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Palæoboreanic Languages

Copyright © 2004-2020 C.E. by Dustin Jon Scott

Morphological Overview

Open syllables Preformative morphemes Suffixing lexemes
OPS
OPP
OPH
OAS
OAP
OAH
OHS
OHP
OHH
OPS
OPP
OPH
CPS
CPP
CPH
HPS
HPP
HPH
OPS
OAS
OHS
CPS
CAS
CHS
HPS
HAS
HHS
Closed syllables Afformative morphemes Prefixing lexemes
CPS
CPP
CPH
CAS
CAP
CAH
CHS
CHP
CHH
OAS
OAP
OAH
CAS
CAP
CAH
HAS
HAP
HAH
OPP
OAP
OHP
CPP
CAP
CHP
HPP
HAP
HHP
Hybrid syllables Hybrid morphemes Hybrid affixation
CPS
HPP
HPH
HAS
HAP
HAH
HHS
HHP
HHH
OHS
OHP
OHH
CHS
CHP
CHH
HHS
HHP
HHH
OPH
OAH
OHH
CPH
CAH
CHH
HPH
HAH
HHH

Dialectical Overview

Open morphologies Preformative morphologies Suffixing morphologies Object-Verb-Subject morphologies
OPS-OVS
OPS-SVO
OPS-HYB
OPP-OVS
OPP-SVO
OPP-HYB
OPH-OVS
OPH-SVO
OPH-HYB
OAS-OVS
OAS-SVO
OAS-HYB
OAP-OVS
OAP-SVO
OAP-HYB
OAH-OVS
OAH-SVO
OAH-HYB
OHS-OVS
OHS-SVO
OHS-HYB
OHP-OVS
OHP-SVO
OHP-HYB
OHH-OVS
OHH-SVO
OHH-HYB
OPS-OVS
OPS-SVO
OPS-HYB
OPP-OVS
OPP-SVO
OPP-HYB
OPH-OVS
OPH-SVO
OPH-HYB
CPS-OVS
CPS-SVO
CPS-HYB
CPP-OVS
CPP-SVO
CPP-HYB
CPH-OVS
CPH-SVO
CPH-HYB
HPS-OVS
HPS-SVO
HPS-HYB
HPP-OVS
HPP-SVO
HPP-HYB
HPH-OVS
HPH-SVO
HPH-HYB
OPS-OVS
OPS-SVO
OPS-HYB
OAS-OVS
OAS-SVO
OAS-HYB
OHS-OVS
OHS-SVO
OHS-HYB
CPS-OVS
CPS-SVO
CPS-HYB
CAS-OVS
CAS-SVO
CAS-HYB
CHS-OVS
CHS-SVO
CHS-HYB
HPS-OVS
HPS-SVO
HPS-HYB
HAS-OVS
HAS-SVO
HAS-HYB
HHS-OVS
HHS-SVO
HHS-HYB
OPS-OVS
OPP-OVS
OPH-OVS
OAS-OVS
OAP-OVS
OAH-OVS
OHS-OVS
OHP-OVS
OHH-OVS
CPS-OVS
CPP-OVS
CPH-OVS
CAS-OVS
CAP-OVS
CAH-OVS
CHS-OVS
CHP-OVS
CHH-OVS
HPS-OVS
HPP-OVS
HPH-OVS
HAS-OVS
HAP-OVS
HAH-OVS
HHS-OVS
HHP-OVS
HHH-OVS
Closed morphologies Afformative morphologies Prefixing morphologies Subject-Verb-Object morphologies
CPS-OVS
CPS-SVO
CPS-HYB
CPP-OVS
CPP-SVO
CPP-HYB
CPH-OVS
CPH-SVO
CPH-HYB
CAS-OVS
CAS-SVO
CAS-HYB
CAP-OVS
CAP-SVO
CAP-HYB
CAH-OVS
CAH-SVO
CAH-HYB
CHS-OVS
CHS-SVO
CHS-HYB
CHP-OVS
CHP-SVO
CHP-HYB
CHH-OVS
CHH-SVO
CHH-HYB
OAS-OVS
OAS-SVO
OAS-HYB
OAP-OVS
OAP-SVO
OAP-HYB
OAH-OVS
OAH-SVO
OAH-HYB
CAS-OVS
CAS-SVO
CAS-HYB
CAP-OVS
CAP-SVO
CAP-HYB
CAH-OVS
CAH-SVO
CAH-HYB
HAS-OVS
HAS-SVO
HAS-HYB
HAP-OVS
HAP-SVO
HAP-HYB
HAH-OVS
HAH-SVO
HAH-HYB
OPP-OVS
OPP-SVO
OPP-HYB
OAP-OVS
OAP-SVO
OAP-HYB
OHP-OVS
OHP-SVO
OHP-HYB
CPP-OVS
CPP-SVO
CPP-HYB
CAP-OVS
CAP-SVO
CAP-HYB
CHP-OVS
CHP-SVO
CHP-HYB
HPP-OVS
HPP-SVO
HPP-HYB
HAP-OVS
HAP-SVO
HAP-HYB
HHP-OVS
HHP-SVO
HHP-HYB
OPS-SVO
OPP-SVO
OPH-SVO
OAS-SVO
OAP-SVO
OAH-SVO
OHS-SVO
OHP-SVO
OHH-SVO
CPS-SVO
CPP-SVO
CPH-SVO
CAS-SVO
CAP-SVO
CAH-SVO
CHS-SVO
CHP-SVO
CHH-SVO
HPS-SVO
HPP-SVO
HPH-SVO
HAS-SVO
HAP-SVO
HAH-SVO
HHS-SVO
HHP-SVO
HHH-SVO
O/C hybrid morphologies P/A hybrid morphologies S/P hybrid morphologies OVS/SVO hybrid morphologies
HPS-OVS
HPS-SVO
HPS-HYB
HPP-OVS
HPP-SVO
HPP-HYB
HPH-OVS
HPH-SVO
HPH-HYB
HAS-OVS
HAS-SVO
HAS-HYB
HAP-OVS
HAP-SVO
HAP-HYB
HAH-OVS
HAH-SVO
HAH-HYB
HHS-OVS
HHS-SVO
HHS-HYB
HHP-OVS
HHP-SVO
HHP-HYB
HHH-OVS
HHH-SVO
HHH-HYB
OHS-OVS
OHS-SVO
OHS-HYB
OHP-OVS
OHP-SVO
OHP-HYB
OHH-OVS
OHH-SVO
OHH-HYB
CHS-OVS
CHS-SVO
CHS-HYB
CHP-OVS
CHP-SVO
CHP-HYB
CHH-OVS
CHH-SVO
CHH-HYB
HHS-OVS
HHS-SVO
HHS-HYB
HHP-OVS
HHP-SVO
HHP-HYB
HHH-OVS
HHH-SVO
HHH-HYB
OPH-OVS
OPH-SVO
OPH-HYB
OAH-OVS
OAH-SVO
OAH-HYB
OHH-OVS
OHH-SVO
OHH-HYB
CPH-OVS
CPH-SVO
CPH-HYB
CAH-OVS
CAH-SVO
CAH-HYB
CHH-OVS
CHH-SVO
CHH-HYB
HPH-OVS
HPH-SVO
HPH-HYB
HAH-OVS
HAH-SVO
HAH-HYB
HHH-OVS
HHH-SVO
HHH-HYB
OPS-HYB
OPP-HYB
OPH-HYB
OAS-HYB
OAP-HYB
OAH-HYB
OHS-HYB
OHP-HYB
OHH-HYB
CPS-HYB
CPP-HYB
CPH-HYB
CAS-HYB
CAP-HYB
CAH-HYB
CHS-HYB
CHP-HYB
CHH-HYB
HPS-HYB
HPP-HYB
HPH-HYB
HAS-HYB
HAP-HYB
HAH-HYB
HHS-HYB
HHP-HYB
HHH-HYB

Open, preformative, suffixing, OVS: teqo-papequ-taqo-kitoqa taqi-taqiqo-teqi taqe-toqaqo-takikoqaqo kaqi-kiqi-papequ-tataqo

Gloss: cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Closed, preformative, suffixing, OVS: etoq-abepuq-adoq-ikodaq adiq-adiqoq-ediq adeq-odaqoq-adikogaqoq agiq-ikiq-abepuq-atatoq

Gloss: cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Open, preformative, suffixing, SVO: gaqi-kiqi-bapequ-tataqo daqe-doqaqo-dakigoqaqo daqi-daqiqo-deqi teqo-bapequ-daqo-kidoqa

Gloss: nothing-big-ness-subject exist-verb-past-evidental things-object-all-of cause-big-object-gerund-before

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


Closed, preformative, suffixing, SVO: agiq-ikiq-abepuq-atatoq adeq-odaqoq-adikogaqoq adiq-adiqoq-ediq etoq-abepuq-adoq-ikodaq

Gloss: nothing-big-ness-subject exist-verb-past-evidental things-object-all-of cause-big-object-gerund-before

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


Open, afformative, suffixing, OVS: qote-qupeba-qoda-qadoki qida-qoqida-qide qeda-qoqado-qoqagokida qiga-qiki-qupeba-qotata

Gloss: Cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Closed, afformative, suffixing, OVS: oqet-uqepab-oqad-aqodik iqad-oqiqad-iqed eqad-oqaqod-oqaqogikad iqaq-iqik-uqepab-oqatat

Gloss: Cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Open, afformative, suffixing, SVO: qiga-qiki-qupeba-qotata qeda-qoqado-qoqagokida qida-qoqida-qide qote-qupeba-qoda-qadoki

Gloss: nothing-big-ness-subject exist-verb-past-evidental things-object-all-of cause-big-object-gerund-before

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


Closed, afformative, suffixing, SVO: iqag-iqik-uqepab-oqatat eqad-oqaqod-oqaqogikad iqad-oqiqad-iqed oqet-uqeqab-oqad-aqodik

Gloss: nothing-big-ness-subject exist-verb-past-evidental things-object-all-of cause-big-object-gerund-before

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


Open, preformative, prefixing, OVS: kidoqa-daqo-bapequ-teqo deqi-daqiqo-daqi dakigoqaqo-doqaqo-daqe tataqo-bepequ-kiqi-gaqi

Gloss: before-gerund-object-big-cause of-all-things-object evidental-past-verb-exist subject-ness-big-none

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Closed, preformative, prefixing, OVS: ikodaq-adoq-abepuq-etoq ediq-adiqoq-adiq adikogaqoq-odaqoq-adeq atatoq-edepuq-ikiq-agiq

Gloss: before-gerund-object-big-cause of-all-things-object evidental-past-verb-exist subject-ness-big-none

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Open, preformative, prefixing, SVO: tataqo-bepequ-kiqi-gaqi dakigoqaqo-doqaqo-daqe deqi-daqiqo-daqi kidoqa-daqo-bapequ-teqo

Gloss: subject-ness-big-none evidental-past-verb-exist of-all-things-object before-gerund-object-big-cause

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


Closed, preformative, prefixing, SVO: atatoq-ebepuq-ikiq-agiq adikogaqoq-odaqoq-adeq ediq-adiqoq-adiq ikodaq-adoq-adepuq-etoq

Gloss: subject-ness-big-none evidental-past-verb-exist of-all-things-object before-gerund-object-big-cause

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


Open, afformative, prefixing, OVS: qadoki-qoda-qupeba-qote qide-qoqida-qida qoqagokida-qoqado-qeda qotata-qupeba-qiki-qiga

Gloss: before-gerund-object-big-cause of-all-things-object evidental-past-verb-exist subject-ness-big-none

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Closed, afformative, prefixing, OVS: aqodik-oqad-uqepab-oqet iqed-oqiqad-iqad oqaqogikad-oqaqod-eqad oqatat-uqepab-iqik-iqag

Gloss: before-gerund-object-big-cause of-all-things-object evidental-past-verb-exist subject-ness-big-none

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Open, afformative, prefixing, SVO: qotata-qupeba-qiki-qiga qoqagokida-qoqado-qeda qide-qoqida-qida qadoki-qoda-qupeba-qote

Gloss: subject-ness-big-none evidental-past-verb-exist of-all-things-object before-gerund-object-big-cause

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


Closed, afformative, prefixing, SVO: oqatat-uqepab-iqik-iqag oqaqogikad-oqaqod-eqad iqed-oqiqad-iqad aqodik-oqad-uqepab-oqet

Gloss: subject-ness-big-none evidental-past-verb-exist of-all-things-object before-gerund-object-big-cause

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.



Back-Vowel Voicing

This refers to a change that occured in numerous dialects of various morphologies. In some dialects, consonants adjascent to back vowels (a, u, o) were voiced. In other dialects, consonants adjascent to rounded vowels (y, u, o) were voiced.

Variant Group A: Onset Voicing in Open Dialects

In open dialects, the onsets of syllables with back vowels were voiced.


p > b /_[a]
p > b /_[u]
p > b /_[o]

t > d /_[a]
t > d /_[u]
t > d /_[o]
t > ɾ /_[vowel]_[same vowel]

k > g /_[a]
k > g /_[u]
k > g /_[o]

q > ɦ /_[a]
q > ɦ /_[u]
q > ɦ /_[o]


Da’a-do’i-rara’o
Open, preformative, suffixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: teqo-papequ-taqo-kitoqa taqi-taqiqo-teqi taqe-toqaqo-takikoqaqo kaqi-kiqi-papequ-tataqo

Transliteration 2: deqo-babequ-daqo-gidoqa daqi-daqiqo-deqi daqe-doqaqo-dagigoqaqo gaqi-giqi-babequ-dadaqo

Pronunciation: teɦo-bapeɦu-daɦo-kidoɦa daʔi-daʔiɦo-deʔi daʔe-doɦaɦo-dakigoɦaɦo-gaʔi-kiʔi-bapeɦu-ɾaɾaɦo

Transcription: te’o-bape’u-da’o-kido’a da’i-da’i’o-de’i da’e-do’a’o-dakigo’a’o-ga’i-ki’i-bape’u-rara’o

Gloss: cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Da’a-do’i-rara’o
Open, preformative, suffixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: kaqi-kiqi-papequ-tataqo taqe-toqaqo-takikoqaqo taqi-taqiqo-teqi teqo-papequ-taqo-kitoqa

Transliteration 2: gaqi-giqi-babequ-dadaqo daqe-doqaqo-dagigoqaqo daqi-daqiqo-deqi deqo-babequ-daqo-gidoqa

Pronunciation: gaʔi-kiʔi-bapeɦu-ɾaɾaɦo daʔe-doɦaɦo-dakigoɦaɦo daʔi-daʔiɦo-deʔi teɦo-bapeɦu-daɦo-kidoɦa

Transcription: ga’i-ki’i-bape’u-rara’o da’e-do’a’o-dakigo’a’o da’i-da’i’o-de’i te’o-bape’u-da’o-kido’a

Gloss: nothing-big-ness-subject exist-verb-past-evidental things-object-all-of cause-big-object-gerund-before

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


’Ada-’ido-’orara
Open, afformative, suffixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: qote-qupepa-qota-qatoki qita-qoqita-qite qeta-qoqato-qoqakokita qika-qiki-qupepa-qotata

Transliteration 2: qode-qubeba-qoda-qadogi qida-qoqida-qide qeda-qoqado-qoqagogida qiga-qigi-qubeba-qodada

Pronunciation: ɦote-ɦupeba-ɦoda-ɦadoki ʔida-ɦoʔida-ʔite ʔeda-ɦoɦado-ɦoɦagokida ʔiga-ʔiki-ɦupeba-ɦoɾaɾa

Transcription: ’ote-’upeba-’oda-’adoki ’ida-’o’ida-’ide ’eda-’o’ado-’o’agokida ’iga-’iki-’upeba-’orara

Gloss: Cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


’Ada-’ido-’orara
Open, afformative, suffixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: qika-qiki-qupepa-qotata qeta-qoqato-qoqakokita qita-qoqita-qite qote-qupepa-qota-qatoki

Transliteration 2: qiga-qigi-qubeba-qodada qeda-qoqado-qoqagogida qida-qoqida-qide qode-qubeba-qoda-qadogi

Pronunciation: ʔiga-ʔiki-ɦupeba-ɦoɾaɾa ʔeda-ɦoɦado-ɦoɦagokida ʔida-ɦoʔida-ʔite ɦote-ɦupeba-ɦoda-ɦadoki

Transcription: ’iga-’iki-’upeba-’orara ’eda-’o’ado-’o’agokida ’ida-’o’ida-’ide ’ote-’upeba-’oda-’adoki

Gloss: nothing-big-ness-subject exist-verb-past-evidental things-object-all-of cause-big-object-gerund-before

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


Rara’o-do’i-da’a
Open, preformative, prefixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: kitoqa-taqo-papequ-teqo teqi-taqiqo-taqi takikoqaqo-toqaqo-taqe tataqo-pepequ-kiqi-kaqi

Transliteration 2: gidoqa-daqo-babequ-deqo deqi-daqiqo-daqi dagigoqaqo-doqaqo-daqe dadaqo-bebequ-giqi-gaqi

Pronunciation: kidoɦa-daɦo-bapeɦu-teɦo deʔi-daʔiqo-daʔi dakigoɦaɦo-doɦaɦo-daʔe ɾaɾaɦo-pepeɦu-kiʔi-gaʔi

Transcription: kido’a-da’o-bape’u-te’o de’i-da’i’o-da’i dakigo’a’o-do’a’o-da’e rara’o-bepe’u-ki’i-ga’i

Gloss: before-gerund-object-big-cause of-all-things-object evidental-past-verb-exist subject-ness-big-none

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Rara’o-do’i-da’a
Open, preformative, prefixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: tataqo-pepequ-kiqi-kaqi takikoqaqo-toqaqo-taqe teqi-taqiqo-taqi kitoqa-taqo-papequ-teqo

Transliteration 2: dadaqo-bebequ-giqi-gaqi dagigoqaqo-doqaqo-daqe deqi-daqiqo-daqi gidoqa-daqo-babequ-deqo

Pronunciation: ɾaɾaɦo-bepeɦu-kiʔi-gaʔi dakigoɦaɦo-doɦaɦo-daʔe teʔi-daʔiɦo-daʔi kidoɦa-daɦo-bapeɦu-teɦo

Transcription: rara’o-bepe’u-ki’i-ga’i dakigo’a’o-do’a’o-da’e de’i-da’i’o-da’i kido’a-da’o-bape’u-te’o

Gloss: subject-ness-big-none evidental-past-verb-exist of-all-things-object before-gerund-object-big-cause

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


’Orara-’ido-’ada
Open, afformative, prefixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: qatoki-qota-qupepa-qote qite-qoqita-qita qoqakokita-qoqato-qeta qotata-qupepa-qiki-qika

Transliteration 2: qadogi-qoda-qubeba-qode qide-qoqida-qida qoqagogida-qoqado-qeda qodada-qubeba-qigi-qiga

Pronunciation: ɦadoki-ɦoda-ɦupeba-ɦote ʔite-ɦoʔida-ʔida ɦoɦagokida-ɦoɦado-ʔeda ɦoɾaɾa-ɦupeba-ʔiki-ʔiga

Transcription: ’adoki-’oda-’upeba-’ote ’ite-’oʔida-’ida ’o’agokida-’o’ado-’eda ’orara-’upeba-’iki-’iga

Gloss: before-gerund-object-big-cause of-all-things-object evidental-past-verb-exist subject-ness-big-none

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


’Orara-’ido-’ada

Open, afformative, prefixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: qotata-qupepa-qiki-qika qoqakokita-qoqato-qeta qite-qoqita-qita qatoki-qota-qupepa-qote

Transliteration 2: qodada-qubeba-qigi-qiga qoqagogida-qoqado-qeda qide-qoqida-qida qadogi-qoda-qubeba-qode

Pronunciation: ɦoɾaɾa-ɦupeba-ʔiki-ʔiga ɦoɦagokida-ɦoɦado-ʔeda ʔite-ɦoʔida-ʔida ɦadoki-ɦoda-ɦupeba-ɦote

Pronunciation: ’oɾaɾa-’upeba-’iki-’iga ’o’agokida-’o’ado-’eda ’ite-’o’ida-’ida ’adoki-’oda-’upeba-’ote

Gloss: subject-ness-big-none evidental-past-verb-exist of-all-things-object before-gerund-object-big-cause

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.



Variant Group B: Codal Voicing in Closed Dialects

In closed dialects, the codas of syllables with back vowels were voiced.


p > b /[a]_
p > b /[u]_
p > b /[o]_

t > d /[a]_
t > d /[u]_
t > d /[o]_
t > ɾ /[vowel]_[same vowel]_

k > g /[a]_
k > g /[u]_
k > g /[o]_

q > ɦ /[a]_
q > ɦ /[u]_
q > ɦ /[o]_

Ada’-odi’-araro’
Closed, preformative, suffixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: etoq-apepuq-atoq-ikotaq atiq-atiqoq-etiq ateq-otaqoq-atikokaqoq atiq-ikiq-apepuq-atatoq

Transliteration 2: edoq-abebuq-adoq-igodaq adiq-adiqoq-ediq adeq-odaqoq-adigogaqoq agiq-igiq-abebuq-adadoq

Pronunciation: etoɦ-abepuɦ-adoɦ-ikodaɦ adiʔ-adiʔoɦ-etiʔ adeʔ-odaɦoɦ-adikogaɦoɦ agiʔ-ikiʔ-abepuɦ-aɾaɾoɦ

Transcription: eto’-abepu’-ado’-ikoda’ adi’-adi’o’-eti’ ade’-oda’o’-adikoga’o’ agi’-iki’-abepu’-araro’

Gloss: cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Ada’-odi’-araro’
Closed, preformative, suffixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: atiq-ikiq-apepuq-atatoq ateq-otaqoq-atikokaqoq atiq-atiqoq-etiq etoq-apepuq-atoq-ikotaq

Transliteration 2: agiq-igiq-abebuq-adadoq adeq-odaqoq-adigogaqoq adiq-adiqoq-ediq edoq-abebuq-adoq-igodaq

Pronunciation: agiʔ-ikiʔ-abepuɦ-aɾaɾoɦ adeʔ-odaɦoɦ-adikogaɦoɦ adiʔ-adiqoɦ-etiʔ etoɦ-abepuɦ-adoɦ-ikodaɦ

Gloss: nothing-big-ness-subject exist-verb-past-evidental things-object-all-of cause-big-object-gerund-before

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


A’ad-i’od-o’arar
Closed, afformative, suffixing, OVS

Transliteration: oqet-uqepap-oqat-aqotik iqat-oqiqat-iqet eqat-oqaqot-oqaqokikat iqat-iqik-uqepap-oqatat

Transliteration: oqed-uqebab-oqad-aqodig iqad-oqiqad-iqed eqad-oqaqod-oqaqogigad iqad-iqig-uqebab-oqadad

Pronunciation: oɦet-uɦepab-oɦad-aɦodik iʔad-oɦiʔad-iʔet eʔad-oɦaɦod-oɦaɦogikad iʔag-iʔik-uɦepab-oɦaɾaɾ

Pronunciation: o’et-u’epab-o’ad-a’odik i’ad-o’i’ad-i’et e’ad-o’a’od-o’a’ogikad i’ag-i’ik-u’epab-o’arar

Gloss: Cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


A’ad-i’od-o’arar
Closed, afformative, suffixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: iqak-iqik-uqepap-oqatat eqat-oqaqot-oqaqogikad iqad-oqiqad-iqed oqet-uqeqab-oqad-aqodik

Transliteration 2: iqag-iqig-uqebab-oqadad eqad-oqaqod-oqaqogigad iqad-oqiqad-iqed oqed-uqebab-oqad-aqodig

Pronunciation: iʔag-iʔik-uɦepab-oɦaɾaɾ eʔad-oɦaɦod-oɦaɦogikad iʔad-oɦiʔad-iʔet oɦet-uɦeʔab-oɦad-aɦodik

Pronunciation: i’ag-i’ik-u’epab-o’arar e’ad-o’a’od-o’a’ogikad i’ad-o’i’ad-i’et o’et-u’e’ab-o’ad-a’odik

Gloss: nothing-big-ness-subject exist-verb-past-evidental things-object-all-of cause-big-object-gerund-before

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


Araro’-odi’-ada’
Closed, preformative, prefixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: ikotaq-atoq-apepuq-etoq etiq-atiqoq-atiq atikokaqoq-otaqoq-ateq atatoq-etapuq-ikiq-akiq

Transliteration: igodaq-adoq-abebuq-edoq ediq-adiqoq-adiq adigogaqoq-odaqoq-adeq adadoq-edabuq-igiq-agiq

Pronunciation: ikodaɦ-adoɦ-abepuɦ-etoɦ etiʔ-adiqoɦ-adiʔ adikogaɦoɦ-odaɦoɦ-adeʔ aɾaɾoɦ-edepuɦ-ikiʔ-agiʔ

Transcription: ikoda’-ado’-abepu’-eto’ eti’-adiqo’-adi’ adikoga’o’-oda’o’-ade’ araro’-edepu’-iki’-agi’

Gloss: before-gerund-object-big-cause of-all-things-object evidental-past-verb-exist subject-ness-big-none

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Araro’-odi’-ada’
Closed, preformative, prefixing, SVO

Transliteration: atatoq-epepuq-ikiq-akiq atikokaqoq-otaqoq-ateq etiq-atiqoq-atiq ikotaq-atoq-atepuq-etoq

Transliteration: adadoq-ebebuq-igiq-agiq adigogaqoq-odaqoq-adeq ediq-adiqoq-adiq igodaq-adoq-adepuq-edoq

Pronunciation: aɾaɾoɦ-ebepuɦ-ikiʔ-agiʔ adikogaɦoɦ-odaɦoɦ-adeʔ etiʔ-adiqoɦ-adiʔ ikodaɦ-adoɦ-adepuɦ-etoɦ

Transcription: araro’-ebepu’-iki’-agi’ adikoga’o’-oda’o’-ade’ eti’-adiqo’-adi’ ikoda’-ado’-adepu’-eto’

Gloss: subject-ness-big-none evidental-past-verb-exist of-all-things-object before-gerund-object-big-cause

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


O’arar-i’od-a’ad
Closed, afformative, prefixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: aqotik-oqat-uqepap-oqet iqet-oqiqat-iqat oqaqokikat-oqaqot-eqat oqatat-uqepap-iqik-iqak

Transliteration 2: aqodig-oqad-uqebab-oqed iqed-oqiqad-iqad oqaqogigad-oqaqod-eqad oqadad-uqebab-iqig-iqag

Pronunciation: aɦodik-oɦad-uɦepab-oɦet iʔet-oɦiʔad-iʔad oɦaɦogikad-oɦaɦod-eqad oɦaɾaɾ-uɦepab-iʔik-iʔag

Transcription: a’odik-o’ad-u’epab-o’et i’et-o’i’ad-i’ad o’a’ogikad-o’a’od-eqad o’arar-u’epab-i’ik-i’ag

Gloss: before-gerund-object-big-cause of-all-things-object evidental-past-verb-exist subject-ness-big-none

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


O’arar-i’od-a’ad
Closed, afformative, prefixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: oqatat-uqepap-iqik-iqak oqaqokikat-oqaqot-eqat iqet-oqiqat-iqat aqotik-oqat-uqepap-oqet

Transliteration 2: oqadad-uqebab-iqig-iqag oqaqogigad-oqaqod-eqad iqed-oqiqad-iqad aqodig-oqad-uqebab-oqed

Pronunciation: oɦaɾaɾ-uɦepab-iʔik-iʔag oɦaɦogikad-oɦaɦod-eʔad iʔet-oɦiʔad-iʔad aɦodik-oɦad-uɦepab-oɦet

Transcription: o’arar-u’epab-i’ik-iʔag o’a’ogikad-o’a’od-e’ad i’et-o’i’ad-i’ad a’odik-o’ad-u’epab-o’et

Gloss: subject-ness-big-none evidental-past-verb-exist of-all-things-object before-gerund-object-big-cause

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.



Back-Vowel Voicing
+ Glottal Deconsonantalization

This refers to a change that occured in numerous dialects of various morphologies. In some dialects, consonants adjascent to back vowels (a, u, o) were voiced. In other dialects, consonants adjascent to rounded vowels (y, u, o) were voiced.

Variant Group A: Onset Voicing in Open Dialects

In open dialects, the onsets of syllables with back vowels were voiced.

Daa-doi-rarao
Open, preformative, suffixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: teqo-papequ-taqo-kitoqa taqi-taqiqo-teqi taqe-toqaqo-takikoqaqo kaqi-kiqi-papequ-tataqo

Transliteration 2: deqo-babequ-daqo-gidoqa daqi-daqiqo-deqi daqe-doqaqo-dagigoqaqo gaqi-giqi-babequ-dadaqo

Pronunciation: te.o-bape.u-da.o-kido.a da.i-da.i.o-de.i da.e-do.a.o-dakigo.a.o-ga.i-ki.i-bape.u-ɾaɾa.o

Transcription: teo-bapeu-dao-kidoa dai-daio-dei dae-doao-dakigoao-gai-kii-bapeu-rarao

Gloss: cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Daa-doi-rarao
Open, preformative, suffixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: kaqi-kiqi-papequ-tataqo taqe-toqaqo-takikoqaqo taqi-taqiqo-teqi teqo-papequ-taqo-kitoqa

Transliteration 2: gaqi-giqi-babequ-dadaqo daqe-doqaqo-dagigoqaqo daqi-daqiqo-deqi deqo-babequ-daqo-gidoqa

Pronunciation: ga.i-ki.i-bape.u-ɾaɾa.o da.e-do.a.o-dakigo.a.o da.i-da.i.o-de.i te.o-bape.u-da.o-kido.a

Transcription: gai-kii-bapeu-rarao dae-doao-dakigoao dai-daio-dei teo-bapeu-dao-kidoa

Gloss: nothing-big-ness-subject exist-verb-past-evidental things-object-all-of cause-big-object-gerund-before

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


Ada-odi-orara
Open, afformative, suffixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: qote-qupepa-qota-qatoki qita-qoqita-qite qeta-qoqato-qoqakokita qika-qiki-qupepa-qotata

Transliteration 2: qode-qubeba-qoda-qadogi qida-qoqida-qide qeda-qoqado-qoqagogida qiga-qigi-qubeba-qodada

Pronunciation: ote-upeba-oda-adoki ida-o.ida-ite eda-o.ado-o.agokida iga-iki-upeba-oɾaɾa

Transcription: ote-upeba-oda-adoki ida-oida-ide eda-oado-oagokida iga-iki-upeba-orara

Gloss: Cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Ada-odi-orara
Open, afformative, suffixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: qika-qiki-qupepa-qotata qeta-qoqato-qoqakokita qita-qoqita-qite qote-qupepa-qota-qatoki

Transliteration 2: qiga-qigi-qubeba-qodada qeda-qoqado-qoqagogida qida-qoqida-qide qode-qubeba-qoda-qadogi

Pronunciation: iga-iki-upeba-oɾaɾa eda-o.ado-o.agokida ida-o.ida-ite ote-upeba-oda-adoki

Transcription: iga-iki-upeba-orara eda-oado-oagokida ida-oida-ide ote-upeba-oda-adoki

Gloss: nothing-big-ness-subject exist-verb-past-evidental things-object-all-of cause-big-object-gerund-before

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


Rarao-doi-daa
Open, preformative, prefixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: kitoqa-taqo-papequ-teqo teqi-taqiqo-taqi takikoqaqo-toqaqo-taqe tataqo-pepequ-kiqi-kaqi

Transliteration 2: gidoqa-daqo-babequ-deqo deqi-daqiqo-daqi dagigoqaqo-doqaqo-daqe dadaqo-bebequ-giqi-gaqi

Pronunciation: kido.a-da.o-bape.u-te.o de.i-da.i.o-da.i dakigo.a.o-do.a.o-da.e ɾaɾa.o-pepe.u-ki.i-ga.i

Transcription: kidoa-dao-bapeu-teo dei-daio-dai dakigoao-doao-dae rarao-bepeu-kii-gai

Gloss: before-gerund-object-big-cause of-all-things-object evidental-past-verb-exist subject-ness-big-none

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Rarao-doi-daa
Open, preformative, prefixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: tataqo-pepequ-kiqi-kaqi takikoqaqo-toqaqo-taqe teqi-taqiqo-taqi kitoqa-taqo-papequ-teqo

Transliteration 2: dadaqo-bebequ-giqi-gaqi dagigoqaqo-doqaqo-daqe deqi-daqiqo-daqi gidoqa-daqo-babequ-deqo

Pronunciation: ɾaɾa.o-bepe.u-ki.i-ga.i dakigo.a.o-do.a.o-da.e te.i-da.i.o-da.i kido.a-da.o-bape.u-te.o

Transcription: rarao-bepeu-kii-gai dakigoao-doao-dae dei-daio-dai kidoa-dao-bapeu-teo

Gloss: subject-ness-big-none evidental-past-verb-exist of-all-things-object before-gerund-object-big-cause

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


Orara-ido-ada
Open, afformative, prefixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: qatoki-qota-qupepa-qote qite-qoqita-qita qoqakokita-qoqato-qeta qotata-qupepa-qiki-qika

Transliteration 2: qadogi-qoda-qubeba-qode qide-qoqida-qida qoqagogida-qoqado-qeda qodada-qubeba-qigi-qiga

Pronunciation: adoki-oda-upeba-ote ite-o.ida-ida o.agokida-o.ado-eda oɾaɾa-upeba-iki-iga

Transcription: adoki-oda-upeba-ote ite-oida-ida oagokida-oado-eda orara-upeba-iki-iga

Gloss: before-gerund-object-big-cause of-all-things-object evidental-past-verb-exist subject-ness-big-none

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Orara-ido-ada
Open, afformative, prefixing, SVO

Transliteration: qotata-qupepa-qiki-qika qoqakokita-qoqato-qeta qite-qoqita-qita qatoki-qota-qupepa-qote

Transliteration: qodada-qubeba-qigi-qiga qoqagogida-qoqado-qeda qide-qoqida-qida qadogi-qoda-qubeba-qode

Pronunciation: oɾaɾa-upeba-iki-iga o.agokida-o.ado-eda ite-o.ida-ida adoki-oda-upeba-ote

Transliteration: orara-upeba-iki-iga oagokida-oado-eda ite-oida-ida adoki-oda-upeba-ote

Gloss: subject-ness-big-none evidental-past-verb-exist of-all-things-object before-gerund-object-big-cause

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.



Variant Group B: Codal Voicing in Closed Dialects

In closed dialects, the codas of syllables with back vowels were voiced.


Ada-odi-araro
Closed, preformative, suffixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: etoq-apepuq-adoq-ikotaq atiq-atiqoq-etiq ateq-otaqoq-atikokaqoq akiq-ikiq-apepuq-atatoq

Transliteration 2: edoq-abebuq-adoq-igodaq adiq-adiqoq-ediq adeq-odaqoq-adigogaqoq agiq-igiq-abebuq-adadoq

Pronunciation: eto-abepu-ado-ikoda adi-adio-eti ade-oda.o-adikoga.o agi-iki-abepu-aɾaɾo

Transcription: eto-abepu-ado-ikoda adi-adio-eti ade-odao-adikogao agi-iki-abepu-araro

Gloss: cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Ada-odi-araro
Closed, preformative, suffixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: akiq-ikiq-apepuq-atatoq ateq-otaqoq-atikokaqoq atiq-atiqoq-etiq etoq-apepuq-atoq-ikotaq

Transliteration 2: agiq-igiq-abebuq-atatoq adeq-odaqoq-adigogaqoq adiq-adiqoq-ediq edoq-abebuq-adoq-igodaq

Pronunciation: agi-iki-abepu-aɾaɾo ade-oda.o-adikoga.o adi-adiqo-eti eto-abepu-ado-ikoda

Transcription: agi-iki-abepu-araro ade-odao-adikogao adi-adiqo-eti eto-abepu-ado-ikoda

Gloss: nothing-big-ness-subject exist-verb-past-evidental things-object-all-of cause-big-object-gerund-before

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


Aad-iod-oarar
Closed, afformative, suffixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: oqet-uqepap-oqat-aqotik iqat-oqiqat-iqet eqat-oqaqot-oqaqokikat iqaq-iqik-uqepap-oqatat

Transliteration 2: oqed-uqebab-oqad-aqodig iqad-oqiqad-iqed eqad-oqaqod-oqaqogigad iqaq-iqig-uqebab-oqadad

Pronunciation: o.et-u.epab-o.ad-a.odik i.ad-o.i.ad-i.et e.ad-o.a.od-o.a.ogikad i.ag-i.ik-u.epab-o.aɾaɾ

Transcription: oet-uepab-oad-aodik iad-oiad-iet ead-oaod-oaogikad iag-iik-uepab-oarar

Gloss: Cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Aad-iod-oarar
Closed, afformative, suffixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: iqak-iqik-uqepap-oqatat eqat-oqaqot-oqaqokikat iqat-oqiqat-iqet oqet-uqepap-oqat-aqotik

Transliteration 2: iqag-iqig-uqebab-oqadad eqad-oqaqod-oqaqogigad iqad-oqiqad-iqed oqed-uqebab-oqad-aqodig

Pronunciation: i.ag-i.ik-u.epab-o.aɾaɾ e.ad-o.a.od-o.a.ogikad i.ad-o.i.ad-i.et o.et-u.e.ab-o.ad-a.odik

Transcription: iag-iik-uepab-oarar ead-oaod-oaogikad iad-oiad-iet oet-uepab-oad-aodik

Gloss: nothing-big-ness-subject exist-verb-past-evidental things-object-all-of cause-big-object-gerund-before

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


Araro-ido-ada
Closed, preformative, prefixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: ikotaq-atoq-apepuq-etoq etiq-atiqoq-atiq atikokaqoq-otaqoq-ateq atatoq-epepuq-ikiq-akiq

Transliteration 2: igodaq-adoq-abebuq-edoq ediq-adiqoq-adiq adigogaqoq-odaqoq-adeq adadoq-ebebuq-igiq-agiq

Pronunciation: ikoda-ado-abepu-eto eti-adi.o-adi adikoga.o-oda.o-ade aɾaɾo-epebu-iki-agi

Transcription: ikoda-ado-abepu-eto eti-adio-adi adikogao-odao-ade araro-epebu-iki-agi

Gloss: before-gerund-object-big-cause of-all-things-object evidental-past-verb-exist subject-ness-big-none

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Araro-odi-ada
Closed, preformative, prefixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: atatoq-epepuq-ikiq-akiq atikokaqoq-otaqoq-ateq etiq-atiqoq-atiq ikotaq-atoq-atepuq-etoq

Transliteration 2: adadoq-ebebuq-igiq-agiq adigogaqoq-odaqoq-adeq ediq-adiqoq-adiq igodaq-adoq-adepuq-edoq

Pronunciation: aɾaɾo-ebepu-iki-agi adikoga.o-oda.o-ade eti-adiqo-adi ikoda-ado-adepu-eto

Transcription: araro-ebepu-iki-agi adikogao-odao-ade eti-adiqo-adi ikoda-ado-adepu-eto

Gloss: subject-ness-big-none evidental-past-verb-exist of-all-things-object before-gerund-object-big-cause

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


Oarar-iod-aad
Closed, afformative, prefixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: aqotik-oqat-uqepap-oqet iqet-oqiqat-iqat oqaqokikat-oqaqot-eqat oqatat-uqepap-iqik-iqak

Transliteration 2: aqodig-oqad-uqebab-oqed iqed-oqiqad-iqad oqaqogigad-oqaqod-eqad oqadad-uqebab-iqig-iqag

Pronunciation: a.odik-o.ad-u.epab-o.et i.et-o.i.ad-i.ad o.a.ogikad-o.a.od-eqad o.aɾaɾ-u.epab-i.ik-i.ag

Transcription: aodik-oad-uepab-oet iet-oiad-iad oaogikad-oaod-eqad oarar-uepab-iik-iag

Gloss: before-gerund-object-big-cause of-all-things-object evidental-past-verb-exist subject-ness-big-none

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Oarar-iod-aad
Closed, afformative, prefixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: oqatat-uqepab-iqik-iqag oqaqogikad-oqaqod-eqad iqed-oqiqad-iqad aqodik-oqad-uqepab-oqet

Transliteration 2: oqatat-uqepab-iqik-iqag oqaqogikad-oqaqod-eqad iqed-oqiqad-iqad aqodik-oqad-uqepab-oqet

Pronunciation: o.aɾaɾ-u.epab-i.ik-i.ag o.a.ogikad-o.a.od-e.ad i.et-o.i.ad-i.ad a.odik-o.ad-u.epab-o.et

Transcription: oarar-uepab-iik-iag oaogikad-oaod-ead iet-oiad-iad aodik-oad-uepab-oet

Gloss: subject-ness-big-none evidental-past-verb-exist of-all-things-object before-gerund-object-big-cause

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.



Back-Vowel Voicing
+ Glottal Deconsonantalization
+ Further Lenition

This refers to a change that occured in numerous dialects of various morphologies. In some dialects, consonants adjascent to back vowels (a, u, o) were voiced. In other dialects, consonants adjascent to rounded vowels (y, u, o) were voiced.

Variant Group A: Onset Voicing in Open Dialects

In open dialects, the onsets of syllables with back vowels were voiced.


b > m /_[a]
p > b /_[e]
p > ɸ /_[y]
b > β /_[u]
b > w /_[o]

d > n /_[a]
t > d /_[e]
t > s /_[y]
n > z /_[u]
n > ɹ /_[o]
ɾ > ɾ /_[vowel]_[same vowel]

g > ŋ /_[a]
k > g /_[e]
k > x /_[y]
g > ɣ /_[u]
g > ʎ /_[o]

Na’a-ro’i-rara’o
Open, preformative, suffixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: teqo-papequ-taqo-kitoqa taqi-taqiqo-teqi taqe-toqaqo-takikoqaqo kaqi-kiqi-papequ-tataqo

Transliteration 2: deqo-babequ-daqo-gidoqa daqi-daqiqo-deqi daqe-doqaqo-dagigoqaqo gaqi-giqi-babequ-dadaqo

Pronunciation: dĕ.o-mabĕ.u-nă.o-kiɹŏ.a nă.i-nă.ĭ.o-bĕ.i nă.e-ɹŏ.ă.o-nakiʎŏ.ă.o-ŋă.i-kĭ.i-mabĕ.u-ɾăɾă.o

Transcription: de’o-mabe’u-na’o-kiro’a na’i-na’i’o-de’i na’e-do’a’o-nakijo’a’o-ŋa’i-ki’i-mabe’u-rara’o

Gloss: cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Na’a-ro’i-rara’o
Open, preformative, suffixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: kaqi-kiqi-papequ-tataqo taqe-toqaqo-takikoqaqo taqi-taqiqo-teqi teqo-papequ-taqo-kitoqa

Transliteration 2: gaqi-giqi-babequ-dadaqo daqe-doqaqo-dagigoqaqo daqi-daqiqo-deqi deqo-babequ-daqo-gidoqa

Pronunciation: ŋa.i-ki.i-mabe.u-ɾaɾa.o na.e-ɹo.a.o-nakiʎo.a.o na.i-na.i.o-de.i de.o-mabe.u-na.o-kiɹo.a

Transcription: ŋa’i-ki’i-mabe’u-rara’o na’e-ro’a’o-nakijo’a’o na’i-na’i’o-de’i de’o-mabe’u-na’o-kiro’a

Gloss: nothing-big-ness-subject exist-verb-past-evidental things-object-all-of cause-big-object-gerund-before

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


’Ana-’iro-’orara
Open, afformative, suffixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: qote-qupepa-qota-qatoki qita-qoqita-qite qeta-qoqato-qoqakokita qika-qiki-qupepa-qotata

Transliteration 2: qode-qubeba-qoda-qadogi qida-qoqida-qide qeda-qoqado-qoqagogida qiga-qigi-qubeba-qodada

Pronunciation: ode-ubema-ona-aɹoki ina-o.ina-ide ena-o.aɹo-o.aʎokina iŋa-iki-ubema-oɾaɾa

Transcription: ’ode-’ubema-’ona-’aroki ’ina-’o’ina-’ide ’ena-’o’aro-’o’aʎokina ’iŋa-’iki-’ubema-’orara

Gloss: Cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


’Ana-’iro-’orara
Open, afformative, suffixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: qika-qiki-qupepa-qotata qeta-qoqato-qoqakokita qita-qoqita-qite qote-qupepa-qota-qatoki

Transliteration 2: qiga-qigi-qubeba-qodada qeda-qoqado-qoqagogida qida-qoqida-qide qode-qubeba-qoda-qadogi

Pronunciation: iŋa-iki-ubema-oɾaɾa ena-o.aɹo-o.aʎokina ina-o.ina-ide ode-ubema-oda-aɹoki

Transcription: ’iŋa-’iki-’ubema-’orara ’ena-’o’aro-’o’ajokina ’ina-’o’ina-’ide ’ode-’ubema-’ona-’aroki

Gloss: nothing-big-ness-subject exist-verb-past-evidental things-object-all-of cause-big-object-gerund-before

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


Rara’o-ro’i-na’a
Open, preformative, prefixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: kitoqa-taqo-papequ-teqo teqi-taqiqo-taqi takikoqaqo-toqaqo-taqe tataqo-pepequ-kiqi-kaqi

Transliteration 2: gidoqa-daqo-babequ-deqo deqi-daqiqo-daqi dagigoqaqo-doqaqo-daqe dadaqo-bebequ-giqi-gaqi

Pronunciation: kiɹo.a-na.o-mabe.u-de.o de.i-na.i.o-da.i nakiʎo.a.o-ɹ'o.a.o-na.e ɾaɾaɦo-bebeɦu-ki.i-ŋa.i

Transcription: kiro’a-na’o-mabe’u-de’o de’i-na’i’o-na’i nakijo’a’o-ro’a’o-na’e rara’o-mabe’u-ki’i-ŋa’i

Gloss: before-gerund-object-big-cause of-all-things-object evidental-past-verb-exist subject-ness-big-none

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Rara’o-ro’i-na’a
Open, preformative, prefixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: tataqo-pepequ-kiqi-kaqi takikoqaqo-toqaqo-taqe teqi-taqiqo-taqi kitoqa-taqo-papequ-teqo

Transliteration 2: dadaqo-bebequ-giqi-gaqi dagigoqaqo-doqaqo-daqe deqi-daqiqo-daqi gidoqa-daqo-babequ-deqo

Pronunciation: ɾaɾa.o-mabe.u-ki.i-ŋa.i nakiʎo.a.o-ɹo.a.o-na.e de.i-na.i.o-naʔi kiʎo.a-na.o-mabe.u-de.o

Transcription: rara’o-mabe’u-ki’i-ŋa’i nakijo’a’o-ro’a’o-da’e de’i-da’i’o-da’i kido’a-da’o-bape’u-te’o

Gloss: subject-ness-big-none evidental-past-verb-exist of-all-things-object before-gerund-object-big-cause

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


’Orara-’iro-’ana
Open, afformative, prefixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: qatoki-qota-qupepa-qote qite-qoqita-qita qoqakokita-qoqato-qeta qotata-qupepa-qiki-qika

Transliteration 2: qadogi-qoda-qubeba-qode qide-qoqida-qida qoqagogida-qoqado-qeda qodada-qubeba-qigi-qiga

Pronunciation: aɹoki-ona-ubema-ode ide-o.ina-ina o.aɹokina-o.aɹo-ena oɾaɾa-ubema-iki-iŋa

Transcription: ’aroki-’ona-’ubema-’ode ’ide-’oʔina-’ina ’o’ajokina-’o’aro-’ena ’orara-’ubema-’iki-’iŋa

Gloss: before-gerund-object-big-cause of-all-things-object evidental-past-verb-exist subject-ness-big-none

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


’Orara-’iro-’ana

Open, afformative, prefixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: qotata-qupepa-qiki-qika qoqakokita-qoqato-qeta qite-qoqita-qita qatoki-qota-qupepa-qote

Transliteration 2: qodada-qubeba-qigi-qiga qoqagogida-qoqado-qeda qide-qoqida-qida qadogi-qoda-qubeba-qode

Pronunciation: oɾaɾa-ubema-iki-iŋa o.aʎokina-o.aɹo-ena ide-o.ina-ina aɹoki-ona-ubema-ode

Transcription: ’orara-’ubema-’iki-’iŋa ’o’ajokina-’o’aro-’ena ’ide-’o’ina-’ina ’aroki-’ona-’ubema-’ode

Gloss: subject-ness-big-none evidental-past-verb-exist of-all-things-object before-gerund-object-big-cause

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.



Variant Group B: Codal Voicing in Closed Dialects

In closed dialects, the codas of syllables with back vowels were voiced.


b > m /[a]_
p > b /[e]_
p > ɸ /[y]_
b > β /[u]_
b > w /[o]_

d > n /[a]_
t > d /[e]_
t > s /[y]_
n > z /[u]_
n > ɹ /[o]_
ɾ > ɾ /[vowel]_[same vowel]_

g > ŋ /[a]_
k > g /[e]_
k > x /[y]_
g > ɣ /[u]_
g > ʎ /[o]_

Ana’-ori’-araro’
Closed, preformative, suffixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: etoq-apepuq-atoq-ikotaq atiq-atiqoq-etiq ateq-otaqoq-atikokaqoq atiq-ikiq-apepuq-atatoq

Transliteration 2: edoq-abebuq-adoq-igodaq adiq-adiqoq-ediq adeq-odaqoq-adigogaqoq agiq-igiq-abebuq-adadoq

Pronunciation: ĕdo-ămĕbu-ăno-ĭkŏɹa ăni-ăni.o-ĕbi ăne-̆oɹa.o-ănĭkŏʎa.o-ăŋi-ĭkĭ-ămĕbu-ăɾăɾo

Transcription: edo’-amebu’-ano’-ikora’ ani’-ani’o’-edi’ ane’-ora’o’-anikoja’o’ aŋi’-iki’-amebu’-araro’

Gloss: cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Ana’-ori’-araro’
Closed, preformative, suffixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: akiq-ikiq-apepuq-atatoq ateq-otaqoq-atikokaqoq atiq-atiqoq-etiq etoq-apepuq-atoq-ikotaq

Transliteration 2: agiq-igiq-abebuq-adadoq adeq-odaqoq-adigogaqoq adiq-adiqoq-ediq edoq-abebuq-adoq-igodaq

Pronunciation: aŋi-iki-amebu-aɾaɾo ane-oɹa.o-anikoɹa.o ani-ani.o-edi edo-amebu-ano-ikoɹa

Transcription: aŋi-iki-amebu-araro ane-oɹa’o-anikora’o ani-ani’o-edi edo-amebu-ano-ikora

Gloss: nothing-big-ness-subject exist-verb-past-evidental things-object-all-of cause-big-object-gerund-before

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


A’an-i’or-o’arar
Closed, afformative, suffixing, OVS

Transliteration: oqet-uqepap-oqat-aqotik iqat-oqiqat-iqet eqat-oqaqot-oqaqokikat iqat-iqik-uqepap-oqatat

Transliteration: oqed-uqebab-oqad-aqodig iqad-oqiqad-iqed eqad-oqaqod-oqaqogigad iqad-iqig-uqebab-oqadad

Pronunciation: o.ed-u.ebam-o.an-a.oɹik i.ad-o.i.an-i.ed e.an-o.a.oɹ-o.a.oʎikan i.aŋ-i.ik-u.ebam-o.aɾaɾ

Transcription: o’ed-u’ebam-o’an-a’orik i’an-o’i’an-i’ed e’an-o’a’or-o’a’ojikan i’aŋ-i’ik-u’ebam-o’arar

Gloss: Cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


A’an-i’or-o’arar
Closed, afformative, suffixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: iqak-iqik-uqepap-oqatat eqat-oqaqot-oqaqogikad iqad-oqiqad-iqed oqet-uqeqab-oqad-aqodik

Transliteration 2: iqag-iqig-uqebab-oqadad eqad-oqaqod-oqaqogigad iqad-oqiqad-iqed oqed-uqebab-oqad-aqodig

Pronunciation: i.aŋ-i.ik-u.ebam-o.aɾaɾ e.an-o.a.oɹ-o.a.oʎikan i.an-o.i.an-i.ed o.ed-u.e.an-o.an-a.oʎik

Transcription: i’aŋ-i’ik-u’ebam-o’arar e’an-o’a’or-o’a’ojikan i’an-o’i’an-i’ed o’ed-u’ebam-o’an-a’orik

Gloss: nothing-big-ness-subject exist-verb-past-evidental things-object-all-of cause-big-object-gerund-before

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


Araro’-ori’-ana’
Closed, preformative, prefixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: ikotaq-atoq-apepuq-etoq etiq-atiqoq-atiq atikokaqoq-otaqoq-ateq atatoq-etapuq-ikiq-akiq

Transliteration: igodaq-adoq-abebuq-edoq ediq-adiqoq-adiq adigogaqoq-odaqoq-adeq adadoq-edabuq-igiq-agiq

Pronunciation: ikoɹa-ano-amebu-edo edi-ani.o-ani anikoʎa.o-oɹa.o-ane aɾaɾo-amebu-iki-aŋi

Transcription: ikora’-ano’-amebu’-edo’ edi’-ani’o’-ani’ anikoja’o’-ora’o’-ane’ araro’-amebu’-iki’-aŋi’

Gloss: before-gerund-object-big-cause of-all-things-object evidental-past-verb-exist subject-ness-big-none

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Araro’-ori’-ana’
Closed, preformative, prefixing, SVO

Transliteration: atatoq-epepuq-ikiq-akiq atikokaqoq-otaqoq-ateq etiq-atiqoq-atiq ikotaq-atoq-atepuq-etoq

Transliteration: adadoq-ebebuq-igiq-agiq adigogaqoq-odaqoq-adeq ediq-adiqoq-adiq igodaq-adoq-adepuq-edoq

Pronunciation: aɾaɾo-amebu-iki-aŋi anikoʎa.o-oɹa.o-ane edi-ani.o-ani ikoʎa-ano-amebu-edo

Transcription: araro’-amebu’-iki’-aŋi’ anikoja’o’-ora’o’-ane’ edi’-ani’o’-ani’ ikora’-ano’-amebu’-edo’

Gloss: subject-ness-big-none evidental-past-verb-exist of-all-things-object before-gerund-object-big-cause

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


O’arar-i’or-a’an
Closed, afformative, prefixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: aqotik-oqat-uqepap-oqet iqet-oqiqat-iqat oqaqokikat-oqaqot-eqat oqatat-uqepap-iqik-iqak

Transliteration 2: aqodig-oqad-uqebab-oqed iqed-oqiqad-iqad oqaqogigad-oqaqod-eqad oqadad-uqebab-iqig-iqag

Pronunciation: a.oʎik-o.an-u.ebam-o.ed i.ed-o.i.an-i.an o.a.oʎikan-o.a.oɹ-e.an o.ɾaɾ-u.ebam-i.ik-i.aŋ

Transcription: a’orik-o’an-u’ebam-o’ed i’ed-o’i’an-i’an o’a’ojiknd-o’a’or-e’an o’arar-u’ebam-i’ik-i’aŋ

Gloss: before-gerund-object-big-cause of-all-things-object evidental-past-verb-exist subject-ness-big-none

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


O’arar-i’or-a’an
Closed, afformative, prefixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: oqatat-uqepap-iqik-iqak oqaqokikat-oqaqot-eqat iqet-oqiqat-iqat aqotik-oqat-uqepap-oqet

Transliteration 2: oqadad-uqebab-iqig-iqag oqaqogigad-oqaqod-eqad iqed-oqiqad-iqad aqodig-oqad-uqebab-oqed

Pronunciation: o.arar-u.ebam-i.ik-i.aŋ o.a.oʎikan-o.a.or-e.an i.ed-o.i.an-i.an a.orik-o.an-u.ebam-o.ed

Transcription: o’arar-u’ebam-i’ik-i’aŋ o’a’ojikan-o’a’or-e’an i’ed-o’i’ad-i’an a’orik-o’an-u’ebam-o’ed

Gloss: subject-ness-big-none evidental-past-verb-exist of-all-things-object before-gerund-object-big-cause

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.



Back-Vowel Voicing
+ Glottal Deconsonantalization
+ Further Lenition
+ Synalœpha

Variant I: ?

This change was only possible for open suffixing dialects and closed prefixing dialects.


a.a > a: /C_
a.e > aɛ /C_
a.i > aɪ /C_
a.y > aʏ /C_
a.u > aʊ /C_
a.o > aɔ /C_

e.a > ɛa /C_
e.e > e: /C_
pe.i > ɛɪ /C_
e.y > ɛʏ /C_
e.u > ɛʊ /C_
e.o > ɛɔ /C_

i.a > ɪa /C_
i.e > ɪɛ /C_
i.i > i: /C_
i.y > ɪʏ /C_
i.u > ɪʊ /C_
i.o > ɪɔ /C_

y.a > ʏa /C_
y.e > ʏɛ /C_
y.i > ʏɪ /C_
y.y > y: /C_
y.u > ʏʊ /C_
y.o > ʏɔ /C_

u.a > ʊa /C_
u.e > ʊɛ /C_
u.i > ʊɪ /C_
u.y > ʊʏ /C_
u.u > u: /C_
u.o > ʊɔ /C_

o.a > ɔa /C_
o.e > ɔɛ /C_
o.i > ɔɪ /C_
o.y > ɔʏ /C_
o.u > ɔʊ /C_
o.o > o:

Sample: dɛɔ-mabɛʊ-naɔ-kirɔa naɪ-naɪ.o-dɛi naɛ-ɹɔa.o-nakiʎɔa.o-ŋa-ɪki:-mabɛʊ-ɾăɾaɔ

ɪa
Naa-roi-rarao
Open, preformative, suffixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: teo-papeu-tao-kitoa tai-taio-tei tae-toao-takikoao kai-kii-papeu-tatao

Transliteration 2: deo-babeu-dao-gidoa dai-daio-dei dae-doao-dagigoao gai-gii-babeu-dadao

Pronunciation: dɛɔ-mabɛʊ-naɔ-kirɔa naɪ-naɪ.o-dɛɪ naɛ-ɹɔa.o-nakiʎɔa.o ŋaɪ-ki:-mabɛʊ-ɾăɾaɔ

Transcription: deo-mabeu-nao-kiroa nai-naio-dei nae-roao-nakijoao-ŋai-kii-mabeu-rarao

Gloss: cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Naa-roi-rarao
Open, preformative, suffixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: kai-kii-papeu-tatao tae-toao-takikoao tai-taio-tei teo-papeu-tao-kitoa

Transliteration 2: gai-gii-babeu-dadao dae-doao-dagigoao dai-daio-dei deo-babeu-dao-gidoa

Pronunciation: ŋaɪ-kɪ:-mabɛʊ-ɾaɾaɔ naɛ-rɔa.o-nakiʎɔa.o naɪ-naɪ.o-dɛɪ dɛɔ-mabɛʊ-naɔ-kirɔa

Transcription: ŋai-kii-mabeu-rarao nae-roao-nakijoao nai-naio-dei deo-mabeu-nao-kiroa

Gloss: nothing-big-ness-subject exist-verb-past-evidental things-object-all-of cause-big-object-gerund-before

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


Ana-iro-orara
Open, afformative, suffixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: ote-upepa-ota-atoki ita-oita-ite eta-oato-oakokita ika-iki-upepa-otata

Transliteration 2: ode-ubeba-oda-adogi ida-oida-ide eda-oado-oagogida iga-igi-ubeba-odada

Pronunciation: ode-ubema-ona-aroki ina-oina-ide ena-ɔaro-ɔaʎokina iŋa-iki-ubema-oɾaɾa

Transcription: ode-ubema-ona-aroki ina-oina-ide ena-oaro-oajokina iŋa-iki-ubema-orara

Gloss: Cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Ana-iro-orara
Open, afformative, suffixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: ika-iki-upepa-otata eta-oato-oakokita ita-oita-ite ote-upepa-ota-atoki

Transliteration 2: iga-igi-ubeba-odada eda-oado-oagogida ida-oida-ide ode-ubeba-oda-adogi

Pronunciation: iŋa-iki-ubema-oɾaɾa ena-ɔaro-ɔaʎokina ina-oina-ide ode-ubema-ona-aroki

Transcription: iŋa-iki-ubema-orara ena-oaro-oajokina ina-oina-ide ode-ubema-ona-aroki

Gloss: nothing-big-ness-subject exist-verb-past-evidental things-object-all-of cause-big-object-gerund-before

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


Rarao-roi-naa
Open, preformative, prefixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: kitoa-tao-papeu-teo tei-taio-tai takikoao-toao-tae tatao-pepeu-kii-kai

Transliteration 2: gidoa-dao-babeu-deo dei-daio-dai dagigoao-doao-dae dadao-bebeu-gii-gai

Pronunciation: kiɹɔa-naɔ-mabɛʊ-dɛɔ dɛɪ-naɪ.o-naɪ nakiʎɔa.o-rɔa.o-naɛ ɾaɾaɔ-mabɛʊ-kɪ:-ŋaɪ

Transcription: kiroa-nao-mabeu-deo dei-naio-nai nakijoao-roao-nae rarao-mabeu-kii-ŋai

Gloss: before-gerund-object-big-cause of-all-things-object evidental-past-verb-exist subject-ness-big-none

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Rarao-roi-naa
Open, preformative, prefixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: tatao-pepeu-kii-kai takikoao-toao-tae tei-taio-tai kitoa-tao-papeu-teo

Transliteration 2: dadao-bebeu-gii-gai dagigoao-doao-dae dei-daio-dai gidoa-dao-babeu-deo

Pronunciation: ɾaɾaɔ-mabɛʊ-kɪ:-ŋaɪ dakiʎɔa.o-rɔa.o-naɛ dɛɪ-naɪ.o-naɪ kirɔa-naɔ-mabɛʊ-dɛɔ

Transcription: rarao-mabeu-kii-ŋai nakijoao-roao-dae dei-daio-dai kidoa-dao-bapeu-teo

Gloss: subject-ness-big-none evidental-past-verb-exist of-all-things-object before-gerund-object-big-cause

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


Orara-iro-ana
Open, afformative, prefixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: atoki-ota-upepa-ote ite-oita-ita oakokita-oato-eta otata-upepa-iki-ika

Transliteration 2: adogi-oda-ubeba-ode ide-oida-ida oagogida-oado-eda odada-ubeba-igi-iga

Pronunciation: aroki-ona-ubema-ode ide-oina-ina ɔaʎokina-ɔaro-ena oɾaɾa-ubema-iki-iŋa

Transcription: aroki-ona-ubema-ode ide-oina-ina oajokina-oaro-ena orara-ubema-iki-iŋa

Gloss: before-gerund-object-big-cause of-all-things-object evidental-past-verb-exist subject-ness-big-none

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Orara-iro-ana

Open, afformative, prefixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: otata-upepa-iki-ika oakokita-oato-eta ite-oita-ita atoki-ota-upepa-ote

Transliteration 2: odada-ubeba-igi-iga oagogida-oado-eda ide-oida-ida adogi-oda-ubeba-ode

Pronunciation: oɾaɾa-ubema-iki-iŋa ɔaʎokina-ɔaro-ena ide-oina-ina aroki-ona-ubema-ode

Transcription: orara-ubema-iki-iŋa oajokina-oaro-na ide-oina-ina aroki-ona-ubema-ode

Gloss: subject-ness-big-none evidental-past-verb-exist of-all-things-object before-gerund-object-big-cause

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.



Variant II: ?

This change was only possible for open suffixing dialects and closed prefixing dialects.


a.a > a: /_C
a.e > aɛ /_C
a.i > aɪ /_C
a.y > aʏ /_C
a.u > aʊ /_C
a.o > aɔ /_C

e.a > ɛa /_C
e.e > e: /_C
pe.i > ɛɪ /_C
e.y > ɛʏ /_C
e.u > ɛʊ /_C
e.o > ɛɔ /_C

i.a > ɪa /_C
i.e > ɪɛ /_C
i.i > i: /_C
i.y > ɪʏ /_C
i.u > ɪʊ /_C
i.o > ɪɔ /_C

y.a > ʏa /_C
y.e > ʏɛ /_C
y.i > ʏɪ /_C
y.y > y: /_C
y.u > ʏʊ /_C
y.o > ʏɔ /_C

u.a > ʊa /_C
u.e > ʊɛ /_C
u.i > ʊɪ /_C
u.y > ʊʏ /_C
u.u > u: /_C
u.o > ʊɔ /_C

o.a > ɔa /_C
o.e > ɔɛ /_C
o.i > ɔɪ /_C
o.y > ɔʏ /_C
o.u > ɔʊ /_C
o.o > o:

Ana-ori-araro
Formerly-closed, preformative, suffixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: eto-apepu-ato-ikota ati-atio-eti ate-otao-atikokao ati-iki-apepu-atato

Transliteration 2: edo-abebu-ado-igoda adi-adio-edi ade-odao-adigogao agi-igi-abebu-adado

Pronunciation: edo-amebu-ano-ikoɹa ani-anio-edi ane-oɹaɔ-anikoʎaɔ-aŋi-iki-amebu-aɾaɾo

Transcription: edo-amebu-ano-ikora ani-anio-edi ane-orao-anikojao aŋi-iki-amebu-araro

Gloss: cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Ana-ori-araro
Formerly-closed, preformative, suffixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: aki-iki-apepu-atato ate-otao-atikokao ati-atio-eti eto-apepu-ato-ikota

Transliteration 2: agi-igi-abebu-adado ade-odao-adigogao adi-adio-edi edo-abebu-ado-igoda

Pronunciation: aŋi-iki-amebu-aɾaɾo ane-oɹaɔ-anikoʎaɔ ani-anio-edi edo-amebu-ano-ikoɹa

Transcription: aŋi-iki-amebu-araro ane-oɹao-anikojao ani-anio-edi edo-amebu-ano-ikora

Gloss: nothing-big-ness-subject exist-verb-past-evidental things-object-all-of cause-big-object-gerund-before

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


Aan-ior-oarar
Closed, afformative, suffixing, OVS

Transliteration: oet-uepap-oat-aotik iat-oiat-iet eat-oaot-oaokikat iat-iik-uepap-oatat

Transliteration: oed-uebab-oad-aodig iad-oiad-ied ead-oaod-oaogigad iad-iig-uebab-oadad

Pronunciation: oed-ʊɛbam-ɔan-aɔɹik ɪad-o.ɪan-ɪɛd ɛan-o.aɔɹ-o.aɔʎikan ɪaŋ-ɪ:k-ʊɛbam-ɔaɾaɾ

Transcription: oed-uebam-oan-aorik ian-oian-ied ean-oaor-oaojikan iaŋ-iik-uebam-oarar

Gloss: Cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Aan-ior-oarar
Closed, afformative, suffixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: iak-iik-uepap-oatat eat-oaot-oaogikad iad-oiad-ied oet-ueab-oad-aodik

Transliteration 2: iag-iig-uebab-oadad ead-oaod-oaogigad iad-oiad-ied oed-uebab-oad-aodig

Pronunciation: ɪaŋ-ɪ:k-ʊɛbam-ɔaɾaɾ ɛan-oaɔɹ-o.aɔʎikan ɪan-o.ɪan-ɪɛd oed-u.ɛan-ɔan-aɔʎik

Transcription: iaŋ-iik-uebam-oarar ean-oaor-oaojikan ian-oian-ied oed-uebam-oan-aorik

Gloss: nothing-big-ness-subject exist-verb-past-evidental things-object-all-of cause-big-object-gerund-before

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


Araro-ori-ana
Closed, preformative, prefixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: ikota-ato-apepu-eto eti-atio-ati atikokao-otao-ate atato-etapu-iki-aki

Transliteration: igoda-ado-abebu-edo edi-adio-adi adigogao-odao-ade adado-ebabu-igi-agi

Pronunciation: ikoɹa-ano-amebu-edo edi-anio-ani anikoʎaɔ-oɹaɔ-ane aɾaɾo-amebu-iki-aŋi

Transcription: ikora-ano-amebu-edo edi-anio-ani anikojao-orao-ane araro-amebu-iki-aŋi

Gloss: before-gerund-object-big-cause of-all-things-object evidental-past-verb-exist subject-ness-big-none

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Araro-ori-ana
Closed, preformative, prefixing, SVO

Transliteration: atato-epepu-iki-aki atikokao-otao-ate eti-atio-ati ikota-ato-apepu-eto

Transliteration: adado-ebebu-igi-agi adigogao-odao-ade edi-adio-adi igoda-ado-abebu-edo

Pronunciation: aɾaɾo-amebu-iki-aŋi anikoʎaɔ-oɹaɔ-ane edi-anio-ani ikoʎa-ano-amebu-edo

Transcription: araro-amebu-iki-aŋi anikojao-orao-ane edi-anio-ani ikora-ano-amebu-edo

Gloss: subject-ness-big-none evidental-past-verb-exist of-all-things-object before-gerund-object-big-cause

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


Oarar-ior-aan
Closed, afformative, prefixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: aotik-oat-uepap-oet iet-oiat-iat oaokikat-oaot-eat oatat-uepap-iik-iak

Transliteration 2: aodig-oad-uebab-oed ied-oiad-iad oaogigad-oaod-ead oadad-uebab-iig-iag

Pronunciation: aɔʎik-ɔan-ʊɛbam-oed ɪɛd-o.ɪan-ɪan o.aɔʎikan-o.aɔɹ-ɛan o.ɾaɾ-ʊɛbam-ɪ:k-ɪaŋ

Transcription: aorik-oan-uebam-oed ied-oian-ian oaojikad-oaor-ean oarar-uebam-iik-iaŋ

Gloss: before-gerund-object-big-cause of-all-things-object evidental-past-verb-exist subject-ness-big-none

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Oarar-ior-aan
Closed, afformative, prefixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: oatat-uepap-iik-iak oaokikat-oaot-eat iet-oiat-iat aotik-oat-uepap-oet

Transliteration 2: oadad-uebab-iig-iag oaogigad-oaod-ead ied-oiad-iad aodig-oad-uebab-oed

Pronunciation: ɔarar-ʊɛbam-ɪ:k-ɪaŋ o.aɔʎikan-o.aɔr-ɛan ɪɛd-o.ɪan-ɪan aɔrik-ɔan-ʊɛbam-oed

Transcription: oarar-uebam-iik-iaŋ oaojikan-oaor-ean ied-oiad-ian aorik-oan-uebam-oed

Gloss: subject-ness-big-none evidental-past-verb-exist of-all-things-object before-gerund-object-big-cause

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.



Back-Vowel Voicing
+ Glottal Deconsonantalization
+ Further Lenition
+ Consonantal Vowel Deletion

This refers to a change that occured in numerous dialects of various morphologies. In some dialects, consonants adjascent to back vowels (a, u, o) were voiced. In other dialects, consonants adjascent to rounded vowels (y, u, o) were voiced.

Variant Group A: Onset Voicing in Open Dialects

In open dialects, the onsets of syllables with back vowels were voiced.


ba > ma > m
pe > be > b
pi > pi > p
py > ɸy > ɸ
bu > βu > β
bo > wo > w

da > na > n
te > de > d
ti > ti > t
ty > sy > s
du > zu > z
do > ɹo > ɹ
tata > ɾaɾa > l

ga > ŋa > ŋ
ke > ge > g
ki > ki > k
ky > xy > x
gu > ɣu > ɣ
go > ʎo > ʎ

Na-ri-lo
Open, preformative, suffixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: do-mbu-no-kra ni-nio-di ne-rao-nkjao ŋi-ki-mbu-rro

Pronunciation: do-mbu-no-kɹa ni-ni.o-di ne-ɹa.o-nkʎa.o-ŋi-ki-mbu-lo

Transcription: do-mbu-no-kra ni-nio-di ne-rao-nkyao ngi-ki-mbu-lo

Gloss: cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Na-ri-lo
Open, preformative, suffixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: ŋi-ki-mbu-rro ne-rao-nkjao ni-nio-di do-mbu-no-kra

Pronunciation: ŋi-ki-mbu-lo ne-ɹa.o-nkʎa.o ni-ni.o-di do-mbu-no-kɹa

Transcription: ngi-ki-mbu-lo ne-rao-nkyao ni-nio-di do-mbu-no-kra

Gloss: nothing-big-ness-subject exist-verb-past-evidental things-object-all-of cause-big-object-gerund-before

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


An-ir-ol
Formerly-open, afformative, suffixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: od-ubm-on-ark in-oin-id en-oar-oajkn iŋ-ik-ubm-orr

Pronunciation: od-ubm-on-aɹk in-o.in-id en-o.aɹ-o.aʎkn iŋ-ik-ubm-ol

Transcription: od-ubm-on-ark in-o.in-id en-oar-oaykn ing-ik-ubm-ol

Gloss: Cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


An-ir-ol
Formerly-open, afformative, suffixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: iŋ-ik-ubm-orr en-oar-oajkn in-oin-id en od-ubm-on-ark

Pronunciation: iŋ-ik-ubm-ol en-o.aɹ-o.aʎkn in-o.in-id od-ubm-on-aɹk

Transcription: ing-ik-ubm-ol en-oar-oaykn in-o.in-id od-ubm-on-ark

Gloss: nothing-big-ness-subject exist-verb-past-evidental things-object-all-of cause-big-object-gerund-before

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


Lo-ri-na
Open, preformative, prefixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: kra-no-mbu-do di-nio-ni nkjao-rao-ne rro-mbu-ki-ŋi

Pronunciation: kɹa-no-mbu-do di-ni.o-di nkʎa.o-ɹa.o-ne lo-mbu-ki-ŋi

Transcription: kra-no-mbu-do di-nio-ni nkjao-rao-ne lo-mbu-ki-ngi

Gloss: before-gerund-object-big-cause of-all-things-object evidental-past-verb-exist subject-ness-big-none

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Lo-ri-na
Open, preformative, prefixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: rro-mbu-ki-ŋi nkjao-rao-ne di-nio-ni kra-no-mbu-do

Pronunciation: lo-mbu-ki-ŋi nkʎa.o-ɹa.o-ne di-ni.o-ni kɹa-no-mbu-do

Transcription: lo-mbu-ki-ngi nkyao-rao-ne di-nio-ni kra-no-mbu-do

Gloss: subject-ness-big-none evidental-past-verb-exist of-all-things-object before-gerund-object-big-cause

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


Ol-ir-an
Formerly-open, afformative, prefixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: ark-on-ubm-od id-oin-in oajkn-oar-en orr-ubm-ik-iŋ

Pronunciation: aɹk-on-ubm-od id-o.in-in o.aɹkn-o.aɹ-en ol-ubm-ik-iŋ

Transcription: ark-on-ubm-od id-oin-in oajkn-oar-en ol-ubm-ik-ing

Gloss: before-gerund-object-big-cause of-all-things-object evidental-past-verb-exist subject-ness-big-none

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Ol-ir-an

Formerly-open, afformative, prefixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: orr-ubm-ik-iŋ oajkn-oar-en id-oin-in ark-on-ubm-od

Pronunciation: ol-ubm-ik-iŋ o.aɹkn-o.aɹ-en id-o.in-in aɹk-on-ubm-od

Transcription: ol-ubm-ik-ing oaykn-oar-en id-oin-in ark-on-ubm-od

Gloss: subject-ness-big-none evidental-past-verb-exist of-all-things-object before-gerund-object-big-cause

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.



Variant Group B: Codal Voicing in Closed Dialects

In closed dialects, the codas of syllables with back vowels were voiced.


ab > am > m
ep > eb > b
ip > ip > p
yp > yɸ > ɸ
ub > uβ > β
ob > ow > w

ad > an > n
et > de > d
it > ti > t
yt > sy > s
ud > zu > z
od > oɹ > ɹ
atat > aɾaɾ > rr

ag > aŋ > ŋ
ek > eg > g
ik > ik > k
yk > yx > x
ug > uɣ > ɣ
og > oʎ > ʎ

Na-ri-rro
Formerly-closed, preformative, suffixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: do-mbu-no-kra ni-nio-di ne-rao-nkjao ŋi-ki-mbu-rro

Pronunciation: do-mbu-no-kɹa ni-ni.o-di ne-ɹa.o-nkʎa.o-ŋi-ki-mbu-ɾɾo

Transcription: do-mbu-no-kra ni-nio-di ne-rao-nkyao ngi-ki-mbu-rro

Gloss: cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Na-ri-rro
Formerly-closed, preformative, suffixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: ŋi-ki-mbu-rro ne-rao-nkjao ni-nio-di do-mbu-no-kra

Pronunciation: ŋi-ki-mbu-ɾɾo ne-ɹa.o-nkʎa.o ni-ni.o-di do-mbu-no-kɹa

Transcription: ngi-ki-mbu-rro ne-rao-nkyao ni-nio-di do-mbu-no-kra

Gloss: nothing-big-ness-subject exist-verb-past-evidental things-object-all-of cause-big-object-gerund-before

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


An-ir-orr
Closed, afformative, suffixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: od-ubm-on-ark in-oin-id en-oar-oajkn iŋ-ik-ubm-orr

Pronunciation: od-ubm-on-aɹk in-o.in-id en-o.aɹ-o.aʎkn iŋ-ik-ubm-oɾɾ

Transcription: od-ubm-on-ark in-o.in-id en-oar-oaykn ing-ik-ubm-orr

Gloss: Cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


An-ir-orr
Closed, afformative, suffixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: iŋ-ik-ubm-orr en-oar-oajkn in-oin-id en od-ubm-on-ark

Pronunciation: iŋ-ik-ubm-oɾɾ en-o.aɹ-o.aʎkn in-o.in-id od-ubm-on-aɹk

Transcription: ing-ik-ubm-orr en-oar-oaykn in-o.in-id od-ubm-on-ark

Gloss: nothing-big-ness-subject exist-verb-past-evidental things-object-all-of cause-big-object-gerund-before

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


Rro-ri-an
Formerly-closed, preformative, prefixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: kra-no-mbu-do di-nio-ni nkjao-rao-ne rro-mbu-ki-ŋi

Pronunciation: kɹa-no-mbu-do di-ni.o-di nkʎa.o-ɹa.o-ne ɾɾo-mbu-ki-ŋi

Transcription: kra-no-mbu-do di-nio-ni nkjao-rao-ne rro-mbu-ki-ngi

Gloss: before-gerund-object-big-cause of-all-things-object evidental-past-verb-exist subject-ness-big-none

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Rro-ri-an
Formerly-closed, preformative, prefixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: rro-mbu-ki-ŋi nkjao-rao-ne di-nio-ni kra-no-mbu-do

Pronunciation: ɾɾo-mbu-ki-ŋi nkʎa.o-ɹa.o-ne di-ni.o-ni kɹa-no-mbu-do

Transcription: rro-mbu-ki-ngi nkyao-rao-ne di-nio-ni kra-no-mbu-do

Gloss: subject-ness-big-none evidental-past-verb-exist of-all-things-object before-gerund-object-big-cause

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


Orr-ir-an
Closed, afformative, prefixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: ark-on-ubm-od id-oin-in oajkn-oar-en orr-ubm-ik-iŋ

Pronunciation: aɹk-on-ubm-od id-o.in-in o.aɹkn-o.aɹ-en oɾɾ-ubm-ik-iŋ

Transcription: ark-on-ubm-od id-oin-in oajkn-oar-en orr-ubm-ik-ing

Gloss: before-gerund-object-big-cause of-all-things-object evidental-past-verb-exist subject-ness-big-none

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Orr-ir-an
Closed, afformative, prefixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: orr-ubm-ik-iŋ oajkn-oar-en id-oin-in ark-on-ubm-od

Pronunciation: oɾɾ-ubm-ik-iŋ o.aɹkn-o.aɹ-en id-o.in-in aɹk-on-ubm-od

Transcription: orr-ubm-ik-ing oaykn-oar-en id-oin-in ark-on-ubm-od

Gloss: subject-ness-big-none evidental-past-verb-exist of-all-things-object before-gerund-object-big-cause

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.



Sound change 2: The Great Vowel Deletion

Sound change 2 with orthographical change 1


ba(q) or pa(q) = /ma/ > ppp = /m/
be(q) or pe(q) = /be/ > pp = /b/
bi(q) or pi(q) = /ɸi/ > qp = /ɸ/
by(q) or py(q) = /py/ > p = /p/
bu(q) or pu(q) = /βu/ > qpp = /β/
bo(q) or po(q) = /wo/ > qppp = /w/

da(q) or ta(q) = /na/ > ttt = /n/
de(q) or te(q) = /de/ > tt = /d/
di(q) or ti(q) = /si/ > qt = /s/
dy(q) or ty(q) = /ty/ > t = /t/
du(q) or tu(q) = /zu/ > qtt = /z/
do(q) or to(q) = /ro/ > qttt = /r/

dada(q) or tata(q) = /la/ > tttttt /l/
dede(q) or tete(q) = /ðe/ > ? /ð/
didi(q) or titi(q) = /ʃi/ > ? /ʃ/
dydy(q) or tyty(q) = /θy/ > ? /θ/
dudu(q) or tutu(q) = /ʒu/ > ? /ʒ/
dodo(q) or toto(q) = /rho/ > ???

ga(q) or ka(q) = /ŋa/ > kkk /ŋ/
ge(q) or ke(q) = /ge/ > kk /g/
gi(q) or ki(q) = /xi/ > qk /x/
gy(q) or ky(q) = /ky/ > k /k/
gu(q) or ku(q) = /ɣu/ > qkk /ɣ/
go(q) or ko(q) = /jo/ > qkkk /j/

New version: Ttoppppputttokqttta tttitttiotti ttteqtttaotttkqkkkao Kkkikippppputttttto. Kkkikitttopppqpppi ttttttatettttttaotttkqkkkao kkkikipppppupitttttto; pitttio kitttattttttaotttkqkkku kkkikipppppupitttttto. Qppqtttikkttti, ttteqtttiokkkue ttttttatikitttttto. Qtttoettaeqtttootttkqkkka tttittttttiottttta taokaeqtttotttkqkkkue tttittttttiotttta. Kitttikipitttotti taakaeqtttaotttkqkkkaa ttttttatikitttttto. Qtttautteqtttaotttkqkkkaa pppaeqtikitttttto. Pppaeqtikititttppppi ttteqtttiotttue tttittttttio.


Sound change 2 with orthographical change 2

Orthographical change 2 is separate and distinct from orthographical change 1. Orthrographical change 2 does not follow sequentially or build upon orthographical change 1.


ba(q) or pa(q) = /ma/ > m = /m/
be(q) or pe(q) = /be/ > ph = /b/
bi(q) or pi(q) = /ɸi/ > pp = /ɸ/
by(q) or py(q) = /py/ > p = /p/
bu(q) or pu(q) = /βu/ > phph = /β/
bo(q) or po(q) = /wo/ > mh = /w/

da(q) or ta(q) = /na/ > n = /n/
de(q) or te(q) = /de/ > th = /d/
di(q) or ti(q) = /si/ > tt = /s/
dy(q) or ty(q) = /ty/ > t = /t/
du(q) or tu(q) = /zu/ > thth = /z/
do(q) or to(q) = /ro/ > nh = /r/

dada(q) or tata(q) = /la/ > nn /l/
dede(q) or tete(q) = /ðe/ > ? /ð/
didi(q) or titi(q) = /ʃi/ > ? /ʃ/
dydy(q) or tyty(q) = /θy/ > ? /θ/
dudu(q) or tutu(q) = /ʒu/ > ? /ʒ/
dodo(q) or toto(q) = /rho/ > ???

ga(q) or ka(q) = /ŋa/ > ŋ /ŋ/
ge(q) or ke(q) = /ge/ > kh /g/
gi(q) or ki(q) = /xi/ > kk /x/
gy(q) or ky(q) = /ky/ > k /k/
gu(q) or ku(q) = /ɣu/ > khkh /ɣ/
go(q) or ko(q) = /jo/ > ŋh /j/

New version: Thomphunoknha niniothi nenhaonkŋhao Ŋikimphunno. Ŋikinommhi nnatennaonkŋhao ŋikimphupinno; pinio kinannaonkŋhu ŋikimphupinno. Phphŋhikhni, nenhioŋue nnatikinno. Nhoedaenhoonkŋha ninniontha taokaenhonkŋhue ninnionta. Kinikipinothi taakaenhaonkŋhaa nnatikinno. Nhaudenhaonkŋhaa maettikinno. Maettikitinmpi nenhionue ninnio.


Sound change 2 with orthographical change 3

Orthographical change 3 follows sequentially from and builds upon orthographical change 2.


m = /m/
ph = /b/ > b = /b/
pp = /ɸ/ > ph = /ɸ/
p = /p/
phph = /β/ > bh = /β/
mh = /w/ > mh /w/

n = /n/
th = /d/ > d = /d/
tt = /s/ > s = /s/
t = /t/
thth = /z/ > z = /z/
nh = /r/

nn /l/ > = l /l/
? /ð/ > dh = /ð/
? /ʃ/ > sh /ʃ/
? /θ/ > th = /θ/
? /ʒ/ > zh = /ʒ/
???

ŋ /ŋ/
kh = /g/ > g = /g/
kk = /x/ > kh = /x/
k = /k/
khkh = /ɣ/ > gh /ɣ/
ŋh = /j/ > lh = /j/

Newer version: Dombunoknha niniodi nenhaonklhao-Ŋikimbulo. Ŋikinommhi latelaonklhao-Ŋikimbupilo; pinio kinalaonklhu-ŋikimbupilo. Bhlhigni, nenhioŋue-latikilo. Nhoedaenhoonklhoa-nilionda taokaenhoonklhue-nilionta. Kinikipinodi taakaenhaonklhaa-latikilo. Nhaudenhaonklhaa-maesikilo. Maesikitinompi nenhionue-nilio.


Sound change 2 with orthographical change 4

Orthographical change 4 follows sequentially from and builds upon orthographical change 3.


m = /m/
b = /b/
ph = /ɸ/ > f = /ɸ/
p = /p/
bh = /β/ > v = /β/
mh /w/ > w /w/

n = /n/
d = /d/
s = /s/
t = /t/
z = /z/
nh = /r/ > r = /r/

l /l/
dh = /ð/ > ð = /ð/
sh /ʃ/ > ? = /ʃ/
> th = /θ/ > þ = /θ/
zh = /ʒ/ > ? = /ʒ/
???

ŋ /ŋ/
g = /g/
kh = /x/ > x = /x/
k = /k/
gh /ɣ/ > ? = /ɣ/
lh = /j/ > y = /j/

Newerer version: Dombunokra niniodi neraonkyao-Ŋikimbulo. Ŋikinomwi latelaonkyao-Ŋikimbupilo; pinio kinalaonkyu-ŋikimbupilo. Vyigni, nerioŋue-latikilo. Roedaeroonkyoa-nilionda taokaeroonkyue-nilionta. Kinikipinodi taakaeraonkyaa-latikilo. Rauderaonkyaa-maesikilo. Maesikitinompi nerionue-nilio.



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