/] /_[o]

[k = /k/] > [k = /gɣ/] /_[a]_[a]
[k = /k/] > [k = /kx/] /_[e]_[e]
[k = /k/] > [k = /kx/] /_[i]_[i]
[k = /k/] > [k = /kx/] /_[y]_[y]
[k = /k/] > [k = /gɣ/] /_[u]_[u]
[k = /k/] > [k = /gɣ/] /_[o]_[o]

q > ɦ /_[a]
q > ʔ /_[e]
q > ʔ /_[i]
q > ʔ /_[y]
q > ɦ /_[u]
q > ɦ /_[o]




“Further Lenition”: Sylvan-Agrarian Branch

This refers to the lenition of consonants adjascent to shortened vowels.



[t = /d/] > [t = /n/] /_[a]
[t = /t/] > [t = /d/] /_[e]
[t = /t/] > [t = /t/] /_[i]
[t = /t/] > [t = /s/] /_[y]
[t = /d/] > [t = /z/] /_[u]
[t = /d/] > [t = /ɹ/] /_[o]

[t = /dz/] > [t = /ɾ/] /_[a]_[a] > [tt = /l/] /_[a]
[t = /ts/] > [t = /dz/] /_[e]_[e] > [tt = /ð/] /_[e]
[t = /ts/] > [t = /ts/] /_[i]_[i] > [tt = /θ/] /_[i]
[t = /ts/] > [t = /ts/] /_[y]_[y] > [tt = /ʃ/] /_[y]
[t = /dz/] > [t = /dz/] /_[u]_[u] > [tt = /ʒ/] /_[u]_[u]
[t = /dz/] > [t = /ɾ/] /_[o]_[o] > [tt = /r/] /_[o]_[o]

[k = /g/] > [k = /ŋ] /_[a]
[k = /k/] > [k = /g/] /_[e]
[k = /k/] > [k = /k/] /_[i]
[k = /k/] > [k = /x/] /_[y]
[k = /g/] > [k = /ɣ/] /_[u]
[k = /g/] > [k = /ʎ/] /_[o]

[k = /gɣ/] > [] /_[a]_[a]
[k = /kx/] > [] /_[e]_[e]
[k = /kx/] > [] /_[i]_[i]
[k = /kx/] > [] /_[y]_[y]
[k = /gɣ/] > [] /_[u]_[u]
[k = /gɣ/]> [] /_[o]_[o]

q > ɦ /_[a]
q > ʔ /_[e]
q > ʔ /_[i]
q > ʔ /_[y]
q > ɦ /_[u]
q > ɦ /_[o]


Lenition specific to the Agrarian Branch

This is sometimes referred to as Nosaku’s Law (named for linguist Toraki Nosaku).



[p = /b/] > [p = /m/] /_[a]
[p = /p/] > [p = /b/] /_[e]
[p = /p/] > [p = /p/] /_[i]
[p = /p/] > [p = /ɸ/] /_[y]
[p = /b/] > [p = /β/] /_[u]
[p = /b/] > [p = /w/] /_[o]

[p = /bβ/] > [p = /b̆/] /_[a]_[a] > [pp = /w/] /_[a]
[p = /pɸ/] > [p = bβ] /_[e]_[e] > [pp = /β/] /_[e]
[p = /pɸ/] > [p = /pɸ/] /_[i]_[i] > [pp = /ɸ/] /_[i]
[p = /pɸ/] > [p = /pɸ/] /_[y]_[y] > [pp = /ɸ/] /_[y]
[p = /bβ/] > [p = bβ] /_[u]_[u] > [pp = /β/] /_[u]
[p = /bβ/] > [p = /b̆/] /_[o]_[o] > [pp = /w/] /_[o]

Lenition specific to the Sylvanic Branch

This is sometimes referred to as Loughty’s Law (named for linguist Orelia Loughty).



[p = /b/] > [p = /m/] /_[a]
[p = /p/] > [p = /b/] /_[e]
[p = /p/] > [p = /p/] /_[i]
[p = /p/] > [p = /ɸ/] > [p = /f/] /_[y]
[p = /b/] > [p = /β/] > [p = /v/] /_[u]
[p = /b/] > [p = /w/] /_[o]

[p = /bβ/] > [p = /b̆/] > [p = /ⱱ/] /_[a]_[a] > [pp = /ⱱ/] /_[a]
[p = /pɸ/] > [p = bβ] > [p = /b̪v/] /_[e]_[e] > [pp = /v/] /_[e]
[p = /pɸ/] > [p = /pɸ/] > [p = /p̪f/] /_[i]_[i] > [pp = /f/] /_[i]
[p = /pɸ/] > [p = /pɸ/] > [p = /p̪f/] /_[y]_[y] > [pp = /f/] /_[y]
[p = /bβ/] > [p = bβ] > [p = /b̪v/] /_[u]_[u] > [pp = /ⱱ/] /_[u]
[p = /bβ/] > [p = /b̆/] > [p = /ⱱ/] /_[o]_[o] > [pp = /υ/] /_[o]




“Further Lenition”: Montane-Nomadic Branch

This sometimes referred to as Dankworth’s Law (named for linguist Bud Dankworth).



[p = /b/] > [p = /m/] /[a]_
[p = /p/] > [p = /b/] /[e]_
[p = /p/] > [p = /p/] /[i]_
[p = /p/] > [p = /ɸ/] /[y]_
[p = /b/] > [p = /β/] /[u]_
[p = /b/] > [p = /w/] /[o]_

[p = /bβ/] > [p = /b̆/] /[a]_[a]_ > [pp = /w/] /[a]_
[p = /pɸ/] > [p = bβ] /[e]_[e]_ > [pp = /β/] /[e]_
[p = /pɸ/] > [p = /pɸ/] /[i]_[i]_ > [pp = /ɸ/] /[i]_
[p = /pɸ/] > [p = /pɸ/] /[y]_[y]_ > [pp = /ɸ/] /[y]_
[p = /bβ/] > [p = bβ] /[u]_[u]_ > [pp = /β/] /[u]_
[p = /bβ/] > [p = /b̆/] /[o]_[o]_ > [pp = /w/] /[o]_

[t = /d/] > [t = /n/] /[a]_
[t = /t/] > [t = /d/] /[e]_
[t = /t/] > [t = /t/] /[i]_
[t = /t/] > [t = /s/] /[y]_
[t = /d/] > [t = /z/] /[u]_
[t = /d/] > [t = /ɹ/] /[o]_

[t = /dz/] > [t = /ɾ/] /[a]_[a]_ > [tt = /l/] /[a]_
[t = /ts/] > [t = /dz/] /[e]_[e]_ > [tt = /ð/] /[e]_
[t = /ts/] > [t = /ts/] /[i]_[i]_ > [tt = /θ/] /[i]_
[t = /ts/] > [t = /ts/] /[y]_[y]_ > [tt = /ʃ/] /[y]_
[t = /dz/] > [t = /dz/] /[u]_[u]_ > [tt = /ʒ/] /[u]_[u]_
[t = /dz/] > [t = /ɾ/] /[o]_[o]_ > [tt = /r/] /[o]_[o]_

[k = /g/] > [k = /ŋ] /[a]_
[k = /k/] > [k = /g/] /[e]_
[k = /k/] > [k = /k/] /[i]_
[k = /k/] > [k = /x/] /[y]_
[k = /g/] > [k = /ɣ/] /[u]_
[k = /g/] > [k = /ʎ/] /[o]_

[k = /gɣ/] > [] /[a]_[a]_
[k = /kx/] > [] /[e]_[e]_
[k = /kx/] > [] /[i]_[i]_
[k = /kx/] > [] /[y]_[y]_
[k = /gɣ/] > [] /[u]_[u]_
[k = /gɣ/]> [] /[o]_[o]_

q > ɦ /[a]_
q > ʔ /[e]_
q > ʔ /[i]_
q > ʔ /[y]_
q > ɦ /[u]_
q > ɦ /[o]_

Changes specific to Ogrish Dialects

This is sometimes referred to as



[t = /d/] > [t = /n/] /[a]_
[t = /t/] > [t = /d/] /[e]_
[t = /t/] > [t = /t/] /[i]_
[t = /t/] > [t = /s/] /[y]_
[t = /d/] > [t = /z/] /[u]_
[t = /d/] > [t = /ɹŋ/] /[o]_/
[t = /d/] > [t = /ŋɹ/] /[o]_V

[t = /dz/] > [t = /ɾ/] /[a]_[a]_ > [tt = /ɹ/] /[a]_
[t = /ts/] > [t = /dz/] /[e]_[e]_ > [tt = /ð/] /[e]_
[t = /ts/] > [t = /ts/] /[i]_[i]_ > [tt = /θ/] /[i]_
[t = /ts/] > [t = /ts/] /[y]_[y]_ > [tt = /ʃ/] /[y]_
[t = /dz/] > [t = /dz/] /[u]_[u]_ > [tt = /ʒ/] /[u]_[u]_
[t = /dz/] > [t = /ɾ/] /[o]_[o]_ > [tt = /r/] /[o]_[o]_

Changes specific to Dwarfish Dialects

This is sometimes referred to as



[t = /d/] > [t = /n/] /[a]_
[t = /t/] > [t = /d/] /[e]_
[t = /t/] > [t = /t/] /[i]_
[t = /t/] > [t = /s/] /[y]_
[t = /d/] > [t = /z/] /[u]_
[t = /d/] > [t = /ɹ/] /[o]_

[t = /dz/] > [t = /ɾ/] /[a]_[a]_ > [tt = /r/] /[a]_
[t = /ts/] > [t = /dz/] /[e]_[e]_ > [tt = /ð/] /[e]_
[t = /ts/] > [t = /ts/] /[i]_[i]_ > [tt = /θ/] /[i]_
[t = /ts/] > [t = /ts/] /[y]_[y]_ > [tt = /ʃ/] /[y]_
[t = /dz/] > [t = /dz/] /[u]_[u]_ > [tt = /ʒ/] /[u]_[u]_
[t = /dz/] > [t = /ɾ/] /[o]_[o]_ > [tt = /r/] /[o]_[o]_




“Round-Vowel Voicing”

This refers to the voicing of consonants adjascent to shortened round-vowels.


Onset Voicing in Open-Syllable Dialects

This refers to the voicing of consonants before shortened back-vowels.



[p = /p/] > [p = /p/] /_[a]
[p = /p/] > [p = /p/] /_[e]
[p = /p/] > [p = /p/] /_[i]
[p = /p/] > [p = /b/] /_[y]
[p = /p/] > [p = /b/] /_[u]
[p = /p/] > [p = /b/] /_[o]

[p = /p/] > [p = /pɸ/] /_[a]_[a]
[p = /p/] > [p = /pɸ/] /_[e]_[e]
[p = /p/] > [p = /pɸ/] /_[i]_[i]
[p = /p/] > [p = /bβ/] /_[y]_[y]
[p = /p/] > [p = /bβ/] /_[u]_[u]
[p = /p/] > [p = /bβ/] /_[o]_[o]

[t = /t/] > [t = /t/] /_[a]
[t = /t/] > [t = /t/] /_[e]
[t = /t/] > [t = /t/] /_[i]
[t = /t/] > [t = /d/] /_[y]
[t = /t/] > [t = /d/] /_[u]
[t = /t/] > [t = /d/] /_[o]

[t = /t/] > [t = /ts/] /_[a]_[a]
[t = /t/] > [t = /ts/] /_[e]_[e]
[t = /t/] > [t = /ts/] /_[i]_[i]
[t = /t/] > [t = /dz/] /_[y]_[y]
[t = /t/] > [t = /dz/] /_[u]_[u]
[t = /t/] > [t = /dz/] /_[o]_[o]

[k = /k/] > [k = /k/] /_[a]
[k = /k/] > [k = /k/] /_[e]
[k = /k/] > [k = /k/] /_[i]
[k = /k/] > [k = /g/] /_[y]
[k = /k/] > [k = /g/] /_[u]
[k = /k/] > [k = /g/] /_[o]

[k = /k/] > [k = /kx/] /_[a]_[a]
[k = /k/] > [k = /kx/] /_[e]_[e]
[k = /k/] > [k = /kx/] /_[i]_[i]
[k = /k/] > [k = /gɣ/] /_[y]_[y]
[k = /k/] > [k = /gɣ/] /_[u]_[u]
[k = /k/] > [k = /gɣ/] /_[o]_[o]

q > ʔ /_[a]
q > ʔ /_[e]
q > ʔ /_[i]
q > ɦ /_[y]
q > ɦ /_[u]
q > ɦ /_[o]




“Further Lenition”


[p = /p/] > [p = /b/] /_[a]
[p = /p/] > [p = /p/] /_[e]
[p = /p/] > [p = /ɸ/] /_[i]
[p = /b/] > [p = /β/] /_[y]
[p = /b/] > [p = /m/] /_[u]
[p = /b/] > [p = /w/] /_[o]

[p = /pɸ/] > [p = /bβ/] /_[a]_[a] > [pp = /β/] /_[a]
[p = /pɸ/] > [p = /pɸ/] /_[e]_[e] > [pp = /ɸ/] /_[e]
[p = /pɸ/] > [p = /pɸ/] /_[i]_[i] > [pp = /ɸ/] /_[i]
[p = /bβ/] > [p = /bβ/] /_[y]_[y] > [pp = /β/] /_[y]
[p = /bβ/] > [p = /b̆/] /_[u]_[u] > [pp = /w/] /_[u]
[p = /bβ/] > [p = /b̆/] /_[o]_[o] > [pp = /w/] /_[o]

[t = /t/] > [t = /d/] /_[a]
[t = /t/] > [t = /t/] /_[e]
[t = /t/] > [t = /s/] /_[i]
[t = /d/] > [t = /z/] /_[y]
[t = /d/] > [t = /n/] /_[u]
[t = /d/] > [t = /ɹ/] /_[o]

[t = /dz/] > [t = /dz/] /_[a]_[a] > [tt = /ð/] /_[a]
[t = /ts/] > [t = /ts/] /_[e]_[e] > [tt = /θ/] /_[e]
[t = /ts/] > [t = /ts/] /_[i]_[i] > [tt = /ʃ/] /_[i]
[t = /ts/] > [t = /dz/] /_[y]_[y] > [tt = /ʒ/] /_[y]
[t = /dz/] > [t = /ɾ/] /_[u]_[u] > [tt = /l/] /_[u]_[u]
[t = /dz/] > [t = /ɾ/] /_[o]_[o] > [tt = /r/] /_[o]_[o]

[k = /k/] > [k = /g] /_[a]
[k = /k/] > [k = /k/] /_[e]
[k = /k/] > [k = /x/] /_[i]
[k = /g/] > [k = /ɣ/] /_[y]
[k = /g/] > [k = /ŋ/] /_[u]
[k = /g/] > [k = /ʎ/] /_[o]

[k = /kx/] > [] /_[a]_[a]
[k = /kx/] > [] /_[e]_[e]
[k = /kx/] > [] /_[i]_[i]
[k = /gɣ/] > [] /_[y]_[y]
[k = /gɣ/] > [] /_[u]_[u]
[k = /gɣ/]> [] /_[o]_[o]

q > ɦ /_[a]
q > ʔ /_[e]
q > ʔ /_[i]
q > ʔ /_[y]
q > ɦ /_[u]
q > ɦ /_[o]




“Further Lenition”


[t = /t/] > [t = /d/] /[a]_
[t = /t/] > [t = /t/] /[e]_
[t = /t/] > [t = /s/] /[i]_
[t = /d/] > [t = /z/] /[y]_
[t = /d/] > [t = /ɹ/] /[u]_
[t = /d/] > [t = /n/] /[o]_

[t = /dz/] > [t = /dz/] /[a]_[a]_ > [tt = /ð/] /[a]_
[t = /ts/] > [t = /ts/] /[e]_[e]_ > [tt = /θ/] /[e]_
[t = /ts/] > [t = /ts/] /[i]_[i]_ > [tt = /ʃ/] /[i]_
[t = /ts/] > [t = /ts/] /[y]_[y]_ > [tt = /ʒ/] /[y]_
[t = /dz/] > [t = /ɾ/] /[u]_[u]_ > [tt = /r/] /[u]_[u]_
[t = /dz/] > [t = /ɾ/] /[o]_[o]_ > [tt = /r/] /[o]_[o]_




Grouped List

This is a list of the early Palaeoboreanic dialects.


  • [Phase 1] Taqa-toqi-tataqo — OPS Proto-Palaeboreanic
  • [Phase 1] Ataq-otiq-atatoq — CPS Proto-Palaeboreanic
  • [Phase 1] Qata-qito-qotata — OAS Proto-Palaeboreanic
  • [Phase 1] Aqat-iqot-oqatat — CAS Proto-Palaeboreanic
  • [Phase 1] Tataqo-toqi-taqa — OPP Proto-Palaeboreanic
  • [Phase 1] Atatoq-otiq-ataq — CPP Proto-Palaeboreanic
  • [Phase 1] Qotata-qito-qata — OAP Proto-Palaeboreanic
  • [Phase 1] Oqatat-iqot-aqat — CAP Proto-Palaeboreanic
  • [Phase 2A] Daqa-doqi-dadaqo — OPS Proto-Terran Palaeboreanic
  • [Phase 2A] Adaq-odiq-adadoq — CPS Proto-Terran Palaeboreanic
  • [Phase 2A] Qada-qido-qodada — OAS Proto-Terran Palaeboreanic
  • [Phase 2A] Aqad-iqod-oqadad — CAS Proto-Terran Palaeboreanic
  • [Phase 2A] Dadaqo-doqi-daqa — OPP Proto-Terran Palaeboreanic
  • [Phase 2A] Adadoq-odiq-adaq — CPP Proto-Terran Palaeboreanic
  • [Phase 2A] Qodada-qido-qada — OAP Proto-Terran Palaeboreanic
  • [Phase 2A] Oqadad-iqod-aqad — CAP Proto-Terran Palaeboreanic
  • [Phase 2B] Taqa-doqi-tataqo — OPS Proto-Aquan Palaeboreanic
  • [Phase 2B] Ataq-odiq-atatoq — CPS Proto-Aquan Palaeboreanic
  • [Phase 2B] Qata-qido-qotata — OAS Proto-Aquan Palaeboreanic
  • [Phase 2B] Aqat-iqod-oqatat — CAS Proto-Aquan Palaeboreanic
  • [Phase 2B] Tataqo-doqi-taqa — OPP Proto-Aquan Palaeboreanic
  • [Phase 2B] Atatoq-odiq-ataq — CPP Proto-Aquan Palaeboreanic
  • [Phase 2B] Qotata-qido-qata — OAP Proto-Aquan Palaeboreanic
  • [Phase 2B] Oqatat-iqod-aqat — CAP Proto-Aquan Palaeboreanic
  • [Phase 3A1] Daa-doi-dadao — OPS Proto-Agrarian-Montane dialects: Proto-Drayadic; Proto-Sylvan; Proto-Faerish; Proto-Aldelfish; Proto-Woodelfish; Proto-Leimakidic; Proto-Leimoniadic; Proto-Epimelidic? Proto-Meadowelfish; Proto-Trooping-Faerish? Proto-Oreyadic? Proto-Cryonadic?
  • [Phase 3A1] Ada-odi-adado — CPS Proto-Agrarian-Montane
  • [Phase 3A1] Ada-ido-odada — OAS Proto-Agrarian-Montane
  • [Phase 3A1] Aad-iod-oadad — CAS Proto-Agrarian-Montane
  • [Phase 3A1] Dadao-doi-daa — OPP Proto-Agrarian-Montane
  • [Phase 3A1] Adado-odi-ada — CPP Proto-Agrarian-Montane
  • [Phase 3A1] Odada-ido-ada — OAP Proto-Agrarian-Montane
  • [Phase 3A1] Oadad-iod-aad — CAP Proto-Agrarian-Montane
  • [Phase 3AX] Daja-doji-dadawo — OPS Proto-Aerial
  • [Phase 3AX] Jada-jido-wodada — OAS Proto-Aerial
  • [Phase 3AX] Dadawo-doji-daja — OPP Proto-Aerial
  • [Phase 3AX] Wodada-jido-jada — OAP Proto-Aerial
  • [Phase 3A2] Adaj-odij-adadow — CPS Proto-Chthonic
  • [Phase 3A2] Ajad-ijod-owadad — CAS Proto-Chthonic
  • [Phase 3A2] Adadow-odij-adaj — CPP Proto-Chthonic
  • [Phase 3A2] Owadad-ijod-ajad — CAP Proto-Chthonic
  • [Phase 3B1] Taa-doi-tatao — OPS Proto-Marine dialects: Proto-Neraidic; Proto-Oceanidic? Proto-Sea-elfish; Proto-Morean? Proto-Illyrian?
  • [Phase 3B1] Ata-odi-atato — CPS Proto-Marine dialects: Proto-Oceanidic? Proto-Pegaeaic? Proto-Crinaeaic? Proto-Selkish?
  • [Phase 3B1] Ata-ido-otata — OAS Proto-Marine dialects: Proto-Sirenic; Proto-Morganic? Proto-Buccan?
  • [Phase 3B1] Aat-iod-oatat — CAS Proto-Marine dialects: Proto-Sea-Ortch? Proto-Fomorian? Proto-Necorjan? Proto-Necrinthian?
  • [Phase 3B1] Tatao-doi-taa — OPP Proto-Marine dialects: Proto-Tritonic? Proto-Merrowine? Proto-Eridanic?
  • [Phase 3B1] Atato-odi-ata — CPP Proto-Marine dialects: Proto-Merrowine? Proto-Cretan?
  • [Phase 3B1] Otata-ido-ata — OAP Proto-Marine dialects: Pelagic Proto-Seadwarfish? Proto-Suddenese?
  • [Phase 3B1] Oatat-iod-aat — CAP Proto-Marine dialects: Abyssal Proto-Seadawrfish? Islandic Proto-Dwarfish?
  • [Phase 3B2] Taha-doji-tatawo — OPS Proto-Lacustrine-Riparian dialects: Proto-Limnadic; Proto-Nayadic; Proto-Riverelfish?
  • [Phase 3B2] Atah-odij-atatow — CPS Proto-Lacustrine-Riparian dialects: Proto-Heleyonomaic / Proto-Eleyomomaic; Proto-Potameidic
  • [Phase 3B2] Hata-jido-wotata — OAS Proto-Lacustrine-Riparian dialects: Proto-Kelpish?
  • [Phase 3B2] Ahat-ijod-owatat — CAS Proto-Lacustrine-Riparian dialects: Proto-Kelpish?
  • [Phase 3B2] Tatawo-doji-taha — OPP Proto-Lacustrine-Riparian
  • [Phase 3B2] Atatow-odih-atah — CPP Proto-Lacustrine-Riparian dialects: Proto-Padagnaic?
  • [Phase 3B2] Wotata-jido-hata — OAP Proto-Lacustrine-Riparian
  • [Phase 3B2] Owatat-ijod-ahat — CAP Proto-Lacustrine-Riparian
  • [Phase 4A1a] Naa-roi-rarao — OPS Proto-Sylvan-Agrarain dialects: Proto-Drayadic; Proto-Sylvan; Proto-Faerish; Proto-Aldelfish; Proto-Woodelfish; Proto-Leimakidic; Proto-Leimoniadic; Proto-Epimelidic? Proto-Meadowelfish; Proto-Trooping-Faerish? Proto-Oreyadic? Proto-Cryonadic?
  • [Phase 4A1a] Ana-iro-orara — OAS Proto-Sylvan-Agrarain dialects: Proto-Maenadic; Proto-Darkelfish
  • [Phase 4A1a] Rarao-roi-naa — OPP Proto-Sylvan-Agrarain dialects: Proto-Nightelfish? Proto-Huldric? Proto-Moonelfish? Proto-Hesperidic? Proto-Centaurian?
  • [Phase 4A1a] Orara-iro-ana — OAP Proto-Sylvan-Agrarain dialects: Proto-Arachneyadic? Proto-Swartelfish; Proto-Fielddwarfish? Agrarian Proto-Dwarfish?
  • [Phase 4A1b] Ana-ori-araro — CPS Proto-Montane-Nomadic dialects: Proto-Trooping-Faerish? Proto-Oreyadic? Proto-Cryonadic?
  • [Phase 4A1b] Aan-ior-oarar — CAS Proto-Montane-Nomadic dialects: Proto-Ogrish? Proto-Mountainogrish?
  • [Phase 4A1b] Araro-ori-ana — CPP Proto-Montane-Nomadic
  • [Phase 4A1b] Oarar-ior-aar — CAP Proto-Montane-Nomadic dialects: Proto-Dwarfish? Proto-Mountaindwarfish?
  • [Phase 4A2a] Anaj-orij-ararow — CPS Proto-Colline
  • [Phase 4A2a] Ajan-ijor-owarar — CAS Proto-Colline
  • [Phase 4A2a] Ararow-orij-anaj — CPP Proto-Colline
  • [Phase 4A2a] Owarar-ijor-ajar — CAP Proto-Colline
  • [Phase 4A2b] Anah-orij-ararow — CPS Proto-Infernal dialects [1]: Proto-Lampadic?
  • [Phase 4A2b] Ahan-ijor-owarar — CAS Proto-Infernal dialects [1]: Proto-Ortch? Proto-Fomorian?
  • [Phase 4A2b] Ararow-orij-anah — CPP Proto-Infernal [1]
  • [Phase 4A2b] Owarar-ijor-ahan — CAP Proto-Infernal dialects [1]: Infernal Proto-Dwarfish?
  • [Phase 4B1a] Dwa-rwi-ddwo — OPS Proto-Abyssal-Pelagic dialects: Proto-Neraidic; Proto-Oceanidic? Proto-Sea-elfish
  • [Phase 4B1a] Wda-wri-wddo — CPS Proto-Abyssal-Pelagic dialects: Proto-Oceanidic? Proto-Pegaeaic? Proto-Crinaeaic? Proto-Selkish?
  • [Phase 4B1a] Adw-irw-oddw — OAS Proto-Abyssal-Pelagic dialects: Proto-Sirenic
  • [Phase 4B1a] Awd-iwr-owdd — CAS Proto-Abyssal-Pelagic dialects: Proto-Sea-Ortch? Proto-Fomorian?
  • [Phase 4B1a] Ddwo-rwi-dwa — OPP Proto-Abyssal-Pelagic dialects: Proto-Tritonic? Proto-Merrowine?
  • [Phase 4B1a] Wddo-wri-wda — CPP Proto-Abyssal-Pelagic dialects: Proto-Merrowine?
  • [Phase 4B1a] Oddw-irw-adw — OAP Proto-Abyssal-Pelagic dialects: Pelagic Proto-Seadwarfish?
  • [Phase 4B1a] Owdd-iwr-awd — CAP Proto-Abyssal-Pelagic dialects: Abyssal Proto-Seadawrfish?
  • [Phase 4B1b] Daa-roi-dadao — OPS Proto-Coastal-Islandic dialects: Proto-Morean? Proto-Illyrian?
  • [Phase 4B1b] Ada-ori-adado — CPS Proto-Coastal-Islandic dialects: Proto-Selkish?
  • [Phase 4B1b] Ada-iro-odada — OAS Proto-Coastal-Islandic dialects: Proto-Morganic? Proto-Buccan?
  • [Phase 4B1b] Aad-ior-oadad — CAS Proto-Coastal-Islandic dialects: Proto-Necorjan? Proto-Necrinthian?
  • [Phase 4B1b] Dadao-roi-daa — OPP Proto-Coastal-Islandic dialects: Proto-Eridanic?
  • [Phase 4B1b] Adado-ori-ada — CPP Proto-Coastal-Islandic dialects: Proto-Cretan?
  • [Phase 4B1b] Odada-iro-ada — OAP Proto-Coastal-Islandic dialects: Proto-Suddenese?
  • [Phase 4B1b] Oadad-ior-aad — CAP Proto-Coastal-Islandic dialects: Islandic Proto-Dwarfish?
  • [Phase 4B2a] Daha-rowi-dadaho — OPS Proto-Lacustrine-Palustrine dialects: Proto-Limnadic
  • [Phase 4B2a] Adaw-orih-adadow — CPS Proto-Lacustrine-Palustrine dialects: Proto-Heleyonomaic / Proto-Eleyomomaic
  • [Phase 4B2a] Hada-hiro-wodada — OAS Proto-Lacustrine-Palustrine
  • [Phase 4B2a] Ahad-iwor-ohadad — CAS Proto-Lacustrine-Palustrine
  • [Phase 4B2a] Dadaho-rowi-daha — OPP Proto-Lacustrine-Palustrine
  • [Phase 4B2a] Adadow-orih-adah — CPP Proto-Lacustrine-Palustrine
  • [Phase 4B2a] Wodada-hiro-wada — OAP Proto-Lacustrine-Palustrine
  • [Phase 4B2a] Ohadad-iwor-ahad — CAP Proto-Lacustrine-Palustrine
  • [Phase 4B2b] Dha-rji-ddwo — OPS Proto-Potamic-Riparian dialects: Proto-Nayadic; Proto-Riverelfish?
  • [Phase 4B2b] Dah-rij-ddow — CPS Proto-Potamic-Riparian dialects: Proto-Potameidic
  • [Phase 4B2b] Had-jir-wodd — OAS Proto-Potamic-Riparian dialects: Proto-Kelpish?
  • [Phase 4B2b] Ahd-ijr-owdd — CAS Proto-Potamic-Riparian dialects: Proto-Kelpish?
  • [Phase 4B2b] Ddwo-rji-dha — OPP Proto-Potamic-Riparian
  • [Phase 4B2b] Ddow-rih-dah — CPP Proto-Potamic-Riparian dialects: Proto-Padagnaic?
  • [Phase 4B2b] Wodd-jir-had — OAP Proto-Potamic-Riparian
  • [Phase 4B2b] Owdd-ijr-ahd — CAP Proto-Potamic-Riparian
  • [Phase 5A1a1] Na-ri-nho — OPS Proto-Sylvanic dialects: Proto-Drayadic; Proto-Sylvan; Proto-Faerish; Proto-Aldelfish; Proto-Woodelfish
  • [Phase 5A1a1] An-ir-onh — OAS Proto-Sylvanic dialects: Proto-Maenadic; Proto-Darkelfish
  • [Phase 5A1a1] Nho-ri-na — OPP Proto-Sylvanic dialects: Proto-Nightelfish? Proto-Huldric? Proto-Moonelfish? Proto-Hesperidic?
  • [Phase 5A1a1] Onh-ir-an — OAP Proto-Sylvanic dialects: Proto-Arachnyadic; Proto-Swartelfish
  • [Phase 5A1a2] Naa-roi-nhao — OPS Proto-Agrarian dialects: Proto-Leimakidic; Proto-Leimoniadic; Proto-Epimelidic? Proto-Meadowelfish
  • [Phase 5A1a2] Ana-iro-onha — OAS Proto-Agrarian
  • [Phase 5A1a2] Nhao-roi-naa — OPP Proto-Agrarian dialects: Proto-Centaurian?
  • [Phase 5A1a2] Onha-iro-ana — OAP Proto-Agrarian dialects: Agrarian Proto-Dwarfish / Proto-Fielddwarfish?
  • [Phase 5A1b1] Ana-ori-anho — CPS Proto-Nomadic dialects: Proto-Trooping-Faerish?
  • [Phase 5A1b1] Aan-ior-oanh — CAS Proto-Nomadic
  • [Phase 5A1b1] Anho-ori-ana — CPP Proto-Nomadic
  • [Phase 5A1b1] Oanh-ior-aan — CAP Proto-Nomadic
  • [Phase 5A1b2] Na-ri-rho — CPS Proto-Montane dialects: Proto-Oreyadic? Proto-Cryonadic?
  • [Phase 5A1b2] An-ir-orh — CAS Proto-Montane dialects: Proto-Ogrish? Proto-Mountainogrish?
  • [Phase 5A1b2] Rho-ri-na — CPP Proto-Montane
  • [Phase 5A1b2] Orh-ir-an — CAP Proto-Montane dialects: Proto-Dwarfish? Proto-Mountaindwarfish?
  • [Phase 5A2a1] Nah-rij-nhow — CPS Colline languages [1]: Proto-Moundelfish; Proto-Sidhean; Proto-Wooddwarfish?
  • [Phase 5A2a1] Ahn-ijr-ownh — CAS Colline [1]
  • [Phase 5A2a1] Nhow-rij-nah — CPP Colline [1]
  • [Phase 5A2a1] Ownh-ijr-ahn — CAP Colline languages [1]: Colline Proto-Dwarfish / Proto-Hilldwarfish?
  • [Phase 5A2b1] Anah-orij-arrow — CPS Proto-Infernal [2a]
  • [Phase 5A2b1] Ahan-ijor-owarr — CAS Proto-Infernal [2a]
  • [Phase 5A2b1] Arrow-orij-anah — CPP Proto-Infernal [2a]
  • [Phase 5A2b1] Owarr-ijor-ahan — CAP Proto-Infernal [2a]
  • [Phase 5A2b2] Anah-orij-arhow — CPS Proto-Infernal [2b]
  • [Phase 5A2b2] Ahan-ijor-owarh — CAS Proto-Infernal [2b]
  • [Phase 5A2b2] Arhow-orij-anah — CPP Proto-Infernal [2b]
  • [Phase 5A2b2] Owarh-ijor-ahan — CAP Proto-Infernal [2b]
  • [Phase 5A2b3] Anah-orij-anhow — CPS Proto-Infernal [2c]
  • [Phase 5A2b3] Ahan-ijor-owanh — CAS Proto-Infernal [2c]
  • [Phase 5A2b3] Anhow-orij-anah — CPP Proto-Infernal [2c]
  • [Phase 5A2b3] Owanh-ijor-ahan — CAP Proto-Infernal [2c]
  • [Phase 5B1a1] Wda-wri-wdho — CPS Proto-Abyssal dialects: Proto-Oceanidic? Proto-Pegaeaic? Proto-Crinaeaic?
  • [Phase 5B1a1] Awd-iwr-owdh — CAS Proto-Abyssal dialects: Proto-Sea-Ortch? Proto-Formorian?
  • [Phase 5B1a1] Wdho-wri-wda — CPP Proto-Abyssal dialects: Proto-Merrowine?
  • [Phase 5B1a1] Owdh-iwr-awd — CAP Proto-Abyssal dialects: Abyssal Proto-Seadwarfish
  • [Phase 5B1a2] Dwa-rwi-dhwo — OPS Proto-Pelagic dialects: Proto-Nereidic; Proto-Oceanidic? Proto-Sea-elfish?
  • [Phase 5B1a2] Adw-irw-odhw — OAS Proto-Pelagic dialects: Proto-Sirenic; Dark Proto-Sea-elfish / Proto-Seadarkelfish
  • [Phase 5B1a2] Dhwo-rwi-dwa — OPP Proto-Pelagic dialects: Proto-Tritonic; Proto-Merrowine
  • [Phase 5B1a2] Odhw-irw-adw — OAP Proto-Pelagic dialects: Pelagic Proto-Seadwarfish
  • [Phase 5B1b1] Daa-roi-dhao — OPS Proto-Coastal dialects: Proto-Morean? Proto-Illyrian?
  • [Phase 5B1b1] Ada-iro-odha — OAS Proto-Coastal dialects: Proto-Morganic? Proto-Buccan?
  • [Phase 5B1b1] Dhao-roi-daa — OPP Proto-Coastal dialects: Proto-Eridanic?
  • [Phase 5B1b1] Odha-iro-ada — OAP Proto-Coastal dialects: Proto-Suddenese?
  • [Phase 5B1b2] Ada-ori-adho — CPS Proto-Islandic dialects: Proto-Selkish?
  • [Phase 5B1b2] Aad-ior-oadh — CAS Proto-Islandic dialects: Proto-Necorjan? Proto-Necrinthian?
  • [Phase 5B1b2] Adho-ori-ada — CPP Proto-Islandic dialects: Proto-Cretan?
  • [Phase 5B1b2] Oadh-ior-aad — CAP Proto-Islandic dialects: Islandic Proto-Dwarfish?
  • [Phase 5B2a1] Daha-rowi-dhaho — OPS Proto-Lacustrine dialects: Proto-Limnadic
  • [Phase 5B2a1] Hada-hiro-wodha — OAS Proto-Lacustrine
  • [Phase 5B2a1] Dhaho-rowi-daha — OPP Proto-Lacustrine
  • [Phase 5B2a1] Wodha-hiro-wada — OAP Proto-Lacustrine
  • [Phase 5B2a2] Adaw-orih-adhow — CPS Proto-Palustrine dialects: Proto-Heleyonomaic / Proto-Eleyomomaic
  • [Phase 5B2a2] Ahad-iwor-ohadh — CAS Proto-Palustrine
  • [Phase 5B2a2] Adhow-orih-adah — CPP Proto-Palustrine
  • [Phase 5B2a2] Ohadh-iwor-ahad — CAP Proto-Palustrine
  • [Phase 5B2b1] Dah-rij-dhow — CPS Proto-Potamic dialects: Proto-Potameidic
  • [Phase 5B2b1] Ahd-ijr-owdh — CAS Proto-Potamic dialects: Proto-Kelpish?
  • [Phase 5B2b1] Dhow-rih-dah — CPP Proto-Potamic dialects: Proto-Padagnaic?
  • [Phase 5B2b1] Owdh-ijr-ahd — CAP Proto-Potamic
  • [Phase 5B2b2] Dha-rji-dhwo — OPS Proto-Riparian dialects: Proto-Nayadic; Proto-Riverelfish?
  • [Phase 5B2b2] Had-jir-wodh — OAS Proto-Riparian dialects: Proto-Kelpish?
  • [Phase 5B2b2] Dhwo-rji-dha — OPP Proto-Riparian
  • [Phase 5B2b2] Wodh-jir-had — OAP Proto-Riparian
  • [Phase 6A1a1a] Na-ri-lo — OPS Sylvanic languages [1]: Proto-Drayadic; Proto-Sylvan; Proto-Faerish; Proto-Aldelfish; Proto-Woodelfish
  • [Phase 6A1a1a] An-ir-ol — OAS Sylvanic languages [1]: Proto-Maenadic; Proto-Darkelfish
  • [Phase 6A1a1a] Lo-ri-na — OPP Sylvanic languages [1]: Proto-Nightelfish? Proto-Huldric? Proto-Moonelfish? Proto-Hesperidic?
  • [Phase 6A1a1a] Ol-ir-an — OAP Sylvanic languages [1]: Proto-Arachneyadic? Proto-Swartelfish
  • [Phase 6A1a2a] Naa-roi-lao? — OPS Agrarian languages [1]: Proto-Leimakidic; Proto-Leimoniadic; Proto-Epimelidic? Proto-Meadowelfish
  • [Phase 6A1a2a] Ana-iro-ola? — OAS Agrarian [1]
  • [Phase 6A1a2a] Lao-roi-naa? — OPP Agrarian languages [1]: Proto-Centaurian?
  • [Phase 6A1a2a] Ola-iro-ana? — OAP Agrarian languages [1]: Proto-Fielddwarfish? Agrarian Proto-Dwarfish?
  • [Phase 6A1b1a] Ana-ori-alo? — CPS Nomadic languages [1]: Proto-Trooping-Faerish?
  • [Phase 6A1b1a] Aan-ior-oal? — CAS Nomadic [1]
  • [Phase 6A1b1a] Alo-ori-ana? — CPP Nomadic [1]
  • [Phase 6A1b1a] Oal-ior-aan? — CAP Nomadic [1]
  • [Phase 6A1b2a] Na-rhi-ro — CPS Montane languages [1]: Proto-Oreyadic? Proto-Cryonadic?
  • [Phase 6A1b2a] An-iŋr-or — CAS Montane [1]: Proto-Ogrish? Proto-Mountainogrish?
  • [Phase 6A1b2a] Ro-rhi-na — CPP Montane [1]
  • [Phase 6A1b2a] Orr-imhr-an — CAP Montane languages [1]: Proto-Dwarfish? Proto-Mountaindwarfish?
  • [Phase 6A2a1a] Narhiljow? — CPS Colline [2]: Moundelfish; Sidhean; Wooddwarfish?
  • [Phase 6A2a1a] Amhirjowl? — CAS Colline [2]: Felldwarfish?
  • [Phase 6A2a1a] Lorwinjah? — CPP Colline [2]
  • [Phase 6A2a1a] Olwirjahn? — CAP Colline [2]: Colline Dwarfish? Hilldwarfish?
  • [Phase 7A1a1a1] Narilo — OPS Sylvanic [2]: Aldelfish; Woodelfish; Drayadic; Faerish; Sylvan
  • [Phase 7A1a1a1] Anirol — OAS Sylvanic [2]: Darkelfish; Maenadic
  • [Phase 7A1a1a1] Lorina — OPP Sylvanic [2]: Nightelfish; Moonelfish
  • [Phase 7A1a1a1] Oliran — OAP Sylvanic [2]: Swartelfish; Sylvan Oreadic
  • [Phase 7A1a2a1] Naaroilao? — OPS Agrarian [2]: Meadowelfish; Leimakidic; Leimoniadic; Epimelidic
  • [Phase 7A1a2a1] Anairoola? — OAS Agrarian [2]
  • [Phase 7A1a2a1] Laoroinaa? — OPP Agrarian [2]: Centaurian?
  • [Phase 7A1a2a1] Olairoana? — OAP Agrarian [2]: Agrarian Dwarfish?
  • [Phase 7A1b1a1] Anaorialo? — CPS Nomadic [2]: Trooping Faerish?
  • [Phase 7A1b1a1] Aanioroal? — CAS Nomadic [2]
  • [Phase 7A1b1a1] Alooriana? — CPP Nomadic [2]
  • [Phase 7A1b1a1] Oalioraan? — CAP Nomadic [2]
  • [Phase 7A1b2a1] Naliro? — CPS Montane [2]: Glasselflish; Cryonadic; Alpine Oreadic
  • [Phase 7A1b2a1] Aniŋror — CAS Montane [2]: Ogrish?
  • [Phase 7A1b2a1] Rorhina? — CPP Montane [2]
  • [Phase 7A1b2a1] Orriwran — CAP Montane [2]: Mountaindwarfish?




Alphabetical List

This is an alphabetical list of the early Palaeoboreanic dialects.


  • Aad-iod-oadad — CAS Proto-Agrarian-Montane
  • Aad-ior-oadad — CAS Proto-Coastal-Islandic
  • Aad-ior-oadh — CAS Proto-Islandic
  • Aan-ior-oanh — CAS Proto-Nomadic
  • Aan-ior-oarar — CAS Proto-Montane-Nomadic
  • Aat-iod-oatat — CAS Proto-Marine
  • Adado-odi-ada — CPP Proto-Agrarian-Montane
  • Adado-ori-ada — CPP Proto-Coastal-Islandic
  • Adadoq-odiq-adaq — CPP Proto-Terran Palaeboreanic
  • Adadow-odij-adaj — CPP Proto-Chthonic
  • Adadow-orih-adah — CPP Proto-Lacustrine-Palustrine
  • Ada-ido-odada — OAS Proto-Agrarian-Montane
  • Ada-iro-odada — OAS Proto-Coastal-Islandic
  • Ada-iro-odha — OAS Proto-Coastal
  • Adaj-odij-adadow — CPS Proto-Chthonic
  • Ada-odi-adado — CPS Proto-Agrarian-Montane
  • Ada-ori-adado — CPS Proto-Coastal-Islandic
  • Ada-ori-adho — CPS Proto-Islandic
  • Adaq-odiq-adadoq — CPS Proto-Terran Palaeboreanic
  • Adaw-orih-adadow — CPS Proto-Lacustrine-Palustrine
  • Adaw-orih-adhow — CPS Proto-Palustrine
  • Adho-ori-ada — CPP Proto-Islandic
  • Adhow-orih-adah — CPP Proto-Palustrine
  • Adw-irw-oddw — OAS Proto-Abyssal-Pelagic
  • Adw-irw-odhw — OAS Proto-Pelagic
  • Ahad-iwor-ohadad — CAS Proto-Lacustrine-Palustrine
  • Ahad-iwor-ohadh — CAS Proto-Palustrine
  • Ahan-ijor-owanh — CAS Proto-Infernal [2c]
  • Ahan-ijor-owarar — CAS Proto-Infernal [1]
  • Ahan-ijor-owarh — CAS Proto-Infernal [2b]
  • Ahan-ijor-owarr — CAS Proto-Infernal [2a]
  • Ahat-ijod-owatat — CAS Proto-Lacustrine-Riparian
  • Ahd-ijr-owdd — CAS Proto-Potamic-Riparian
  • Ahd-ijr-owdh — CAS Proto-Potamic
  • Ahn-ijr-ownh — CAS Colline [1]
  • Ajad-ijod-owadad — CAS Proto-Chthonic
  • Ajan-ijor-owarar — CAS Proto-Colline
  • Anah-orij-anhow — CPS Proto-Infernal [2c]
  • Anah-orij-ararow — CPS Proto-Infernal [1]
  • Anah-orij-arhow — CPS Proto-Infernal [2b]
  • Anah-orij-arrow — CPS Proto-Infernal [2a]
  • Ana-iro-onha — OAS Proto-Agrarian
  • Ana-iro-orara — OAS Proto-Sylvan-Agrarain
  • Anaj-orij-ararow — CPS Proto-Colline
  • Ana-ori-anho — CPS Proto-Nomadic
  • Ana-ori-araro — CPS Proto-Montane-Nomadic
  • Anho-ori-ana — CPP Proto-Nomadic
  • Anhow-orij-anah — CPP Proto-Infernal [2c]
  • An-ir-onh — OAS Proto-Sylvanic
  • An-ir-orh — CAS Proto-Montane
  • Aqad-iqod-oqadad — CAS Proto-Terran Palaeboreanic
  • Aqat-iqod-oqatat — CAS Proto-Aquan Palaeboreanic
  • Aqat-iqot-oqatat — CAS Proto-Palaeboreanic
  • Araro-ori-ana — CPP Proto-Montane-Nomadic
  • Ararow-orij-anah — CPP Proto-Infernal [1]
  • Ararow-orij-anaj — CPP Proto-Colline
  • Arhow-orij-anah — CPP Proto-Infernal [2b]
  • Arrow-orij-anah — CPP Proto-Infernal [2a]
  • Atah-odij-atatow — CPS Proto-Lacustrine-Riparian
  • Ata-ido-otata — OAS Proto-Marine
  • Ata-odi-atato — CPS Proto-Marine
  • Ataq-odiq-atatoq — CPS Proto-Aquan Palaeboreanic
  • Ataq-otiq-atatoq — CPS Proto-Palaeboreanic
  • Atato-odi-ata — CPP Proto-Marine
  • Atatoq-odiq-ataq — CPP Proto-Aquan Palaeboreanic
  • Atatoq-otiq-ataq — CPP Proto-Palaeboreanic
  • Atatow-odih-atah — CPP Proto-Lacustrine-Riparian
  • Awd-iwr-owdd — CAS Proto-Abyssal-Pelagic
  • Awd-iwr-owdh — CAS Proto-Abyssal
  • Daa-doi-dadao — OPS Proto-Agrarian-Montane
  • Daa-roi-dadao — OPS Proto-Coastal-Islandic
  • Daa-roi-dhao — OPS Proto-Coastal
  • Dadaho-rowi-daha — OPP Proto-Lacustrine-Palustrine
  • Dadao-doi-daa — OPP Proto-Agrarian-Montane
  • Dadao-roi-daa — OPP Proto-Coastal-Islandic
  • Dadaqo-doqi-daqa — OPP Proto-Terran Palaeboreanic
  • Dadawo-doji-daja — OPP Proto-Aerial
  • Daha-rowi-dadaho — OPS Proto-Lacustrine-Palustrine
  • Daha-rowi-dhaho — OPS Proto-Lacustrine
  • Dah-rij-ddow — CPS Proto-Potamic-Riparian
  • Dah-rij-dhow — CPS Proto-Potamic
  • Daja-doji-dadawo — OPS Proto-Aerial
  • Daqa-doqi-dadaqo — OPS Proto-Terran Palaeboreanic
  • Ddow-rih-dah — CPP Proto-Potamic-Riparian
  • Ddwo-rji-dha — OPP Proto-Potamic-Riparian
  • Ddwo-rwi-dwa — OPP Proto-Abyssal-Pelagic
  • Dhaho-rowi-daha — OPP Proto-Lacustrine
  • Dhao-roi-daa — OPP Proto-Coastal
  • Dha-rji-ddwo — OPS Proto-Potamic-Riparian
  • Dha-rji-dhwo — OPS Proto-Riparian
  • Dhow-rih-dah — CPP Proto-Potamic
  • Dhwo-rji-dha — OPP Proto-Riparian
  • Dhwo-rwi-dwa — OPP Proto-Pelagic
  • Dwa-rwi-ddwo — OPS Proto-Abyssal-Pelagic
  • Dwa-rwi-dhwo — OPS Proto-Pelagic
  • Hada-hiro-wodada — PAS Proto-Lacustrine-Palustrine
  • Hada-hiro-wodha — OAS Proto-Lacustrine
  • Had-jir-wodd — OAS Proto-Potamic-Riparian
  • Had-jir-wodh — OAS Proto-Riparian
  • Hata-jido-wotata — OAS Proto-Lacustrine-Riparian
  • Jada-jido-wodada — OAS Proto-Aerial
  • Naa-roi-nhaa — OPS Proto-Agrarian
  • Naa-roi-rarao — OPS Proto-Sylvan-Agrarain
  • Nah-rij-nhow — CPS Colline [1]
  • Na-ri-nho — OPS Proto-Sylvanic
  • Na-ri-rho — CPS Proto-Montane
  • Nhao-roi-naa — OPP Proto-Agrarian
  • Nho-ri-na — OPP Proto-Sylvanic
  • Nhow-rij-nah — CPP Colline [1]
  • Oadad-iod-aad — CAP Proto-Agrarian-Montane
  • Oadad-ior-aad — CAP Proto-Coastal-Islandic
  • Oadh-ior-aad — CAP Proto-Islandic
  • Oanh-ior-aan — CAP Proto-Nomadic
  • Oarar-ior-aar — CAP Proto-Montane-Nomadic
  • Oatat-iod-aat — CAP Proto-Marine
  • Odada-ido-ada — OAP Proto-Agrarian-Montane
  • Odada-iro-ada — OAP Proto-Coastal-Islandic
  • Oddw-irw-adw — OAP Proto-Abyssal-Pelagic
  • Odha-iro-ada — OAP Proto-Coastal
  • Odhw-irw-adw — OAP Proto-Pelagic
  • Ohadad-iwor-ahad — CAP Proto-Lacustrine-Palustrine
  • Ohadh-iwor-ahad — CAP Proto-Palustrine
  • Onha-iro-ana — OAP Proto-Agrarian
  • Onh-ir-an — OAP Proto-Sylvanic
  • Oqadad-iqod-aqad — CAP Proto-Terran Palaeboreanic
  • Oqatat-iqod-aqat — CAP Proto-Aquan Palaeboreanic
  • Oqatat-iqot-aqat — CAP Proto-Palaeboreanic
  • Orara-iro-ana — OAP Proto-Sylvan-Agrarain
  • Orh-ir-an — CAP Proto-Montane
  • Otata-ido-ata — OAP Proto-Marine
  • Owadad-ijod-ajad — CAP Proto-Chthonic
  • Owanh-ijor-ahan — CAP Proto-Infernal [2c]
  • Owarar-ijor-ahan — CAP Proto-Infernal [1]
  • Owarar-ijor-ajar — CAP Proto-Colline
  • Owarh-ijor-ahan — CAP Proto-Infernal [2b]
  • Owarr-ijor-ahan — CAP Proto-Infernal [2a]
  • Owatat-ijod-ahat — CAP Proto-Lacustrine-Riparian
  • Owdd-ijr-ahd — CAP Proto-Potamic-Riparian
  • Owdd-iwr-awd — CAP Proto-Abyssal-Pelagic
  • Owdh-ijr-ahd — CAP Proto-Potamic
  • Owdh-iwr-awd — CAP Proto-Abyssal
  • Ownh-ijr-ahn — CAP Colline [1]
  • Qada-qido-qodada — OAS Proto-Terran Palaeboreanic
  • Qata-qido-qotata — OAS Proto-Aquan Palaeboreanic
  • Qata-qito-qotata — OAS Proto-Palaeboreanic
  • Qodada-qido-qada — OAP Proto-Terran Palaeboreanic
  • Qotata-qido-qata — OAP Proto-Aquan Palaeboreanic
  • Qotata-qito-qata — OAP Proto-Palaeboreanic
  • Rarao-roi-naa — OPP Proto-Sylvan-Agrarain
  • Rho-ri-na — CPP Proto-Montane
  • Taa-doi-tatao — OPS Proto-Marine
  • Taha-doji-tatawo — OPS Proto-Lacustrine-Riparian
  • Taqa-doqi-tataqo — OPS Proto-Aquan Palaeboreanic
  • Taqa-toqi-tataqo — OPS Proto-Palaeboreanic
  • Tatao-doi-taa — OPP Proto-Marine
  • Tataqo-doqi-taqa — OPP Proto-Aquan Palaeboreanic
  • Tataqo-toqi-taqa — OPP Proto-Palaeboreanic
  • Tatawo-doji-taha — OPP Proto-Lacustrine-Riparian
  • Wda-wri-wddo — CPS Proto-Abyssal-Pelagic
  • Wda-wri-wdho — CPS Proto-Abyssal
  • Wddo-wri-wda — CPP Proto-Abyssal-Pelagic
  • Wdho-wri-wda — CPP Proto-Abyssal
  • Wodada-hiro-wada — OAP Proto-Lacustrine-Palustrine
  • Wodada-jido-jada — OAP Proto-Aerial
  • Wodd-jir-had — OAP Proto-Potamic-Riparian
  • Wodha-hiro-wada — OAP Proto-Lacustrine
  • Wodh-jir-had — OAP Proto-Riparian
  • Wotata-jido-hata — OAP Proto-Lacustrine-Riparian




Morphological Overview

Open syllables Preformative morphemes Suffixing lexemes
OPS
OPP
OPH
OAS
OAP
OAH
OHS
OHP
OHH
OPS
OPP
OPH
CPS
CPP
CPH
HPS
HPP
HPH
OPS
OAS
OHS
CPS
CAS
CHS
HPS
HAS
HHS
Closed syllables Afformative morphemes Prefixing lexemes
CPS
CPP
CPH
CAS
CAP
CAH
CHS
CHP
CHH
OAS
OAP
OAH
CAS
CAP
CAH
HAS
HAP
HAH
OPP
OAP
OHP
CPP
CAP
CHP
HPP
HAP
HHP
Hybrid syllables Hybrid morphemes Hybrid affixation
CPS
HPP
HPH
HAS
HAP
HAH
HHS
HHP
HHH
OHS
OHP
OHH
CHS
CHP
CHH
HHS
HHP
HHH
OPH
OAH
OHH
CPH
CAH
CHH
HPH
HAH
HHH

Dialectical Overview

Open morphologies Preformative morphologies Suffixing morphologies Object-Verb-Subject morphologies
OPS-OVS
OPS-SVO
OPS-HYB
OPP-OVS
OPP-SVO
OPP-HYB
OPH-OVS
OPH-SVO
OPH-HYB
OAS-OVS
OAS-SVO
OAS-HYB
OAP-OVS
OAP-SVO
OAP-HYB
OAH-OVS
OAH-SVO
OAH-HYB
OHS-OVS
OHS-SVO
OHS-HYB
OHP-OVS
OHP-SVO
OHP-HYB
OHH-OVS
OHH-SVO
OHH-HYB
OPS-OVS
OPS-SVO
OPS-HYB
OPP-OVS
OPP-SVO
OPP-HYB
OPH-OVS
OPH-SVO
OPH-HYB
CPS-OVS
CPS-SVO
CPS-HYB
CPP-OVS
CPP-SVO
CPP-HYB
CPH-OVS
CPH-SVO
CPH-HYB
HPS-OVS
HPS-SVO
HPS-HYB
HPP-OVS
HPP-SVO
HPP-HYB
HPH-OVS
HPH-SVO
HPH-HYB
OPS-OVS
OPS-SVO
OPS-HYB
OAS-OVS
OAS-SVO
OAS-HYB
OHS-OVS
OHS-SVO
OHS-HYB
CPS-OVS
CPS-SVO
CPS-HYB
CAS-OVS
CAS-SVO
CAS-HYB
CHS-OVS
CHS-SVO
CHS-HYB
HPS-OVS
HPS-SVO
HPS-HYB
HAS-OVS
HAS-SVO
HAS-HYB
HHS-OVS
HHS-SVO
HHS-HYB
OPS-OVS
OPP-OVS
OPH-OVS
OAS-OVS
OAP-OVS
OAH-OVS
OHS-OVS
OHP-OVS
OHH-OVS
CPS-OVS
CPP-OVS
CPH-OVS
CAS-OVS
CAP-OVS
CAH-OVS
CHS-OVS
CHP-OVS
CHH-OVS
HPS-OVS
HPP-OVS
HPH-OVS
HAS-OVS
HAP-OVS
HAH-OVS
HHS-OVS
HHP-OVS
HHH-OVS
Closed morphologies Afformative morphologies Prefixing morphologies Subject-Verb-Object morphologies
CPS-OVS
CPS-SVO
CPS-HYB
CPP-OVS
CPP-SVO
CPP-HYB
CPH-OVS
CPH-SVO
CPH-HYB
CAS-OVS
CAS-SVO
CAS-HYB
CAP-OVS
CAP-SVO
CAP-HYB
CAH-OVS
CAH-SVO
CAH-HYB
CHS-OVS
CHS-SVO
CHS-HYB
CHP-OVS
CHP-SVO
CHP-HYB
CHH-OVS
CHH-SVO
CHH-HYB
OAS-OVS
OAS-SVO
OAS-HYB
OAP-OVS
OAP-SVO
OAP-HYB
OAH-OVS
OAH-SVO
OAH-HYB
CAS-OVS
CAS-SVO
CAS-HYB
CAP-OVS
CAP-SVO
CAP-HYB
CAH-OVS
CAH-SVO
CAH-HYB
HAS-OVS
HAS-SVO
HAS-HYB
HAP-OVS
HAP-SVO
HAP-HYB
HAH-OVS
HAH-SVO
HAH-HYB
OPP-OVS
OPP-SVO
OPP-HYB
OAP-OVS
OAP-SVO
OAP-HYB
OHP-OVS
OHP-SVO
OHP-HYB
CPP-OVS
CPP-SVO
CPP-HYB
CAP-OVS
CAP-SVO
CAP-HYB
CHP-OVS
CHP-SVO
CHP-HYB
HPP-OVS
HPP-SVO
HPP-HYB
HAP-OVS
HAP-SVO
HAP-HYB
HHP-OVS
HHP-SVO
HHP-HYB
OPS-SVO
OPP-SVO
OPH-SVO
OAS-SVO
OAP-SVO
OAH-SVO
OHS-SVO
OHP-SVO
OHH-SVO
CPS-SVO
CPP-SVO
CPH-SVO
CAS-SVO
CAP-SVO
CAH-SVO
CHS-SVO
CHP-SVO
CHH-SVO
HPS-SVO
HPP-SVO
HPH-SVO
HAS-SVO
HAP-SVO
HAH-SVO
HHS-SVO
HHP-SVO
HHH-SVO
O/C hybrid morphologies P/A hybrid morphologies S/P hybrid morphologies OVS/SVO hybrid morphologies
HPS-OVS
HPS-SVO
HPS-HYB
HPP-OVS
HPP-SVO
HPP-HYB
HPH-OVS
HPH-SVO
HPH-HYB
HAS-OVS
HAS-SVO
HAS-HYB
HAP-OVS
HAP-SVO
HAP-HYB
HAH-OVS
HAH-SVO
HAH-HYB
HHS-OVS
HHS-SVO
HHS-HYB
HHP-OVS
HHP-SVO
HHP-HYB
HHH-OVS
HHH-SVO
HHH-HYB
OHS-OVS
OHS-SVO
OHS-HYB
OHP-OVS
OHP-SVO
OHP-HYB
OHH-OVS
OHH-SVO
OHH-HYB
CHS-OVS
CHS-SVO
CHS-HYB
CHP-OVS
CHP-SVO
CHP-HYB
CHH-OVS
CHH-SVO
CHH-HYB
HHS-OVS
HHS-SVO
HHS-HYB
HHP-OVS
HHP-SVO
HHP-HYB
HHH-OVS
HHH-SVO
HHH-HYB
OPH-OVS
OPH-SVO
OPH-HYB
OAH-OVS
OAH-SVO
OAH-HYB
OHH-OVS
OHH-SVO
OHH-HYB
CPH-OVS
CPH-SVO
CPH-HYB
CAH-OVS
CAH-SVO
CAH-HYB
CHH-OVS
CHH-SVO
CHH-HYB
HPH-OVS
HPH-SVO
HPH-HYB
HAH-OVS
HAH-SVO
HAH-HYB
HHH-OVS
HHH-SVO
HHH-HYB
OPS-HYB
OPP-HYB
OPH-HYB
OAS-HYB
OAP-HYB
OAH-HYB
OHS-HYB
OHP-HYB
OHH-HYB
CPS-HYB
CPP-HYB
CPH-HYB
CAS-HYB
CAP-HYB
CAH-HYB
CHS-HYB
CHP-HYB
CHH-HYB
HPS-HYB
HPP-HYB
HPH-HYB
HAS-HYB
HAP-HYB
HAH-HYB
HHS-HYB
HHP-HYB
HHH-HYB

Open, preformative, suffixing, OVS: teqo-papequ-taqo-kitoqa taqi-taqiqo-teqi taqe-toqaqo-takikoqaqo kaqi-kiqi-papequ-tataqo

Gloss: cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Closed, preformative, suffixing, OVS: etoq-abepuq-adoq-ikodaq adiq-adiqoq-ediq adeq-odaqoq-adikogaqoq agiq-ikiq-abepuq-atatoq

Gloss: cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Open, preformative, suffixing, SVO: gaqi-kiqi-bapequ-tataqo daqe-doqaqo-dakigoqaqo daqi-daqiqo-deqi teqo-bapequ-daqo-kidoqa

Gloss: nothing-big-ness-subject exist-verb-past-evidental things-object-all-of cause-big-object-gerund-before

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


Closed, preformative, suffixing, SVO: agiq-ikiq-abepuq-atatoq adeq-odaqoq-adikogaqoq adiq-adiqoq-ediq etoq-abepuq-adoq-ikodaq

Gloss: nothing-big-ness-subject exist-verb-past-evidental things-object-all-of cause-big-object-gerund-before

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


Open, afformative, suffixing, OVS: qote-qupeba-qoda-qadoki qida-qoqida-qide qeda-qoqado-qoqagokida qiga-qiki-qupeba-qotata

Gloss: Cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Closed, afformative, suffixing, OVS: oqet-uqepab-oqad-aqodik iqad-oqiqad-iqed eqad-oqaqod-oqaqogikad iqaq-iqik-uqepab-oqatat

Gloss: Cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Open, afformative, suffixing, SVO: qiga-qiki-qupeba-qotata qeda-qoqado-qoqagokida qida-qoqida-qide qote-qupeba-qoda-qadoki

Gloss: nothing-big-ness-subject exist-verb-past-evidental things-object-all-of cause-big-object-gerund-before

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


Closed, afformative, suffixing, SVO: iqag-iqik-uqepab-oqatat eqad-oqaqod-oqaqogikad iqad-oqiqad-iqed oqet-uqeqab-oqad-aqodik

Gloss: nothing-big-ness-subject exist-verb-past-evidental things-object-all-of cause-big-object-gerund-before

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


Open, preformative, prefixing, OVS: kidoqa-daqo-bapequ-teqo deqi-daqiqo-daqi dakigoqaqo-doqaqo-daqe tataqo-bepequ-kiqi-gaqi

Gloss: before-gerund-object-big-cause of-all-things-object evidental-past-verb-exist subject-ness-big-none

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Closed, preformative, prefixing, OVS: ikodaq-adoq-abepuq-etoq ediq-adiqoq-adiq adikogaqoq-odaqoq-adeq atatoq-edepuq-ikiq-agiq

Gloss: before-gerund-object-big-cause of-all-things-object evidental-past-verb-exist subject-ness-big-none

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Open, preformative, prefixing, SVO: tataqo-bepequ-kiqi-gaqi dakigoqaqo-doqaqo-daqe deqi-daqiqo-daqi kidoqa-daqo-bapequ-teqo

Gloss: subject-ness-big-none evidental-past-verb-exist of-all-things-object before-gerund-object-big-cause

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


Closed, preformative, prefixing, SVO: atatoq-ebepuq-ikiq-agiq adikogaqoq-odaqoq-adeq ediq-adiqoq-adiq ikodaq-adoq-adepuq-etoq

Gloss: subject-ness-big-none evidental-past-verb-exist of-all-things-object before-gerund-object-big-cause

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


Open, afformative, prefixing, OVS: qadoki-qoda-qupeba-qote qide-qoqida-qida qoqagokida-qoqado-qeda qotata-qupeba-qiki-qiga

Gloss: before-gerund-object-big-cause of-all-things-object evidental-past-verb-exist subject-ness-big-none

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Closed, afformative, prefixing, OVS: aqodik-oqad-uqepab-oqet iqed-oqiqad-iqad oqaqogikad-oqaqod-eqad oqatat-uqepab-iqik-iqag

Gloss: before-gerund-object-big-cause of-all-things-object evidental-past-verb-exist subject-ness-big-none

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Open, afformative, prefixing, SVO: qotata-qupeba-qiki-qiga qoqagokida-qoqado-qeda qide-qoqida-qida qadoki-qoda-qupeba-qote

Gloss: subject-ness-big-none evidental-past-verb-exist of-all-things-object before-gerund-object-big-cause

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


Closed, afformative, prefixing, SVO: oqatat-uqepab-iqik-iqag oqaqogikad-oqaqod-eqad iqed-oqiqad-iqad aqodik-oqad-uqepab-oqet

Gloss: subject-ness-big-none evidental-past-verb-exist of-all-things-object before-gerund-object-big-cause

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.



Back-Vowel Voicing

This refers to a change that occured in numerous dialects of various morphologies. In some dialects, consonants adjascent to back vowels (a, u, o) were voiced. In other dialects, consonants adjascent to rounded vowels (y, u, o) were voiced.

Variant Group A: Onset Voicing in Open Dialects

In open dialects, the onsets of syllables with back vowels were voiced.


p > b /_[a]
p > b /_[u]
p > b /_[o]

t > d /_[a]
t > d /_[u]
t > d /_[o]
t > ɾ /_[vowel]_[same vowel]

k > g /_[a]
k > g /_[u]
k > g /_[o]

q > ɦ /_[a]
q > ɦ /_[u]
q > ɦ /_[o]


Da’a-do’i-rara’o
Open, preformative, suffixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: teqo-papequ-taqo-kitoqa taqi-taqiqo-teqi taqe-toqaqo-takikoqaqo kaqi-kiqi-papequ-tataqo

Transliteration 2: deqo-babequ-daqo-gidoqa daqi-daqiqo-deqi daqe-doqaqo-dagigoqaqo gaqi-giqi-babequ-dadaqo

Pronunciation: teɦo-bapeɦu-daɦo-kidoɦa daʔi-daʔiɦo-deʔi daʔe-doɦaɦo-dakigoɦaɦo-gaʔi-kiʔi-bapeɦu-ɾaɾaɦo

Transcription: te’o-bape’u-da’o-kido’a da’i-da’i’o-de’i da’e-do’a’o-dakigo’a’o-ga’i-ki’i-bape’u-rara’o

Gloss: cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Da’a-do’i-rara’o
Open, preformative, suffixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: kaqi-kiqi-papequ-tataqo taqe-toqaqo-takikoqaqo taqi-taqiqo-teqi teqo-papequ-taqo-kitoqa

Transliteration 2: gaqi-giqi-babequ-dadaqo daqe-doqaqo-dagigoqaqo daqi-daqiqo-deqi deqo-babequ-daqo-gidoqa

Pronunciation: gaʔi-kiʔi-bapeɦu-ɾaɾaɦo daʔe-doɦaɦo-dakigoɦaɦo daʔi-daʔiɦo-deʔi teɦo-bapeɦu-daɦo-kidoɦa

Transcription: ga’i-ki’i-bape’u-rara’o da’e-do’a’o-dakigo’a’o da’i-da’i’o-de’i te’o-bape’u-da’o-kido’a

Gloss: nothing-big-ness-subject exist-verb-past-evidental things-object-all-of cause-big-object-gerund-before

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


’Ada-’ido-’orara
Open, afformative, suffixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: qote-qupepa-qota-qatoki qita-qoqita-qite qeta-qoqato-qoqakokita qika-qiki-qupepa-qotata

Transliteration 2: qode-qubeba-qoda-qadogi qida-qoqida-qide qeda-qoqado-qoqagogida qiga-qigi-qubeba-qodada

Pronunciation: ɦote-ɦupeba-ɦoda-ɦadoki ʔida-ɦoʔida-ʔite ʔeda-ɦoɦado-ɦoɦagokida ʔiga-ʔiki-ɦupeba-ɦoɾaɾa

Transcription: ’ote-’upeba-’oda-’adoki ’ida-’o’ida-’ide ’eda-’o’ado-’o’agokida ’iga-’iki-’upeba-’orara

Gloss: Cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


’Ada-’ido-’orara
Open, afformative, suffixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: qika-qiki-qupepa-qotata qeta-qoqato-qoqakokita qita-qoqita-qite qote-qupepa-qota-qatoki

Transliteration 2: qiga-qigi-qubeba-qodada qeda-qoqado-qoqagogida qida-qoqida-qide qode-qubeba-qoda-qadogi

Pronunciation: ʔiga-ʔiki-ɦupeba-ɦoɾaɾa ʔeda-ɦoɦado-ɦoɦagokida ʔida-ɦoʔida-ʔite ɦote-ɦupeba-ɦoda-ɦadoki

Transcription: ’iga-’iki-’upeba-’orara ’eda-’o’ado-’o’agokida ’ida-’o’ida-’ide ’ote-’upeba-’oda-’adoki

Gloss: nothing-big-ness-subject exist-verb-past-evidental things-object-all-of cause-big-object-gerund-before

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


Rara’o-do’i-da’a
Open, preformative, prefixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: kitoqa-taqo-papequ-teqo teqi-taqiqo-taqi takikoqaqo-toqaqo-taqe tataqo-pepequ-kiqi-kaqi

Transliteration 2: gidoqa-daqo-babequ-deqo deqi-daqiqo-daqi dagigoqaqo-doqaqo-daqe dadaqo-bebequ-giqi-gaqi

Pronunciation: kidoɦa-daɦo-bapeɦu-teɦo deʔi-daʔiqo-daʔi dakigoɦaɦo-doɦaɦo-daʔe ɾaɾaɦo-pepeɦu-kiʔi-gaʔi

Transcription: kido’a-da’o-bape’u-te’o de’i-da’i’o-da’i dakigo’a’o-do’a’o-da’e rara’o-bepe’u-ki’i-ga’i

Gloss: before-gerund-object-big-cause of-all-things-object evidental-past-verb-exist subject-ness-big-none

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Rara’o-do’i-da’a
Open, preformative, prefixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: tataqo-pepequ-kiqi-kaqi takikoqaqo-toqaqo-taqe teqi-taqiqo-taqi kitoqa-taqo-papequ-teqo

Transliteration 2: dadaqo-bebequ-giqi-gaqi dagigoqaqo-doqaqo-daqe deqi-daqiqo-daqi gidoqa-daqo-babequ-deqo

Pronunciation: ɾaɾaɦo-bepeɦu-kiʔi-gaʔi dakigoɦaɦo-doɦaɦo-daʔe teʔi-daʔiɦo-daʔi kidoɦa-daɦo-bapeɦu-teɦo

Transcription: rara’o-bepe’u-ki’i-ga’i dakigo’a’o-do’a’o-da’e de’i-da’i’o-da’i kido’a-da’o-bape’u-te’o

Gloss: subject-ness-big-none evidental-past-verb-exist of-all-things-object before-gerund-object-big-cause

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


’Orara-’ido-’ada
Open, afformative, prefixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: qatoki-qota-qupepa-qote qite-qoqita-qita qoqakokita-qoqato-qeta qotata-qupepa-qiki-qika

Transliteration 2: qadogi-qoda-qubeba-qode qide-qoqida-qida qoqagogida-qoqado-qeda qodada-qubeba-qigi-qiga

Pronunciation: ɦadoki-ɦoda-ɦupeba-ɦote ʔite-ɦoʔida-ʔida ɦoɦagokida-ɦoɦado-ʔeda ɦoɾaɾa-ɦupeba-ʔiki-ʔiga

Transcription: ’adoki-’oda-’upeba-’ote ’ite-’oʔida-’ida ’o’agokida-’o’ado-’eda ’orara-’upeba-’iki-’iga

Gloss: before-gerund-object-big-cause of-all-things-object evidental-past-verb-exist subject-ness-big-none

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


’Orara-’ido-’ada

Open, afformative, prefixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: qotata-qupepa-qiki-qika qoqakokita-qoqato-qeta qite-qoqita-qita qatoki-qota-qupepa-qote

Transliteration 2: qodada-qubeba-qigi-qiga qoqagogida-qoqado-qeda qide-qoqida-qida qadogi-qoda-qubeba-qode

Pronunciation: ɦoɾaɾa-ɦupeba-ʔiki-ʔiga ɦoɦagokida-ɦoɦado-ʔeda ʔite-ɦoʔida-ʔida ɦadoki-ɦoda-ɦupeba-ɦote

Pronunciation: ’oɾaɾa-’upeba-’iki-’iga ’o’agokida-’o’ado-’eda ’ite-’o’ida-’ida ’adoki-’oda-’upeba-’ote

Gloss: subject-ness-big-none evidental-past-verb-exist of-all-things-object before-gerund-object-big-cause

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.



Variant Group B: Codal Voicing in Closed Dialects

In closed dialects, the codas of syllables with back vowels were voiced.


p > b /[a]_
p > b /[u]_
p > b /[o]_

t > d /[a]_
t > d /[u]_
t > d /[o]_
t > ɾ /[vowel]_[same vowel]_

k > g /[a]_
k > g /[u]_
k > g /[o]_

q > ɦ /[a]_
q > ɦ /[u]_
q > ɦ /[o]_

Ada’-odi’-araro’
Closed, preformative, suffixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: etoq-apepuq-atoq-ikotaq atiq-atiqoq-etiq ateq-otaqoq-atikokaqoq atiq-ikiq-apepuq-atatoq

Transliteration 2: edoq-abebuq-adoq-igodaq adiq-adiqoq-ediq adeq-odaqoq-adigogaqoq agiq-igiq-abebuq-adadoq

Pronunciation: etoɦ-abepuɦ-adoɦ-ikodaɦ adiʔ-adiʔoɦ-etiʔ adeʔ-odaɦoɦ-adikogaɦoɦ agiʔ-ikiʔ-abepuɦ-aɾaɾoɦ

Transcription: eto’-abepu’-ado’-ikoda’ adi’-adi’o’-eti’ ade’-oda’o’-adikoga’o’ agi’-iki’-abepu’-araro’

Gloss: cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Ada’-odi’-araro’
Closed, preformative, suffixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: atiq-ikiq-apepuq-atatoq ateq-otaqoq-atikokaqoq atiq-atiqoq-etiq etoq-apepuq-atoq-ikotaq

Transliteration 2: agiq-igiq-abebuq-adadoq adeq-odaqoq-adigogaqoq adiq-adiqoq-ediq edoq-abebuq-adoq-igodaq

Pronunciation: agiʔ-ikiʔ-abepuɦ-aɾaɾoɦ adeʔ-odaɦoɦ-adikogaɦoɦ adiʔ-adiqoɦ-etiʔ etoɦ-abepuɦ-adoɦ-ikodaɦ

Gloss: nothing-big-ness-subject exist-verb-past-evidental things-object-all-of cause-big-object-gerund-before

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


A’ad-i’od-o’arar
Closed, afformative, suffixing, OVS

Transliteration: oqet-uqepap-oqat-aqotik iqat-oqiqat-iqet eqat-oqaqot-oqaqokikat iqat-iqik-uqepap-oqatat

Transliteration: oqed-uqebab-oqad-aqodig iqad-oqiqad-iqed eqad-oqaqod-oqaqogigad iqad-iqig-uqebab-oqadad

Pronunciation: oɦet-uɦepab-oɦad-aɦodik iʔad-oɦiʔad-iʔet eʔad-oɦaɦod-oɦaɦogikad iʔag-iʔik-uɦepab-oɦaɾaɾ

Pronunciation: o’et-u’epab-o’ad-a’odik i’ad-o’i’ad-i’et e’ad-o’a’od-o’a’ogikad i’ag-i’ik-u’epab-o’arar

Gloss: Cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


A’ad-i’od-o’arar
Closed, afformative, suffixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: iqak-iqik-uqepap-oqatat eqat-oqaqot-oqaqogikad iqad-oqiqad-iqed oqet-uqeqab-oqad-aqodik

Transliteration 2: iqag-iqig-uqebab-oqadad eqad-oqaqod-oqaqogigad iqad-oqiqad-iqed oqed-uqebab-oqad-aqodig

Pronunciation: iʔag-iʔik-uɦepab-oɦaɾaɾ eʔad-oɦaɦod-oɦaɦogikad iʔad-oɦiʔad-iʔet oɦet-uɦeʔab-oɦad-aɦodik

Pronunciation: i’ag-i’ik-u’epab-o’arar e’ad-o’a’od-o’a’ogikad i’ad-o’i’ad-i’et o’et-u’e’ab-o’ad-a’odik

Gloss: nothing-big-ness-subject exist-verb-past-evidental things-object-all-of cause-big-object-gerund-before

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


Araro’-odi’-ada’
Closed, preformative, prefixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: ikotaq-atoq-apepuq-etoq etiq-atiqoq-atiq atikokaqoq-otaqoq-ateq atatoq-etapuq-ikiq-akiq

Transliteration: igodaq-adoq-abebuq-edoq ediq-adiqoq-adiq adigogaqoq-odaqoq-adeq adadoq-edabuq-igiq-agiq

Pronunciation: ikodaɦ-adoɦ-abepuɦ-etoɦ etiʔ-adiqoɦ-adiʔ adikogaɦoɦ-odaɦoɦ-adeʔ aɾaɾoɦ-edepuɦ-ikiʔ-agiʔ

Transcription: ikoda’-ado’-abepu’-eto’ eti’-adiqo’-adi’ adikoga’o’-oda’o’-ade’ araro’-edepu’-iki’-agi’

Gloss: before-gerund-object-big-cause of-all-things-object evidental-past-verb-exist subject-ness-big-none

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Araro’-odi’-ada’
Closed, preformative, prefixing, SVO

Transliteration: atatoq-epepuq-ikiq-akiq atikokaqoq-otaqoq-ateq etiq-atiqoq-atiq ikotaq-atoq-atepuq-etoq

Transliteration: adadoq-ebebuq-igiq-agiq adigogaqoq-odaqoq-adeq ediq-adiqoq-adiq igodaq-adoq-adepuq-edoq

Pronunciation: aɾaɾoɦ-ebepuɦ-ikiʔ-agiʔ adikogaɦoɦ-odaɦoɦ-adeʔ etiʔ-adiqoɦ-adiʔ ikodaɦ-adoɦ-adepuɦ-etoɦ

Transcription: araro’-ebepu’-iki’-agi’ adikoga’o’-oda’o’-ade’ eti’-adiqo’-adi’ ikoda’-ado’-adepu’-eto’

Gloss: subject-ness-big-none evidental-past-verb-exist of-all-things-object before-gerund-object-big-cause

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


O’arar-i’od-a’ad
Closed, afformative, prefixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: aqotik-oqat-uqepap-oqet iqet-oqiqat-iqat oqaqokikat-oqaqot-eqat oqatat-uqepap-iqik-iqak

Transliteration 2: aqodig-oqad-uqebab-oqed iqed-oqiqad-iqad oqaqogigad-oqaqod-eqad oqadad-uqebab-iqig-iqag

Pronunciation: aɦodik-oɦad-uɦepab-oɦet iʔet-oɦiʔad-iʔad oɦaɦogikad-oɦaɦod-eqad oɦaɾaɾ-uɦepab-iʔik-iʔag

Transcription: a’odik-o’ad-u’epab-o’et i’et-o’i’ad-i’ad o’a’ogikad-o’a’od-eqad o’arar-u’epab-i’ik-i’ag

Gloss: before-gerund-object-big-cause of-all-things-object evidental-past-verb-exist subject-ness-big-none

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


O’arar-i’od-a’ad
Closed, afformative, prefixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: oqatat-uqepap-iqik-iqak oqaqokikat-oqaqot-eqat iqet-oqiqat-iqat aqotik-oqat-uqepap-oqet

Transliteration 2: oqadad-uqebab-iqig-iqag oqaqogigad-oqaqod-eqad iqed-oqiqad-iqad aqodig-oqad-uqebab-oqed

Pronunciation: oɦaɾaɾ-uɦepab-iʔik-iʔag oɦaɦogikad-oɦaɦod-eʔad iʔet-oɦiʔad-iʔad aɦodik-oɦad-uɦepab-oɦet

Transcription: o’arar-u’epab-i’ik-iʔag o’a’ogikad-o’a’od-e’ad i’et-o’i’ad-i’ad a’odik-o’ad-u’epab-o’et

Gloss: subject-ness-big-none evidental-past-verb-exist of-all-things-object before-gerund-object-big-cause

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.



Back-Vowel Voicing
+ Glottal Deconsonantalization

This refers to a change that occured in numerous dialects of various morphologies. In some dialects, consonants adjascent to back vowels (a, u, o) were voiced. In other dialects, consonants adjascent to rounded vowels (y, u, o) were voiced.

Variant Group A: Onset Voicing in Open Dialects

In open dialects, the onsets of syllables with back vowels were voiced.

Daa-doi-rarao
Open, preformative, suffixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: teqo-papequ-taqo-kitoqa taqi-taqiqo-teqi taqe-toqaqo-takikoqaqo kaqi-kiqi-papequ-tataqo

Transliteration 2: deqo-babequ-daqo-gidoqa daqi-daqiqo-deqi daqe-doqaqo-dagigoqaqo gaqi-giqi-babequ-dadaqo

Pronunciation: te.o-bape.u-da.o-kido.a da.i-da.i.o-de.i da.e-do.a.o-dakigo.a.o-ga.i-ki.i-bape.u-ɾaɾa.o

Transcription: teo-bapeu-dao-kidoa dai-daio-dei dae-doao-dakigoao-gai-kii-bapeu-rarao

Gloss: cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Daa-doi-rarao
Open, preformative, suffixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: kaqi-kiqi-papequ-tataqo taqe-toqaqo-takikoqaqo taqi-taqiqo-teqi teqo-papequ-taqo-kitoqa

Transliteration 2: gaqi-giqi-babequ-dadaqo daqe-doqaqo-dagigoqaqo daqi-daqiqo-deqi deqo-babequ-daqo-gidoqa

Pronunciation: ga.i-ki.i-bape.u-ɾaɾa.o da.e-do.a.o-dakigo.a.o da.i-da.i.o-de.i te.o-bape.u-da.o-kido.a

Transcription: gai-kii-bapeu-rarao dae-doao-dakigoao dai-daio-dei teo-bapeu-dao-kidoa

Gloss: nothing-big-ness-subject exist-verb-past-evidental things-object-all-of cause-big-object-gerund-before

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


Ada-odi-orara
Open, afformative, suffixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: qote-qupepa-qota-qatoki qita-qoqita-qite qeta-qoqato-qoqakokita qika-qiki-qupepa-qotata

Transliteration 2: qode-qubeba-qoda-qadogi qida-qoqida-qide qeda-qoqado-qoqagogida qiga-qigi-qubeba-qodada

Pronunciation: ote-upeba-oda-adoki ida-o.ida-ite eda-o.ado-o.agokida iga-iki-upeba-oɾaɾa

Transcription: ote-upeba-oda-adoki ida-oida-ide eda-oado-oagokida iga-iki-upeba-orara

Gloss: Cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Ada-odi-orara
Open, afformative, suffixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: qika-qiki-qupepa-qotata qeta-qoqato-qoqakokita qita-qoqita-qite qote-qupepa-qota-qatoki

Transliteration 2: qiga-qigi-qubeba-qodada qeda-qoqado-qoqagogida qida-qoqida-qide qode-qubeba-qoda-qadogi

Pronunciation: iga-iki-upeba-oɾaɾa eda-o.ado-o.agokida ida-o.ida-ite ote-upeba-oda-adoki

Transcription: iga-iki-upeba-orara eda-oado-oagokida ida-oida-ide ote-upeba-oda-adoki

Gloss: nothing-big-ness-subject exist-verb-past-evidental things-object-all-of cause-big-object-gerund-before

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


Rarao-doi-daa
Open, preformative, prefixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: kitoqa-taqo-papequ-teqo teqi-taqiqo-taqi takikoqaqo-toqaqo-taqe tataqo-pepequ-kiqi-kaqi

Transliteration 2: gidoqa-daqo-babequ-deqo deqi-daqiqo-daqi dagigoqaqo-doqaqo-daqe dadaqo-bebequ-giqi-gaqi

Pronunciation: kido.a-da.o-bape.u-te.o de.i-da.i.o-da.i dakigo.a.o-do.a.o-da.e ɾaɾa.o-pepe.u-ki.i-ga.i

Transcription: kidoa-dao-bapeu-teo dei-daio-dai dakigoao-doao-dae rarao-bepeu-kii-gai

Gloss: before-gerund-object-big-cause of-all-things-object evidental-past-verb-exist subject-ness-big-none

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Rarao-doi-daa
Open, preformative, prefixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: tataqo-pepequ-kiqi-kaqi takikoqaqo-toqaqo-taqe teqi-taqiqo-taqi kitoqa-taqo-papequ-teqo

Transliteration 2: dadaqo-bebequ-giqi-gaqi dagigoqaqo-doqaqo-daqe deqi-daqiqo-daqi gidoqa-daqo-babequ-deqo

Pronunciation: ɾaɾa.o-bepe.u-ki.i-ga.i dakigo.a.o-do.a.o-da.e te.i-da.i.o-da.i kido.a-da.o-bape.u-te.o

Transcription: rarao-bepeu-kii-gai dakigoao-doao-dae dei-daio-dai kidoa-dao-bapeu-teo

Gloss: subject-ness-big-none evidental-past-verb-exist of-all-things-object before-gerund-object-big-cause

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


Orara-ido-ada
Open, afformative, prefixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: qatoki-qota-qupepa-qote qite-qoqita-qita qoqakokita-qoqato-qeta qotata-qupepa-qiki-qika

Transliteration 2: qadogi-qoda-qubeba-qode qide-qoqida-qida qoqagogida-qoqado-qeda qodada-qubeba-qigi-qiga

Pronunciation: adoki-oda-upeba-ote ite-o.ida-ida o.agokida-o.ado-eda oɾaɾa-upeba-iki-iga

Transcription: adoki-oda-upeba-ote ite-oida-ida oagokida-oado-eda orara-upeba-iki-iga

Gloss: before-gerund-object-big-cause of-all-things-object evidental-past-verb-exist subject-ness-big-none

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Orara-ido-ada
Open, afformative, prefixing, SVO

Transliteration: qotata-qupepa-qiki-qika qoqakokita-qoqato-qeta qite-qoqita-qita qatoki-qota-qupepa-qote

Transliteration: qodada-qubeba-qigi-qiga qoqagogida-qoqado-qeda qide-qoqida-qida qadogi-qoda-qubeba-qode

Pronunciation: oɾaɾa-upeba-iki-iga o.agokida-o.ado-eda ite-o.ida-ida adoki-oda-upeba-ote

Transliteration: orara-upeba-iki-iga oagokida-oado-eda ite-oida-ida adoki-oda-upeba-ote

Gloss: subject-ness-big-none evidental-past-verb-exist of-all-things-object before-gerund-object-big-cause

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.



Variant Group B: Codal Voicing in Closed Dialects

In closed dialects, the codas of syllables with back vowels were voiced.


Ada-odi-araro
Closed, preformative, suffixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: etoq-apepuq-adoq-ikotaq atiq-atiqoq-etiq ateq-otaqoq-atikokaqoq akiq-ikiq-apepuq-atatoq

Transliteration 2: edoq-abebuq-adoq-igodaq adiq-adiqoq-ediq adeq-odaqoq-adigogaqoq agiq-igiq-abebuq-adadoq

Pronunciation: eto-abepu-ado-ikoda adi-adio-eti ade-oda.o-adikoga.o agi-iki-abepu-aɾaɾo

Transcription: eto-abepu-ado-ikoda adi-adio-eti ade-odao-adikogao agi-iki-abepu-araro

Gloss: cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Ada-odi-araro
Closed, preformative, suffixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: akiq-ikiq-apepuq-atatoq ateq-otaqoq-atikokaqoq atiq-atiqoq-etiq etoq-apepuq-atoq-ikotaq

Transliteration 2: agiq-igiq-abebuq-atatoq adeq-odaqoq-adigogaqoq adiq-adiqoq-ediq edoq-abebuq-adoq-igodaq

Pronunciation: agi-iki-abepu-aɾaɾo ade-oda.o-adikoga.o adi-adiqo-eti eto-abepu-ado-ikoda

Transcription: agi-iki-abepu-araro ade-odao-adikogao adi-adiqo-eti eto-abepu-ado-ikoda

Gloss: nothing-big-ness-subject exist-verb-past-evidental things-object-all-of cause-big-object-gerund-before

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


Aad-iod-oarar
Closed, afformative, suffixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: oqet-uqepap-oqat-aqotik iqat-oqiqat-iqet eqat-oqaqot-oqaqokikat iqaq-iqik-uqepap-oqatat

Transliteration 2: oqed-uqebab-oqad-aqodig iqad-oqiqad-iqed eqad-oqaqod-oqaqogigad iqaq-iqig-uqebab-oqadad

Pronunciation: o.et-u.epab-o.ad-a.odik i.ad-o.i.ad-i.et e.ad-o.a.od-o.a.ogikad i.ag-i.ik-u.epab-o.aɾaɾ

Transcription: oet-uepab-oad-aodik iad-oiad-iet ead-oaod-oaogikad iag-iik-uepab-oarar

Gloss: Cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Aad-iod-oarar
Closed, afformative, suffixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: iqak-iqik-uqepap-oqatat eqat-oqaqot-oqaqokikat iqat-oqiqat-iqet oqet-uqepap-oqat-aqotik

Transliteration 2: iqag-iqig-uqebab-oqadad eqad-oqaqod-oqaqogigad iqad-oqiqad-iqed oqed-uqebab-oqad-aqodig

Pronunciation: i.ag-i.ik-u.epab-o.aɾaɾ e.ad-o.a.od-o.a.ogikad i.ad-o.i.ad-i.et o.et-u.e.ab-o.ad-a.odik

Transcription: iag-iik-uepab-oarar ead-oaod-oaogikad iad-oiad-iet oet-uepab-oad-aodik

Gloss: nothing-big-ness-subject exist-verb-past-evidental things-object-all-of cause-big-object-gerund-before

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


Araro-ido-ada
Closed, preformative, prefixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: ikotaq-atoq-apepuq-etoq etiq-atiqoq-atiq atikokaqoq-otaqoq-ateq atatoq-epepuq-ikiq-akiq

Transliteration 2: igodaq-adoq-abebuq-edoq ediq-adiqoq-adiq adigogaqoq-odaqoq-adeq adadoq-ebebuq-igiq-agiq

Pronunciation: ikoda-ado-abepu-eto eti-adi.o-adi adikoga.o-oda.o-ade aɾaɾo-epebu-iki-agi

Transcription: ikoda-ado-abepu-eto eti-adio-adi adikogao-odao-ade araro-epebu-iki-agi

Gloss: before-gerund-object-big-cause of-all-things-object evidental-past-verb-exist subject-ness-big-none

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Araro-odi-ada
Closed, preformative, prefixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: atatoq-epepuq-ikiq-akiq atikokaqoq-otaqoq-ateq etiq-atiqoq-atiq ikotaq-atoq-atepuq-etoq

Transliteration 2: adadoq-ebebuq-igiq-agiq adigogaqoq-odaqoq-adeq ediq-adiqoq-adiq igodaq-adoq-adepuq-edoq

Pronunciation: aɾaɾo-ebepu-iki-agi adikoga.o-oda.o-ade eti-adiqo-adi ikoda-ado-adepu-eto

Transcription: araro-ebepu-iki-agi adikogao-odao-ade eti-adiqo-adi ikoda-ado-adepu-eto

Gloss: subject-ness-big-none evidental-past-verb-exist of-all-things-object before-gerund-object-big-cause

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


Oarar-iod-aad
Closed, afformative, prefixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: aqotik-oqat-uqepap-oqet iqet-oqiqat-iqat oqaqokikat-oqaqot-eqat oqatat-uqepap-iqik-iqak

Transliteration 2: aqodig-oqad-uqebab-oqed iqed-oqiqad-iqad oqaqogigad-oqaqod-eqad oqadad-uqebab-iqig-iqag

Pronunciation: a.odik-o.ad-u.epab-o.et i.et-o.i.ad-i.ad o.a.ogikad-o.a.od-eqad o.aɾaɾ-u.epab-i.ik-i.ag

Transcription: aodik-oad-uepab-oet iet-oiad-iad oaogikad-oaod-eqad oarar-uepab-iik-iag

Gloss: before-gerund-object-big-cause of-all-things-object evidental-past-verb-exist subject-ness-big-none

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Oarar-iod-aad
Closed, afformative, prefixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: oqatat-uqepab-iqik-iqag oqaqogikad-oqaqod-eqad iqed-oqiqad-iqad aqodik-oqad-uqepab-oqet

Transliteration 2: oqatat-uqepab-iqik-iqag oqaqogikad-oqaqod-eqad iqed-oqiqad-iqad aqodik-oqad-uqepab-oqet

Pronunciation: o.aɾaɾ-u.epab-i.ik-i.ag o.a.ogikad-o.a.od-e.ad i.et-o.i.ad-i.ad a.odik-o.ad-u.epab-o.et

Transcription: oarar-uepab-iik-iag oaogikad-oaod-ead iet-oiad-iad aodik-oad-uepab-oet

Gloss: subject-ness-big-none evidental-past-verb-exist of-all-things-object before-gerund-object-big-cause

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.



Back-Vowel Voicing
+ Glottal Deconsonantalization
+ Further Lenition

This refers to a change that occured in numerous dialects of various morphologies. In some dialects, consonants adjascent to back vowels (a, u, o) were voiced. In other dialects, consonants adjascent to rounded vowels (y, u, o) were voiced.

Variant Group A: Onset Voicing in Open Dialects

In open dialects, the onsets of syllables with back vowels were voiced.


b > m /_[a]
p > b /_[e]
p > ɸ /_[y]
b > β /_[u]
b > w /_[o]

d > n /_[a]
t > d /_[e]
t > s /_[y]
n > z /_[u]
n > ɹ /_[o]
ɾ > ɾ /_[vowel]_[same vowel]

g > ŋ /_[a]
k > g /_[e]
k > x /_[y]
g > ɣ /_[u]
g > ʎ /_[o]

Na’a-ro’i-rara’o
Open, preformative, suffixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: teqo-papequ-taqo-kitoqa taqi-taqiqo-teqi taqe-toqaqo-takikoqaqo kaqi-kiqi-papequ-tataqo

Transliteration 2: deqo-babequ-daqo-gidoqa daqi-daqiqo-deqi daqe-doqaqo-dagigoqaqo gaqi-giqi-babequ-dadaqo

Pronunciation: dĕ.o-mabĕ.u-nă.o-kiɹŏ.a nă.i-nă.ĭ.o-bĕ.i nă.e-ɹŏ.ă.o-nakiʎŏ.ă.o-ŋă.i-kĭ.i-mabĕ.u-ɾăɾă.o

Transcription: de’o-mabe’u-na’o-kiro’a na’i-na’i’o-de’i na’e-do’a’o-nakijo’a’o-ŋa’i-ki’i-mabe’u-rara’o

Gloss: cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Na’a-ro’i-rara’o
Open, preformative, suffixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: kaqi-kiqi-papequ-tataqo taqe-toqaqo-takikoqaqo taqi-taqiqo-teqi teqo-papequ-taqo-kitoqa

Transliteration 2: gaqi-giqi-babequ-dadaqo daqe-doqaqo-dagigoqaqo daqi-daqiqo-deqi deqo-babequ-daqo-gidoqa

Pronunciation: ŋa.i-ki.i-mabe.u-ɾaɾa.o na.e-ɹo.a.o-nakiʎo.a.o na.i-na.i.o-de.i de.o-mabe.u-na.o-kiɹo.a

Transcription: ŋa’i-ki’i-mabe’u-rara’o na’e-ro’a’o-nakijo’a’o na’i-na’i’o-de’i de’o-mabe’u-na’o-kiro’a

Gloss: nothing-big-ness-subject exist-verb-past-evidental things-object-all-of cause-big-object-gerund-before

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


’Ana-’iro-’orara
Open, afformative, suffixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: qote-qupepa-qota-qatoki qita-qoqita-qite qeta-qoqato-qoqakokita qika-qiki-qupepa-qotata

Transliteration 2: qode-qubeba-qoda-qadogi qida-qoqida-qide qeda-qoqado-qoqagogida qiga-qigi-qubeba-qodada

Pronunciation: ode-ubema-ona-aɹoki ina-o.ina-ide ena-o.aɹo-o.aʎokina iŋa-iki-ubema-oɾaɾa

Transcription: ’ode-’ubema-’ona-’aroki ’ina-’o’ina-’ide ’ena-’o’aro-’o’aʎokina ’iŋa-’iki-’ubema-’orara

Gloss: Cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


’Ana-’iro-’orara
Open, afformative, suffixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: qika-qiki-qupepa-qotata qeta-qoqato-qoqakokita qita-qoqita-qite qote-qupepa-qota-qatoki

Transliteration 2: qiga-qigi-qubeba-qodada qeda-qoqado-qoqagogida qida-qoqida-qide qode-qubeba-qoda-qadogi

Pronunciation: iŋa-iki-ubema-oɾaɾa ena-o.aɹo-o.aʎokina ina-o.ina-ide ode-ubema-oda-aɹoki

Transcription: ’iŋa-’iki-’ubema-’orara ’ena-’o’aro-’o’ajokina ’ina-’o’ina-’ide ’ode-’ubema-’ona-’aroki

Gloss: nothing-big-ness-subject exist-verb-past-evidental things-object-all-of cause-big-object-gerund-before

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


Rara’o-ro’i-na’a
Open, preformative, prefixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: kitoqa-taqo-papequ-teqo teqi-taqiqo-taqi takikoqaqo-toqaqo-taqe tataqo-pepequ-kiqi-kaqi

Transliteration 2: gidoqa-daqo-babequ-deqo deqi-daqiqo-daqi dagigoqaqo-doqaqo-daqe dadaqo-bebequ-giqi-gaqi

Pronunciation: kiɹo.a-na.o-mabe.u-de.o de.i-na.i.o-da.i nakiʎo.a.o-ɹ'o.a.o-na.e ɾaɾaɦo-bebeɦu-ki.i-ŋa.i

Transcription: kiro’a-na’o-mabe’u-de’o de’i-na’i’o-na’i nakijo’a’o-ro’a’o-na’e rara’o-mabe’u-ki’i-ŋa’i

Gloss: before-gerund-object-big-cause of-all-things-object evidental-past-verb-exist subject-ness-big-none

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Rara’o-ro’i-na’a
Open, preformative, prefixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: tataqo-pepequ-kiqi-kaqi takikoqaqo-toqaqo-taqe teqi-taqiqo-taqi kitoqa-taqo-papequ-teqo

Transliteration 2: dadaqo-bebequ-giqi-gaqi dagigoqaqo-doqaqo-daqe deqi-daqiqo-daqi gidoqa-daqo-babequ-deqo

Pronunciation: ɾaɾa.o-mabe.u-ki.i-ŋa.i nakiʎo.a.o-ɹo.a.o-na.e de.i-na.i.o-naʔi kiʎo.a-na.o-mabe.u-de.o

Transcription: rara’o-mabe’u-ki’i-ŋa’i nakijo’a’o-ro’a’o-da’e de’i-da’i’o-da’i kido’a-da’o-bape’u-te’o

Gloss: subject-ness-big-none evidental-past-verb-exist of-all-things-object before-gerund-object-big-cause

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


’Orara-’iro-’ana
Open, afformative, prefixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: qatoki-qota-qupepa-qote qite-qoqita-qita qoqakokita-qoqato-qeta qotata-qupepa-qiki-qika

Transliteration 2: qadogi-qoda-qubeba-qode qide-qoqida-qida qoqagogida-qoqado-qeda qodada-qubeba-qigi-qiga

Pronunciation: aɹoki-ona-ubema-ode ide-o.ina-ina o.aɹokina-o.aɹo-ena oɾaɾa-ubema-iki-iŋa

Transcription: ’aroki-’ona-’ubema-’ode ’ide-’oʔina-’ina ’o’ajokina-’o’aro-’ena ’orara-’ubema-’iki-’iŋa

Gloss: before-gerund-object-big-cause of-all-things-object evidental-past-verb-exist subject-ness-big-none

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


’Orara-’iro-’ana

Open, afformative, prefixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: qotata-qupepa-qiki-qika qoqakokita-qoqato-qeta qite-qoqita-qita qatoki-qota-qupepa-qote

Transliteration 2: qodada-qubeba-qigi-qiga qoqagogida-qoqado-qeda qide-qoqida-qida qadogi-qoda-qubeba-qode

Pronunciation: oɾaɾa-ubema-iki-iŋa o.aʎokina-o.aɹo-ena ide-o.ina-ina aɹoki-ona-ubema-ode

Transcription: ’orara-’ubema-’iki-’iŋa ’o’ajokina-’o’aro-’ena ’ide-’o’ina-’ina ’aroki-’ona-’ubema-’ode

Gloss: subject-ness-big-none evidental-past-verb-exist of-all-things-object before-gerund-object-big-cause

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.



Variant Group B: Codal Voicing in Closed Dialects

In closed dialects, the codas of syllables with back vowels were voiced.


b > m /[a]_
p > b /[e]_
p > ɸ /[y]_
b > β /[u]_
b > w /[o]_

d > n /[a]_
t > d /[e]_
t > s /[y]_
n > z /[u]_
n > ɹ /[o]_
ɾ > ɾ /[vowel]_[same vowel]_

g > ŋ /[a]_
k > g /[e]_
k > x /[y]_
g > ɣ /[u]_
g > ʎ /[o]_

Ana’-ori’-araro’
Closed, preformative, suffixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: etoq-apepuq-atoq-ikotaq atiq-atiqoq-etiq ateq-otaqoq-atikokaqoq atiq-ikiq-apepuq-atatoq

Transliteration 2: edoq-abebuq-adoq-igodaq adiq-adiqoq-ediq adeq-odaqoq-adigogaqoq agiq-igiq-abebuq-adadoq

Pronunciation: ĕdo-ămĕbu-ăno-ĭkŏɹa ăni-ăni.o-ĕbi ăne-̆oɹa.o-ănĭkŏʎa.o-ăŋi-ĭkĭ-ămĕbu-ăɾăɾo

Transcription: edo’-amebu’-ano’-ikora’ ani’-ani’o’-edi’ ane’-ora’o’-anikoja’o’ aŋi’-iki’-amebu’-araro’

Gloss: cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Ana’-ori’-araro’
Closed, preformative, suffixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: akiq-ikiq-apepuq-atatoq ateq-otaqoq-atikokaqoq atiq-atiqoq-etiq etoq-apepuq-atoq-ikotaq

Transliteration 2: agiq-igiq-abebuq-adadoq adeq-odaqoq-adigogaqoq adiq-adiqoq-ediq edoq-abebuq-adoq-igodaq

Pronunciation: aŋi-iki-amebu-aɾaɾo ane-oɹa.o-anikoɹa.o ani-ani.o-edi edo-amebu-ano-ikoɹa

Transcription: aŋi-iki-amebu-araro ane-oɹa’o-anikora’o ani-ani’o-edi edo-amebu-ano-ikora

Gloss: nothing-big-ness-subject exist-verb-past-evidental things-object-all-of cause-big-object-gerund-before

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


A’an-i’or-o’arar
Closed, afformative, suffixing, OVS

Transliteration: oqet-uqepap-oqat-aqotik iqat-oqiqat-iqet eqat-oqaqot-oqaqokikat iqat-iqik-uqepap-oqatat

Transliteration: oqed-uqebab-oqad-aqodig iqad-oqiqad-iqed eqad-oqaqod-oqaqogigad iqad-iqig-uqebab-oqadad

Pronunciation: o.ed-u.ebam-o.an-a.oɹik i.ad-o.i.an-i.ed e.an-o.a.oɹ-o.a.oʎikan i.aŋ-i.ik-u.ebam-o.aɾaɾ

Transcription: o’ed-u’ebam-o’an-a’orik i’an-o’i’an-i’ed e’an-o’a’or-o’a’ojikan i’aŋ-i’ik-u’ebam-o’arar

Gloss: Cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


A’an-i’or-o’arar
Closed, afformative, suffixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: iqak-iqik-uqepap-oqatat eqat-oqaqot-oqaqogikad iqad-oqiqad-iqed oqet-uqeqab-oqad-aqodik

Transliteration 2: iqag-iqig-uqebab-oqadad eqad-oqaqod-oqaqogigad iqad-oqiqad-iqed oqed-uqebab-oqad-aqodig

Pronunciation: i.aŋ-i.ik-u.ebam-o.aɾaɾ e.an-o.a.oɹ-o.a.oʎikan i.an-o.i.an-i.ed o.ed-u.e.an-o.an-a.oʎik

Transcription: i’aŋ-i’ik-u’ebam-o’arar e’an-o’a’or-o’a’ojikan i’an-o’i’an-i’ed o’ed-u’ebam-o’an-a’orik

Gloss: nothing-big-ness-subject exist-verb-past-evidental things-object-all-of cause-big-object-gerund-before

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


Araro’-ori’-ana’
Closed, preformative, prefixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: ikotaq-atoq-apepuq-etoq etiq-atiqoq-atiq atikokaqoq-otaqoq-ateq atatoq-etapuq-ikiq-akiq

Transliteration: igodaq-adoq-abebuq-edoq ediq-adiqoq-adiq adigogaqoq-odaqoq-adeq adadoq-edabuq-igiq-agiq

Pronunciation: ikoɹa-ano-amebu-edo edi-ani.o-ani anikoʎa.o-oɹa.o-ane aɾaɾo-amebu-iki-aŋi

Transcription: ikora’-ano’-amebu’-edo’ edi’-ani’o’-ani’ anikoja’o’-ora’o’-ane’ araro’-amebu’-iki’-aŋi’

Gloss: before-gerund-object-big-cause of-all-things-object evidental-past-verb-exist subject-ness-big-none

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Araro’-ori’-ana’
Closed, preformative, prefixing, SVO

Transliteration: atatoq-epepuq-ikiq-akiq atikokaqoq-otaqoq-ateq etiq-atiqoq-atiq ikotaq-atoq-atepuq-etoq

Transliteration: adadoq-ebebuq-igiq-agiq adigogaqoq-odaqoq-adeq ediq-adiqoq-adiq igodaq-adoq-adepuq-edoq

Pronunciation: aɾaɾo-amebu-iki-aŋi anikoʎa.o-oɹa.o-ane edi-ani.o-ani ikoʎa-ano-amebu-edo

Transcription: araro’-amebu’-iki’-aŋi’ anikoja’o’-ora’o’-ane’ edi’-ani’o’-ani’ ikora’-ano’-amebu’-edo’

Gloss: subject-ness-big-none evidental-past-verb-exist of-all-things-object before-gerund-object-big-cause

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


O’arar-i’or-a’an
Closed, afformative, prefixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: aqotik-oqat-uqepap-oqet iqet-oqiqat-iqat oqaqokikat-oqaqot-eqat oqatat-uqepap-iqik-iqak

Transliteration 2: aqodig-oqad-uqebab-oqed iqed-oqiqad-iqad oqaqogigad-oqaqod-eqad oqadad-uqebab-iqig-iqag

Pronunciation: a.oʎik-o.an-u.ebam-o.ed i.ed-o.i.an-i.an o.a.oʎikan-o.a.oɹ-e.an o.ɾaɾ-u.ebam-i.ik-i.aŋ

Transcription: a’orik-o’an-u’ebam-o’ed i’ed-o’i’an-i’an o’a’ojiknd-o’a’or-e’an o’arar-u’ebam-i’ik-i’aŋ

Gloss: before-gerund-object-big-cause of-all-things-object evidental-past-verb-exist subject-ness-big-none

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


O’arar-i’or-a’an
Closed, afformative, prefixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: oqatat-uqepap-iqik-iqak oqaqokikat-oqaqot-eqat iqet-oqiqat-iqat aqotik-oqat-uqepap-oqet

Transliteration 2: oqadad-uqebab-iqig-iqag oqaqogigad-oqaqod-eqad iqed-oqiqad-iqad aqodig-oqad-uqebab-oqed

Pronunciation: o.arar-u.ebam-i.ik-i.aŋ o.a.oʎikan-o.a.or-e.an i.ed-o.i.an-i.an a.orik-o.an-u.ebam-o.ed

Transcription: o’arar-u’ebam-i’ik-i’aŋ o’a’ojikan-o’a’or-e’an i’ed-o’i’ad-i’an a’orik-o’an-u’ebam-o’ed

Gloss: subject-ness-big-none evidental-past-verb-exist of-all-things-object before-gerund-object-big-cause

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.



Back-Vowel Voicing
+ Glottal Deconsonantalization
+ Further Lenition
+ Synalœpha

Variant I: ?

This change was only possible for open suffixing dialects and closed prefixing dialects.


a.a > a: /C_
a.e > aɛ /C_
a.i > aɪ /C_
a.y > aʏ /C_
a.u > aʊ /C_
a.o > aɔ /C_

e.a > ɛa /C_
e.e > e: /C_
pe.i > ɛɪ /C_
e.y > ɛʏ /C_
e.u > ɛʊ /C_
e.o > ɛɔ /C_

i.a > ɪa /C_
i.e > ɪɛ /C_
i.i > i: /C_
i.y > ɪʏ /C_
i.u > ɪʊ /C_
i.o > ɪɔ /C_

y.a > ʏa /C_
y.e > ʏɛ /C_
y.i > ʏɪ /C_
y.y > y: /C_
y.u > ʏʊ /C_
y.o > ʏɔ /C_

u.a > ʊa /C_
u.e > ʊɛ /C_
u.i > ʊɪ /C_
u.y > ʊʏ /C_
u.u > u: /C_
u.o > ʊɔ /C_

o.a > ɔa /C_
o.e > ɔɛ /C_
o.i > ɔɪ /C_
o.y > ɔʏ /C_
o.u > ɔʊ /C_
o.o > o:

Sample: dɛɔ-mabɛʊ-naɔ-kirɔa naɪ-naɪ.o-dɛi naɛ-ɹɔa.o-nakiʎɔa.o-ŋa-ɪki:-mabɛʊ-ɾăɾaɔ

ɪa
Naa-roi-rarao
Open, preformative, suffixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: teo-papeu-tao-kitoa tai-taio-tei tae-toao-takikoao kai-kii-papeu-tatao

Transliteration 2: deo-babeu-dao-gidoa dai-daio-dei dae-doao-dagigoao gai-gii-babeu-dadao

Pronunciation: dɛɔ-mabɛʊ-naɔ-kirɔa naɪ-naɪ.o-dɛɪ naɛ-ɹɔa.o-nakiʎɔa.o ŋaɪ-ki:-mabɛʊ-ɾăɾaɔ

Transcription: deo-mabeu-nao-kiroa nai-naio-dei nae-roao-nakijoao-ŋai-kii-mabeu-rarao

Gloss: cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Naa-roi-rarao
Open, preformative, suffixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: kai-kii-papeu-tatao tae-toao-takikoao tai-taio-tei teo-papeu-tao-kitoa

Transliteration 2: gai-gii-babeu-dadao dae-doao-dagigoao dai-daio-dei deo-babeu-dao-gidoa

Pronunciation: ŋaɪ-kɪ:-mabɛʊ-ɾaɾaɔ naɛ-rɔa.o-nakiʎɔa.o naɪ-naɪ.o-dɛɪ dɛɔ-mabɛʊ-naɔ-kirɔa

Transcription: ŋai-kii-mabeu-rarao nae-roao-nakijoao nai-naio-dei deo-mabeu-nao-kiroa

Gloss: nothing-big-ness-subject exist-verb-past-evidental things-object-all-of cause-big-object-gerund-before

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


Ana-iro-orara
Open, afformative, suffixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: ote-upepa-ota-atoki ita-oita-ite eta-oato-oakokita ika-iki-upepa-otata

Transliteration 2: ode-ubeba-oda-adogi ida-oida-ide eda-oado-oagogida iga-igi-ubeba-odada

Pronunciation: ode-ubema-ona-aroki ina-oina-ide ena-ɔaro-ɔaʎokina iŋa-iki-ubema-oɾaɾa

Transcription: ode-ubema-ona-aroki ina-oina-ide ena-oaro-oajokina iŋa-iki-ubema-orara

Gloss: Cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Ana-iro-orara
Open, afformative, suffixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: ika-iki-upepa-otata eta-oato-oakokita ita-oita-ite ote-upepa-ota-atoki

Transliteration 2: iga-igi-ubeba-odada eda-oado-oagogida ida-oida-ide ode-ubeba-oda-adogi

Pronunciation: iŋa-iki-ubema-oɾaɾa ena-ɔaro-ɔaʎokina ina-oina-ide ode-ubema-ona-aroki

Transcription: iŋa-iki-ubema-orara ena-oaro-oajokina ina-oina-ide ode-ubema-ona-aroki

Gloss: nothing-big-ness-subject exist-verb-past-evidental things-object-all-of cause-big-object-gerund-before

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


Rarao-roi-naa
Open, preformative, prefixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: kitoa-tao-papeu-teo tei-taio-tai takikoao-toao-tae tatao-pepeu-kii-kai

Transliteration 2: gidoa-dao-babeu-deo dei-daio-dai dagigoao-doao-dae dadao-bebeu-gii-gai

Pronunciation: kiɹɔa-naɔ-mabɛʊ-dɛɔ dɛɪ-naɪ.o-naɪ nakiʎɔa.o-rɔa.o-naɛ ɾaɾaɔ-mabɛʊ-kɪ:-ŋaɪ

Transcription: kiroa-nao-mabeu-deo dei-naio-nai nakijoao-roao-nae rarao-mabeu-kii-ŋai

Gloss: before-gerund-object-big-cause of-all-things-object evidental-past-verb-exist subject-ness-big-none

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Rarao-roi-naa
Open, preformative, prefixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: tatao-pepeu-kii-kai takikoao-toao-tae tei-taio-tai kitoa-tao-papeu-teo

Transliteration 2: dadao-bebeu-gii-gai dagigoao-doao-dae dei-daio-dai gidoa-dao-babeu-deo

Pronunciation: ɾaɾaɔ-mabɛʊ-kɪ:-ŋaɪ dakiʎɔa.o-rɔa.o-naɛ dɛɪ-naɪ.o-naɪ kirɔa-naɔ-mabɛʊ-dɛɔ

Transcription: rarao-mabeu-kii-ŋai nakijoao-roao-dae dei-daio-dai kidoa-dao-bapeu-teo

Gloss: subject-ness-big-none evidental-past-verb-exist of-all-things-object before-gerund-object-big-cause

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


Orara-iro-ana
Open, afformative, prefixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: atoki-ota-upepa-ote ite-oita-ita oakokita-oato-eta otata-upepa-iki-ika

Transliteration 2: adogi-oda-ubeba-ode ide-oida-ida oagogida-oado-eda odada-ubeba-igi-iga

Pronunciation: aroki-ona-ubema-ode ide-oina-ina ɔaʎokina-ɔaro-ena oɾaɾa-ubema-iki-iŋa

Transcription: aroki-ona-ubema-ode ide-oina-ina oajokina-oaro-ena orara-ubema-iki-iŋa

Gloss: before-gerund-object-big-cause of-all-things-object evidental-past-verb-exist subject-ness-big-none

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Orara-iro-ana

Open, afformative, prefixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: otata-upepa-iki-ika oakokita-oato-eta ite-oita-ita atoki-ota-upepa-ote

Transliteration 2: odada-ubeba-igi-iga oagogida-oado-eda ide-oida-ida adogi-oda-ubeba-ode

Pronunciation: oɾaɾa-ubema-iki-iŋa ɔaʎokina-ɔaro-ena ide-oina-ina aroki-ona-ubema-ode

Transcription: orara-ubema-iki-iŋa oajokina-oaro-na ide-oina-ina aroki-ona-ubema-ode

Gloss: subject-ness-big-none evidental-past-verb-exist of-all-things-object before-gerund-object-big-cause

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.



Variant II: ?

This change was only possible for open suffixing dialects and closed prefixing dialects.


a.a > a: /_C
a.e > aɛ /_C
a.i > aɪ /_C
a.y > aʏ /_C
a.u > aʊ /_C
a.o > aɔ /_C

e.a > ɛa /_C
e.e > e: /_C
pe.i > ɛɪ /_C
e.y > ɛʏ /_C
e.u > ɛʊ /_C
e.o > ɛɔ /_C

i.a > ɪa /_C
i.e > ɪɛ /_C
i.i > i: /_C
i.y > ɪʏ /_C
i.u > ɪʊ /_C
i.o > ɪɔ /_C

y.a > ʏa /_C
y.e > ʏɛ /_C
y.i > ʏɪ /_C
y.y > y: /_C
y.u > ʏʊ /_C
y.o > ʏɔ /_C

u.a > ʊa /_C
u.e > ʊɛ /_C
u.i > ʊɪ /_C
u.y > ʊʏ /_C
u.u > u: /_C
u.o > ʊɔ /_C

o.a > ɔa /_C
o.e > ɔɛ /_C
o.i > ɔɪ /_C
o.y > ɔʏ /_C
o.u > ɔʊ /_C
o.o > o:

Ana-ori-araro
Formerly-closed, preformative, suffixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: eto-apepu-ato-ikota ati-atio-eti ate-otao-atikokao ati-iki-apepu-atato

Transliteration 2: edo-abebu-ado-igoda adi-adio-edi ade-odao-adigogao agi-igi-abebu-adado

Pronunciation: edo-amebu-ano-ikoɹa ani-anio-edi ane-oɹaɔ-anikoʎaɔ-aŋi-iki-amebu-aɾaɾo

Transcription: edo-amebu-ano-ikora ani-anio-edi ane-orao-anikojao aŋi-iki-amebu-araro

Gloss: cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Ana-ori-araro
Formerly-closed, preformative, suffixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: aki-iki-apepu-atato ate-otao-atikokao ati-atio-eti eto-apepu-ato-ikota

Transliteration 2: agi-igi-abebu-adado ade-odao-adigogao adi-adio-edi edo-abebu-ado-igoda

Pronunciation: aŋi-iki-amebu-aɾaɾo ane-oɹaɔ-anikoʎaɔ ani-anio-edi edo-amebu-ano-ikoɹa

Transcription: aŋi-iki-amebu-araro ane-oɹao-anikojao ani-anio-edi edo-amebu-ano-ikora

Gloss: nothing-big-ness-subject exist-verb-past-evidental things-object-all-of cause-big-object-gerund-before

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


Aan-ior-oarar
Closed, afformative, suffixing, OVS

Transliteration: oet-uepap-oat-aotik iat-oiat-iet eat-oaot-oaokikat iat-iik-uepap-oatat

Transliteration: oed-uebab-oad-aodig iad-oiad-ied ead-oaod-oaogigad iad-iig-uebab-oadad

Pronunciation: oed-ʊɛbam-ɔan-aɔɹik ɪad-o.ɪan-ɪɛd ɛan-o.aɔɹ-o.aɔʎikan ɪaŋ-ɪ:k-ʊɛbam-ɔaɾaɾ

Transcription: oed-uebam-oan-aorik ian-oian-ied ean-oaor-oaojikan iaŋ-iik-uebam-oarar

Gloss: Cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Aan-ior-oarar
Closed, afformative, suffixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: iak-iik-uepap-oatat eat-oaot-oaogikad iad-oiad-ied oet-ueab-oad-aodik

Transliteration 2: iag-iig-uebab-oadad ead-oaod-oaogigad iad-oiad-ied oed-uebab-oad-aodig

Pronunciation: ɪaŋ-ɪ:k-ʊɛbam-ɔaɾaɾ ɛan-oaɔɹ-o.aɔʎikan ɪan-o.ɪan-ɪɛd oed-u.ɛan-ɔan-aɔʎik

Transcription: iaŋ-iik-uebam-oarar ean-oaor-oaojikan ian-oian-ied oed-uebam-oan-aorik

Gloss: nothing-big-ness-subject exist-verb-past-evidental things-object-all-of cause-big-object-gerund-before

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


Araro-ori-ana
Closed, preformative, prefixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: ikota-ato-apepu-eto eti-atio-ati atikokao-otao-ate atato-etapu-iki-aki

Transliteration: igoda-ado-abebu-edo edi-adio-adi adigogao-odao-ade adado-ebabu-igi-agi

Pronunciation: ikoɹa-ano-amebu-edo edi-anio-ani anikoʎaɔ-oɹaɔ-ane aɾaɾo-amebu-iki-aŋi

Transcription: ikora-ano-amebu-edo edi-anio-ani anikojao-orao-ane araro-amebu-iki-aŋi

Gloss: before-gerund-object-big-cause of-all-things-object evidental-past-verb-exist subject-ness-big-none

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Araro-ori-ana
Closed, preformative, prefixing, SVO

Transliteration: atato-epepu-iki-aki atikokao-otao-ate eti-atio-ati ikota-ato-apepu-eto

Transliteration: adado-ebebu-igi-agi adigogao-odao-ade edi-adio-adi igoda-ado-abebu-edo

Pronunciation: aɾaɾo-amebu-iki-aŋi anikoʎaɔ-oɹaɔ-ane edi-anio-ani ikoʎa-ano-amebu-edo

Transcription: araro-amebu-iki-aŋi anikojao-orao-ane edi-anio-ani ikora-ano-amebu-edo

Gloss: subject-ness-big-none evidental-past-verb-exist of-all-things-object before-gerund-object-big-cause

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


Oarar-ior-aan
Closed, afformative, prefixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: aotik-oat-uepap-oet iet-oiat-iat oaokikat-oaot-eat oatat-uepap-iik-iak

Transliteration 2: aodig-oad-uebab-oed ied-oiad-iad oaogigad-oaod-ead oadad-uebab-iig-iag

Pronunciation: aɔʎik-ɔan-ʊɛbam-oed ɪɛd-o.ɪan-ɪan o.aɔʎikan-o.aɔɹ-ɛan o.ɾaɾ-ʊɛbam-ɪ:k-ɪaŋ

Transcription: aorik-oan-uebam-oed ied-oian-ian oaojikad-oaor-ean oarar-uebam-iik-iaŋ

Gloss: before-gerund-object-big-cause of-all-things-object evidental-past-verb-exist subject-ness-big-none

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Oarar-ior-aan
Closed, afformative, prefixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: oatat-uepap-iik-iak oaokikat-oaot-eat iet-oiat-iat aotik-oat-uepap-oet

Transliteration 2: oadad-uebab-iig-iag oaogigad-oaod-ead ied-oiad-iad aodig-oad-uebab-oed

Pronunciation: ɔarar-ʊɛbam-ɪ:k-ɪaŋ o.aɔʎikan-o.aɔr-ɛan ɪɛd-o.ɪan-ɪan aɔrik-ɔan-ʊɛbam-oed

Transcription: oarar-uebam-iik-iaŋ oaojikan-oaor-ean ied-oiad-ian aorik-oan-uebam-oed

Gloss: subject-ness-big-none evidental-past-verb-exist of-all-things-object before-gerund-object-big-cause

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.



Back-Vowel Voicing
+ Glottal Deconsonantalization
+ Further Lenition
+ Consonantal Vowel Deletion

This refers to a change that occured in numerous dialects of various morphologies. In some dialects, consonants adjascent to back vowels (a, u, o) were voiced. In other dialects, consonants adjascent to rounded vowels (y, u, o) were voiced.

Variant Group A: Onset Voicing in Open Dialects

In open dialects, the onsets of syllables with back vowels were voiced.


ba > ma > m
pe > be > b
pi > pi > p
py > ɸy > ɸ
bu > βu > β
bo > wo > w

da > na > n
te > de > d
ti > ti > t
ty > sy > s
du > zu > z
do > ɹo > ɹ
tata > ɾaɾa > l

ga > ŋa > ŋ
ke > ge > g
ki > ki > k
ky > xy > x
gu > ɣu > ɣ
go > ʎo > ʎ

Na-ri-lo
Open, preformative, suffixing, OVS
(Elfish; Dryadic; Faerish)

Transliteration 1: do-mbu-no-kra ni-nio-di ne-rao-nkjao ŋi-ki-mbu-rro

Pronunciation: do-mbu-no-kɹa ni-ni.o-di ne-ɹa.o-nkʎa.o-ŋi-ki-mbu-lo

Transcription: do-mbu-no-kra ni-nio-di ne-rao-nkyao ngi-ki-mbu-lo

Gloss: cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Na-ri-lo
Open, preformative, suffixing, SVO
(Faerish; Dryadic; Elfish)

Transliteration 1: ŋi-ki-mbu-rro ne-rao-nkjao ni-nio-di do-mbu-no-kra

Pronunciation: ŋi-ki-mbu-lo ne-ɹa.o-nkʎa.o ni-ni.o-di do-mbu-no-kɹa

Transcription: ngi-ki-mbu-lo ne-rao-nkyao ni-nio-di do-mbu-no-kra

Gloss: nothing-big-ness-subject exist-verb-past-evidental things-object-all-of cause-big-object-gerund-before

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


An-ir-ol
Formerly-open, afformative, suffixing, OVS
(Darkelfish; Maenadic; Dark Faerish)

Transliteration 1: od-ubm-on-ark in-oin-id en-oar-oajkn iŋ-ik-ubm-orr

Pronunciation: od-ubm-on-aɹk in-o.in-id en-o.aɹ-o.aʎkn iŋ-ik-ubm-ol

Transcription: od-ubm-on-ark in-o.in-id en-oar-oaykn ing-ik-ubm-ol

Gloss: Cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


An-ir-ol
Formerly-open, afformative, suffixing, SVO
(Darkelfish; Maenadic; Dark Faerish)

Transliteration 1: iŋ-ik-ubm-orr en-oar-oajkn in-oin-id en od-ubm-on-ark

Pronunciation: iŋ-ik-ubm-ol en-o.aɹ-o.aʎkn in-o.in-id od-ubm-on-aɹk

Transcription: ing-ik-ubm-ol en-oar-oaykn in-o.in-id od-ubm-on-ark

Gloss: nothing-big-ness-subject exist-verb-past-evidental things-object-all-of cause-big-object-gerund-before

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


Lo-ri-na
Open, preformative, prefixing, OVS
(Moonelfish; Nightelfish; Oreadic; Dark Faerish)

Transliteration 1: kra-no-mbu-do di-nio-ni nkjao-rao-ne rro-mbu-ki-ŋi

Pronunciation: kɹa-no-mbu-do di-ni.o-di nkʎa.o-ɹa.o-ne lo-mbu-ki-ŋi

Transcription: kra-no-mbu-do di-nio-ni nkjao-rao-ne lo-mbu-ki-ngi

Gloss: before-gerund-object-big-cause of-all-things-object evidental-past-verb-exist subject-ness-big-none

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Lo-ri-na
Open, preformative, prefixing, SVO
(Moonelfish; Nightelfish; Dark Faerish)

Transliteration 1: rro-mbu-ki-ŋi nkjao-rao-ne di-nio-ni kra-no-mbu-do

Pronunciation: lo-mbu-ki-ŋi nkʎa.o-ɹa.o-ne di-ni.o-ni kɹa-no-mbu-do

Transcription: lo-mbu-ki-ngi nkyao-rao-ne di-nio-ni kra-no-mbu-do

Gloss: subject-ness-big-none evidental-past-verb-exist of-all-things-object before-gerund-object-big-cause

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


Ol-ir-an
Formerly-open, afformative, prefixing, OVS
(Oreadic)

Transliteration 1: ark-on-ubm-od id-oin-in oajkn-oar-en orr-ubm-ik-iŋ

Pronunciation: aɹk-on-ubm-od id-o.in-in o.aɹkn-o.aɹ-en ol-ubm-ik-iŋ

Transcription: ark-on-ubm-od id-oin-in oajkn-oar-en ol-ubm-ik-ing

Gloss: before-gerund-object-big-cause of-all-things-object evidental-past-verb-exist subject-ness-big-none

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Ol-ir-an
Formerly-open, afformative, prefixing, SVO
(Oreadic)

Transliteration 1: orr-ubm-ik-iŋ oajkn-oar-en id-oin-in ark-on-ubm-od

Pronunciation: ol-ubm-ik-iŋ o.aɹkn-o.aɹ-en id-o.in-in aɹk-on-ubm-od

Transcription: ol-ubm-ik-ing oaykn-oar-en id-oin-in ark-on-ubm-od

Gloss: subject-ness-big-none evidental-past-verb-exist of-all-things-object before-gerund-object-big-cause

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.



Variant Group B: Codal Voicing in Closed Dialects

In closed dialects, the codas of syllables with back vowels were voiced.


ab > am > m
ep > eb > b
ip > ip > p
yp > yɸ > ɸ
ub > uβ > β
ob > ow > w

ad > an > n
et > de > d
it > ti > t
yt > sy > s
ud > zu > z
od > oɹ > ɹ
atat > aɾaɾ > rr

ag > aŋ > ŋ
ek > eg > g
ik > ik > k
yk > yx > x
ug > uɣ > ɣ
og > oʎ > ʎ

Na-ri-rro
Formerly-closed, preformative, suffixing, OVS
(Wood-gnomish)

Transliteration 1: do-mbu-no-kra ni-nio-di ne-rao-nkjao ŋi-ki-mbu-rro

Pronunciation: do-mbu-no-kɹa ni-ni.o-di ne-ɹa.o-nkʎa.o-ŋi-ki-mbu-ɾɾo

Transcription: do-mbu-no-kra ni-nio-di ne-rao-nkyao ngi-ki-mbu-rro

Gloss: cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Na-ri-rro
Formerly-closed, preformative, suffixing, SVO
(Wood-gnomish)

Transliteration 1: ŋi-ki-mbu-rro ne-rao-nkjao ni-nio-di do-mbu-no-kra

Pronunciation: ŋi-ki-mbu-ɾɾo ne-ɹa.o-nkʎa.o ni-ni.o-di do-mbu-no-kɹa

Transcription: ngi-ki-mbu-rro ne-rao-nkyao ni-nio-di do-mbu-no-kra

Gloss: nothing-big-ness-subject exist-verb-past-evidental things-object-all-of cause-big-object-gerund-before

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


An-ir-orr
Closed, afformative, suffixing, OVS
(Swartelfish; Lampadic; Under-Faerish)

Transliteration 1: od-ubm-on-ark in-oin-id en-oar-oajkn iŋ-ik-ubm-orr

Pronunciation: od-ubm-on-aɹk in-o.in-id en-o.aɹ-o.aʎkn iŋ-ik-ubm-oɾɾ

Transcription: od-ubm-on-ark in-o.in-id en-oar-oaykn ing-ik-ubm-orr

Gloss: Cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


An-ir-orr
Closed, afformative, suffixing, SVO
(Swartelfish; Lampadic; Under-Faerish)

Transliteration 1: iŋ-ik-ubm-orr en-oar-oajkn in-oin-id en od-ubm-on-ark

Pronunciation: iŋ-ik-ubm-oɾɾ en-o.aɹ-o.aʎkn in-o.in-id od-ubm-on-aɹk

Transcription: ing-ik-ubm-orr en-oar-oaykn in-o.in-id od-ubm-on-ark

Gloss: nothing-big-ness-subject exist-verb-past-evidental things-object-all-of cause-big-object-gerund-before

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


Rro-ri-na
Formerly-closed, preformative, prefixing, OVS
(Oreadic)

Transliteration 1: kra-no-mbu-do di-nio-ni nkjao-rao-ne rro-mbu-ki-ŋi

Pronunciation: kɹa-no-mbu-do di-ni.o-di nkʎa.o-ɹa.o-ne ɾɾo-mbu-ki-ŋi

Transcription: kra-no-mbu-do di-nio-ni nkjao-rao-ne rro-mbu-ki-ngi

Gloss: before-gerund-object-big-cause of-all-things-object evidental-past-verb-exist subject-ness-big-none

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Rro-ri-na
Formerly-closed, preformative, prefixing, SVO
(Oreadic)

Transliteration 1: rro-mbu-ki-ŋi nkjao-rao-ne di-nio-ni kra-no-mbu-do

Pronunciation: ɾɾo-mbu-ki-ŋi nkʎa.o-ɹa.o-ne di-ni.o-ni kɹa-no-mbu-do

Transcription: rro-mbu-ki-ngi nkyao-rao-ne di-nio-ni kra-no-mbu-do

Gloss: subject-ness-big-none evidental-past-verb-exist of-all-things-object before-gerund-object-big-cause

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


Orr-ir-an
Closed, afformative, prefixing, OVS
(Hillogrish)

Transliteration 1: ark-on-ubm-od id-oin-in oajkn-oar-en orr-ubm-ik-iŋ

Pronunciation: aɹk-on-ubm-od id-o.in-in o.aɹkn-o.aɹ-en oɾɾ-ubm-ik-iŋ

Transcription: ark-on-ubm-od id-oin-in oajkn-oar-en orr-ubm-ik-ing

Gloss: before-gerund-object-big-cause of-all-things-object evidental-past-verb-exist subject-ness-big-none

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Orr-ir-an
Closed, afformative, prefixing, SVO
(Hillogrish)

Transliteration 1: orr-ubm-ik-iŋ oajkn-oar-en id-oin-in ark-on-ubm-od

Pronunciation: oɾɾ-ubm-ik-iŋ o.aɹkn-o.aɹ-en id-o.in-in aɹk-on-ubm-od

Transcription: orr-ubm-ik-ing oaykn-oar-en id-oin-in ark-on-ubm-od

Gloss: subject-ness-big-none evidental-past-verb-exist of-all-things-object before-gerund-object-big-cause

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.



Sound change 2: The Great Vowel Deletion

Sound change 2 with orthographical change 1


ba(q) or pa(q) = /ma/ > ppp = /m/
be(q) or pe(q) = /be/ > pp = /b/
bi(q) or pi(q) = /ɸi/ > qp = /ɸ/
by(q) or py(q) = /py/ > p = /p/
bu(q) or pu(q) = /βu/ > qpp = /β/
bo(q) or po(q) = /wo/ > qppp = /w/

da(q) or ta(q) = /na/ > ttt = /n/
de(q) or te(q) = /de/ > tt = /d/
di(q) or ti(q) = /si/ > qt = /s/
dy(q) or ty(q) = /ty/ > t = /t/
du(q) or tu(q) = /zu/ > qtt = /z/
do(q) or to(q) = /ro/ > qttt = /r/

dada(q) or tata(q) = /la/ > tttttt /l/
dede(q) or tete(q) = /ðe/ > ? /ð/
didi(q) or titi(q) = /ʃi/ > ? /ʃ/
dydy(q) or tyty(q) = /θy/ > ? /θ/
dudu(q) or tutu(q) = /ʒu/ > ? /ʒ/
dodo(q) or toto(q) = /rho/ > ???

ga(q) or ka(q) = /ŋa/ > kkk /ŋ/
ge(q) or ke(q) = /ge/ > kk /g/
gi(q) or ki(q) = /xi/ > qk /x/
gy(q) or ky(q) = /ky/ > k /k/
gu(q) or ku(q) = /ɣu/ > qkk /ɣ/
go(q) or ko(q) = /jo/ > qkkk /j/

New version: Ttoppppputttokqttta tttitttiotti ttteqtttaotttkqkkkao Kkkikippppputttttto. Kkkikitttopppqpppi ttttttatettttttaotttkqkkkao kkkikipppppupitttttto; pitttio kitttattttttaotttkqkkku kkkikipppppupitttttto. Qppqtttikkttti, ttteqtttiokkkue ttttttatikitttttto. Qtttoettaeqtttootttkqkkka tttittttttiottttta taokaeqtttotttkqkkkue tttittttttiotttta. Kitttikipitttotti taakaeqtttaotttkqkkkaa ttttttatikitttttto. Qtttautteqtttaotttkqkkkaa pppaeqtikitttttto. Pppaeqtikititttppppi ttteqtttiotttue tttittttttio.


Sound change 2 with orthographical change 2

Orthographical change 2 is separate and distinct from orthographical change 1. Orthrographical change 2 does not follow sequentially or build upon orthographical change 1.


ba(q) or pa(q) = /ma/ > m = /m/
be(q) or pe(q) = /be/ > ph = /b/
bi(q) or pi(q) = /ɸi/ > pp = /ɸ/
by(q) or py(q) = /py/ > p = /p/
bu(q) or pu(q) = /βu/ > phph = /β/
bo(q) or po(q) = /wo/ > mh = /w/

da(q) or ta(q) = /na/ > n = /n/
de(q) or te(q) = /de/ > th = /d/
di(q) or ti(q) = /si/ > tt = /s/
dy(q) or ty(q) = /ty/ > t = /t/
du(q) or tu(q) = /zu/ > thth = /z/
do(q) or to(q) = /ro/ > nh = /r/

dada(q) or tata(q) = /la/ > nn /l/
dede(q) or tete(q) = /ðe/ > ? /ð/
didi(q) or titi(q) = /ʃi/ > ? /ʃ/
dydy(q) or tyty(q) = /θy/ > ? /θ/
dudu(q) or tutu(q) = /ʒu/ > ? /ʒ/
dodo(q) or toto(q) = /rho/ > ???

ga(q) or ka(q) = /ŋa/ > ŋ /ŋ/
ge(q) or ke(q) = /ge/ > kh /g/
gi(q) or ki(q) = /xi/ > kk /x/
gy(q) or ky(q) = /ky/ > k /k/
gu(q) or ku(q) = /ɣu/ > khkh /ɣ/
go(q) or ko(q) = /jo/ > ŋh /j/

New version: Thomphunoknha niniothi nenhaonkŋhao Ŋikimphunno. Ŋikinommhi nnatennaonkŋhao ŋikimphupinno; pinio kinannaonkŋhu ŋikimphupinno. Phphŋhikhni, nenhioŋue nnatikinno. Nhoedaenhoonkŋha ninniontha taokaenhonkŋhue ninnionta. Kinikipinothi taakaenhaonkŋhaa nnatikinno. Nhaudenhaonkŋhaa maettikinno. Maettikitinmpi nenhionue ninnio.


Sound change 2 with orthographical change 3

Orthographical change 3 follows sequentially from and builds upon orthographical change 2.


m = /m/
ph = /b/ > b = /b/
pp = /ɸ/ > ph = /ɸ/
p = /p/
phph = /β/ > bh = /β/
mh = /w/ > mh /w/

n = /n/
th = /d/ > d = /d/
tt = /s/ > s = /s/
t = /t/
thth = /z/ > z = /z/
nh = /r/

nn /l/ > = l /l/
? /ð/ > dh = /ð/
? /ʃ/ > sh /ʃ/
? /θ/ > th = /θ/
? /ʒ/ > zh = /ʒ/
???

ŋ /ŋ/
kh = /g/ > g = /g/
kk = /x/ > kh = /x/
k = /k/
khkh = /ɣ/ > gh /ɣ/
ŋh = /j/ > lh = /j/

Newer version: Dombunoknha niniodi nenhaonklhao-Ŋikimbulo. Ŋikinommhi latelaonklhao-Ŋikimbupilo; pinio kinalaonklhu-ŋikimbupilo. Bhlhigni, nenhioŋue-latikilo. Nhoedaenhoonklhoa-nilionda taokaenhoonklhue-nilionta. Kinikipinodi taakaenhaonklhaa-latikilo. Nhaudenhaonklhaa-maesikilo. Maesikitinompi nenhionue-nilio.


Sound change 2 with orthographical change 4

Orthographical change 4 follows sequentially from and builds upon orthographical change 3.


m = /m/
b = /b/
ph = /ɸ/ > f = /ɸ/
p = /p/
bh = /β/ > v = /β/
mh /w/ > w /w/

n = /n/
d = /d/
s = /s/
t = /t/
z = /z/
nh = /r/ > r = /r/

l /l/
dh = /ð/ > ð = /ð/
sh /ʃ/ > ? = /ʃ/
> th = /θ/ > þ = /θ/
zh = /ʒ/ > ? = /ʒ/
???

ŋ /ŋ/
g = /g/
kh = /x/ > x = /x/
k = /k/
gh /ɣ/ > ? = /ɣ/
lh = /j/ > y = /j/

Newerer version: Dombunokra niniodi neraonkyao-Ŋikimbulo. Ŋikinomwi latelaonkyao-Ŋikimbupilo; pinio kinalaonkyu-ŋikimbupilo. Vyigni, nerioŋue-latikilo. Roedaeroonkyoa-nilionda taokaeroonkyue-nilionta. Kinikipinodi taakaeraonkyaa-latikilo. Rauderaonkyaa-maesikilo. Maesikitinompi nerionue-nilio.



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