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Palæoboreanic Languages

Copyright © 2004-2020 C.E. by Dustin Jon Scott

Morphology Overview

Open, preformative, suffixing, OVS: teqo-papequ-taqo-kitoqa taqi-taqiqo-teqi taqe-toqaqo-takikoqaqo kaqi-kiqi-papequ-tataqo

Gloss: cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Closed, preformative, suffixing, OVS: etoq-abepuq-adoq-ikodaq adiq-adiqoq-ediq adeq-odaqoq-adikogaqoq agiq-ikiq-abepuq-atatoq

Gloss: cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Open, preformative, suffixing, SVO: gaqi-kiqi-bapequ-tataqo daqe-doqaqo-dakigoqaqo daqi-daqiqo-deqi teqo-bapequ-daqo-kidoqa

Gloss: nothing-big-ness-subject exist-verb-past-evidental things-object-all-of cause-big-object-gerund-before

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


Closed, preformative, suffixing, SVO: agiq-ikiq-abepuq-atatoq adeq-odaqoq-adikogaqoq adiq-adiqoq-ediq etoq-abepuq-adoq-ikodaq

Gloss: nothing-big-ness-subject exist-verb-past-evidental things-object-all-of cause-big-object-gerund-before

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


Open, afformative, suffixing, OVS: qote-qupeba-qoda-qadoki qida-qoqida-qide qeda-qoqado-qoqagokida qiga-qiki-qupeba-qotata

Gloss: Cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Closed, afformative, suffixing, OVS: oqet-uqepab-oqad-aqodik iqad-oqiqad-iqed eqad-oqaqod-oqaqogikad iqaq-iqik-uqepab-oqatat

Gloss: Cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Open, afformative, suffixing, SVO: qiga-qiki-qupeba-qotata qeda-qoqado-qoqagokida qida-qoqida-qide qote-qupeba-qoda-qadoki

Gloss: nothing-big-ness-subject exist-verb-past-evidental things-object-all-of cause-big-object-gerund-before

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


Closed, afformative, suffixing, SVO: iqag-iqik-uqepab-oqatat eqad-oqaqod-oqaqogikad iqad-oqiqad-iqed oqet-uqeqab-oqad-aqodik

Gloss: nothing-big-ness-subject exist-verb-past-evidental things-object-all-of cause-big-object-gerund-before

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


Open, preformative, prefixing, OVS: kidoqa-daqo-bapequ-teqo deqi-daqiqo-daqi dakigoqaqo-doqaqo-daqe tataqo-bepequ-kiqi-gaqi

Gloss: before-gerund-object-big-cause of-all-things-object evidental-past-verb-exist subject-ness-big-none

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Closed, preformative, prefixing, OVS: ikodaq-adoq-abepuq-etoq ediq-adiqoq-adiq adikogaqoq-odaqoq-adeq atatoq-edepuq-ikiq-agiq

Gloss: before-gerund-object-big-cause of-all-things-object evidental-past-verb-exist subject-ness-big-none

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Open, preformative, prefixing, SVO: tataqo-bepequ-kiqi-gaqi dakigoqaqo-doqaqo-daqe deqi-daqiqo-daqi kidoqa-daqo-bapequ-teqo

Gloss: subject-ness-big-none evidental-past-verb-exist of-all-things-object before-gerund-object-big-cause

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


Closed, preformative, prefixing, SVO: atatoq-ebepuq-ikiq-agiq adikogaqoq-odaqoq-adeq ediq-adiqoq-adiq ikodaq-adoq-adepuq-etoq

Gloss: subject-ness-big-none evidental-past-verb-exist of-all-things-object before-gerund-object-big-cause

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


Open, afformative, prefixing, OVS: qadoki-qoda-qupeba-qote qide-qoqida-qida qoqagokida-qoqado-qeda qotata-qupeba-qiki-qiga

Gloss: before-gerund-object-big-cause of-all-things-object evidental-past-verb-exist subject-ness-big-none

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Closed, afformative, prefixing, OVS: aqodik-oqad-uqepab-oqet iqed-oqiqad-iqad oqaqogikad-oqaqod-eqad oqatat-uqepab-iqik-iqag

Gloss: before-gerund-object-big-cause of-all-things-object evidental-past-verb-exist subject-ness-big-none

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Open, afformative, prefixing, SVO: qotata-qupeba-qiki-qiga qoqagokida-qoqado-qeda qide-qoqida-qida qadoki-qoda-qupeba-qote

Gloss: subject-ness-big-none evidental-past-verb-exist of-all-things-object before-gerund-object-big-cause

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


Closed, afformative, prefixing, SVO: oqatat-uqepab-iqik-iqag oqaqogikad-oqaqod-eqad iqed-oqiqad-iqad aqodik-oqad-uqepab-oqet

Gloss: subject-ness-big-none evidental-past-verb-exist of-all-things-object before-gerund-object-big-cause

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


Back-Vowel Voicing

This refers to a change that occured in numerous dialects of various morphologies. In some dialects, consonants adjascent to back vowels (a, u, o) were voiced. In other dialects, consonants adjascent to rounded vowels (y, u, o) were voiced.

Variant Group A: Onset Voicing in Open Dialects

In open dialects, the onsets of syllables with back vowels were voiced.


p > b /_[a]
p > b /_[u]
p > b /_[o]
t > d /_[a]
t > d /_[u]
t > d /_[o]
t > ɾ /_[vowel]_[same vowel]
k > g /_[a]
k > g /_[u]
k > g /_[o]
q > ɦ /_[a]
q > ɦ /_[u]
q > ɦ /_[o]
Open, preformative, suffixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: teqo-papequ-taqo-kitoqa taqi-taqiqo-teqi taqe-toqaqo-takikoqaqo kaqi-kiqi-papequ-tataqo

Transliteration 2: deqo-babequ-daqo-gidoqa daqi-daqiqo-deqi daqe-doqaqo-dagigoqaqo gaqi-giqi-babequ-dadaqo

Pronunciation: teɦo-bapeɦu-daɦo-kidoɦa daʔi-daʔiɦo-deʔi daʔe-doɦaɦo-dakigoɦaɦo-gaʔi-kiʔi-bapeɦu-ɾaɾaɦo

Transcription: te’o-bape’u-da’o-kido’a da’i-da’i’o-de’i da’e-do’a’o-dakigo’a’o-ga’i-ki’i-bape’u-rara’o

Gloss: cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Open, preformative, suffixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: kaqi-kiqi-papequ-tataqo taqe-toqaqo-takikoqaqo taqi-taqiqo-teqi teqo-papequ-taqo-kitoqa

Transliteration 2: gaqi-giqi-babequ-dadaqo daqe-doqaqo-dagigoqaqo daqi-daqiqo-deqi deqo-babequ-daqo-gidoqa

Pronunciation: gaʔi-kiʔi-bapeɦu-ɾaɾaɦo daʔe-doɦaɦo-dakigoɦaɦo daʔi-daʔiɦo-deʔi teɦo-bapeɦu-daɦo-kidoɦa

Transcription: ga’i-ki’i-bape’u-rara’o da’e-do’a’o-dakigo’a’o da’i-da’i’o-de’i te’o-bape’u-da’o-kido’a

Gloss: nothing-big-ness-subject exist-verb-past-evidental things-object-all-of cause-big-object-gerund-before

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


Open, afformative, suffixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: qote-qupepa-qota-qatoki qita-qoqita-qite qeta-qoqato-qoqakokita qika-qiki-qupepa-qotata

Transliteration 2: qode-qubeba-qoda-qadogi qida-qoqida-qide qeda-qoqado-qoqagogida qiga-qigi-qubeba-qodada

Pronunciation: ɦote-ɦupeba-ɦoda-ɦadoki ʔida-ɦoʔida-ʔite ʔeda-ɦoɦado-ɦoɦagokida ʔiga-ʔiki-ɦupeba-ɦoɾaɾa

Transcription: ’ote-’upeba-’oda-’adoki ’ida-’o’ida-’ide ’eda-’o’ado-’o’agokida ’iga-’iki-’upeba-’orara

Gloss: Cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Open, afformative, suffixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: qika-qiki-qupepa-qotata qeta-qoqato-qoqakokita qita-qoqita-qite qote-qupepa-qota-qatoki

Transliteration 2: qiga-qigi-qubeba-qodada qeda-qoqado-qoqagogida qida-qoqida-qide qode-qubeba-qoda-qadogi

Pronunciation: ʔiga-ʔiki-ɦupeba-ɦoɾaɾa ʔeda-ɦoɦado-ɦoɦagokida ʔida-ɦoʔida-ʔite ɦote-ɦupeba-ɦoda-ɦadoki

Transcription: ’iga-’iki-’upeba-’orara ’eda-’o’ado-’o’agokida ’ida-’o’ida-’ide ’ote-’upeba-’oda-’adoki

Gloss: nothing-big-ness-subject exist-verb-past-evidental things-object-all-of cause-big-object-gerund-before

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


Open, preformative, prefixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: kitoqa-taqo-papequ-teqo teqi-taqiqo-taqi takikoqaqo-toqaqo-taqe tataqo-pepequ-kiqi-kaqi

Transliteration 2: gidoqa-daqo-babequ-deqo deqi-daqiqo-daqi dagigoqaqo-doqaqo-daqe dadaqo-bebequ-giqi-gaqi

Pronunciation: kidoɦa-daɦo-bapeɦu-teɦo deʔi-daʔiqo-daʔi dakigoɦaɦo-doɦaɦo-daʔe ɾaɾaɦo-pepeɦu-kiʔi-gaʔi

Transcription: kido’a-da’o-bape’u-te’o de’i-da’i’o-da’i dakigo’a’o-do’a’o-da’e rara’o-bepe’u-ki’i-ga’i

Gloss: before-gerund-object-big-cause of-all-things-object evidental-past-verb-exist subject-ness-big-none

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Open, preformative, prefixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: tataqo-pepequ-kiqi-kaqi takikoqaqo-toqaqo-taqe teqi-taqiqo-taqi kitoqa-taqo-papequ-teqo

Transliteration 2: dadaqo-bebequ-giqi-gaqi dagigoqaqo-doqaqo-daqe deqi-daqiqo-daqi gidoqa-daqo-babequ-deqo

Pronunciation: ɾaɾaɦo-bepeɦu-kiʔi-gaʔi dakigoɦaɦo-doɦaɦo-daʔe teʔi-daʔiɦo-daʔi kidoɦa-daɦo-bapeɦu-teɦo

Transcription: rara’o-bepe’u-ki’i-ga’i dakigo’a’o-do’a’o-da’e de’i-da’i’o-da’i kido’a-da’o-bape’u-te’o

Gloss: subject-ness-big-none evidental-past-verb-exist of-all-things-object before-gerund-object-big-cause

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


Open, afformative, prefixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: qatoki-qota-qupepa-qote qite-qoqita-qita qoqakokita-qoqato-qeta qotata-qupepa-qiki-qika

Transliteration 2: qadogi-qoda-qubeba-qode qide-qoqida-qida qoqagogida-qoqado-qeda qodada-qubeba-qigi-qiga

Pronunciation: ɦadoki-ɦoda-ɦupeba-ɦote ʔite-ɦoʔida-ʔida ɦoɦagokida-ɦoɦado-ʔeda ɦoɾaɾa-ɦupeba-ʔiki-ʔiga

Transcription: ’adoki-’oda-’upeba-’ote ’ite-’oʔida-’ida ’o’agokida-’o’ado-’eda ’orara-’upeba-’iki-’iga

Gloss: before-gerund-object-big-cause of-all-things-object evidental-past-verb-exist subject-ness-big-none

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Open, afformative, prefixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: qotata-qupepa-qiki-qika qoqakokita-qoqato-qeta qite-qoqita-qita qatoki-qota-qupepa-qote

Transliteration 2: qodada-qubeba-qigi-qiga qoqagogida-qoqado-qeda qide-qoqida-qida qadogi-qoda-qubeba-qode

Pronunciation: ɦoɾaɾa-ɦupeba-ʔiki-ʔiga ɦoɦagokida-ɦoɦado-ʔeda ʔite-ɦoʔida-ʔida ɦadoki-ɦoda-ɦupeba-ɦote

Pronunciation: ’oɾaɾa-’upeba-’iki-’iga ’o’agokida-’o’ado-’eda ’ite-’o’ida-’ida ’adoki-’oda-’upeba-’ote

Gloss: subject-ness-big-none evidental-past-verb-exist of-all-things-object before-gerund-object-big-cause

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.



Variant Group B: Codal Voicing in Closed Dialects

In closed dialects, the codas of syllables with back vowels were voiced.


p > b /[a]_
p > b /[u]_
p > b /[o]_
t > d /[a]_
t > d /[u]_
t > d /[o]_
t > ɾ /[vowel]_[same vowel]_
k > g /[a]_
k > g /[u]_
k > g /[o]_
q > ɦ /[a]_
q > ɦ /[u]_
q > ɦ /[o]_
Closed, preformative, suffixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: etoq-apepuq-atoq-ikotaq atiq-atiqoq-etiq ateq-otaqoq-atikokaqoq atiq-ikiq-apepuq-atatoq

Transliteration 2: edoq-abebuq-adoq-igodaq adiq-adiqoq-ediq adeq-odaqoq-adigogaqoq agiq-igiq-abebuq-adadoq

Pronunciation: etoɦ-abepuɦ-adoɦ-ikodaɦ adiʔ-adiʔoɦ-etiʔ adeʔ-odaɦoɦ-adikogaɦoɦ agiʔ-ikiʔ-abepuɦ-aɾaɾoɦ

Transcription: eto’-abepu’-ado’-ikoda’ adi’-adi’o’-eti’ ade’-oda’o’-adikoga’o’ agi’-iki’-abepu’-araro’

Gloss: cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Closed, preformative, suffixing, SVO

Transliteration: agiq-ikiq-abepuq-atatoq adeq-odaqoq-adikogaqoq adiq-adiqoq-ediq etoq-abepuq-adoq-ikodaq

Pronunciation: agiʔ-ikiʔ-abepuɦ-aɾaɾoɦ adeʔ-odaɦoɦ-adikogaɦoɦ adiʔ-adiqoɦ-etiʔ etoɦ-abepuɦ-adoɦ-ikodaɦ

Gloss: nothing-big-ness-subject exist-verb-past-evidental things-object-all-of cause-big-object-gerund-before

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


Closed, afformative, suffixing, OVS

Transliteration: oqet-uqepab-oqad-aqodik iqad-oqiqad-iqed eqad-oqaqod-oqaqogikad iqaq-iqik-uqepab-oqatat

Pronunciation: oɦet-uɦepab-oɦad-aɦodik iʔad-oɦiʔad-iʔet eʔad-oɦaɦod-oɦaɦogikad iʔag-iʔik-uɦepab-oɦaɾaɾ

Gloss: Cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Closed, afformative, suffixing, SVO

Transliteration: iqag-iqik-uqepab-oqatat eqad-oqaqod-oqaqogikad iqad-oqiqad-iqed oqet-uqeqab-oqad-aqodik

Pronunciation: iʔag-iʔik-uɦepab-oɦaɾaɾ eʔad-oɦaɦod-oɦaɦogikad iʔad-oɦiʔad-iʔet oɦet-uɦeʔab-oɦad-aɦodik

Gloss: nothing-big-ness-subject exist-verb-past-evidental things-object-all-of cause-big-object-gerund-before

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


Closed, preformative, prefixing, OVS

Transliteration: ikodaq-adoq-abepuq-etoq ediq-adiqoq-adiq adikogaqoq-odaqoq-adeq atatoq-edepuq-ikiq-agiq

Pronunciation: ikodaɦ-adoɦ-abepuɦ-etoɦ etiʔ-adiqoɦ-adiʔ adikogaɦoɦ-odaɦoɦ-adeʔ aɾaɾoɦ-edepuɦ-ikiʔ-agiʔ

Gloss: before-gerund-object-big-cause of-all-things-object evidental-past-verb-exist subject-ness-big-none

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Closed, preformative, prefixing, SVO

Transliteration: atatoq-ebepuq-ikiq-agiq adikogaqoq-odaqoq-adeq ediq-adiqoq-adiq ikodaq-adoq-adepuq-etoq

Closed, preformative, prefixing, SVO: aɾaɾoɦ-ebepuɦ-ikiʔ-agiʔ adikogaɦoɦ-odaɦoɦ-adeʔ etiʔ-adiqoɦ-adiʔ ikodaɦ-adoɦ-adepuɦ-etoɦ

Gloss: subject-ness-big-none evidental-past-verb-exist of-all-things-object before-gerund-object-big-cause

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


Closed, afformative, prefixing, OVS

Transliteration: aqodik-oqad-uqepab-oqet iqed-oqiqad-iqad oqaqogikad-oqaqod-eqad oqatat-uqepab-iqik-iqag

Pronunciation: aɦodik-oɦad-uɦepab-oɦet iʔet-oɦiʔad-iʔad oɦaɦogikad-oɦaɦod-eqad oɦaɾaɾ-uɦepab-iʔik-iʔag

Gloss: before-gerund-object-big-cause of-all-things-object evidental-past-verb-exist subject-ness-big-none

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Closed, afformative, prefixing, SVO

Transliteration: oqatat-uqepab-iqik-iqag oqaqogikad-oqaqod-eqad iqed-oqiqad-iqad aqodik-oqad-uqepab-oqet

Pronunciation: oɦaɾaɾ-uɦepab-iʔik-iʔag oɦaɦogikad-oɦaɦod-eʔad iʔet-oɦiʔad-iʔad aɦodik-oɦad-uɦepab-oɦet

Gloss: subject-ness-big-none evidental-past-verb-exist of-all-things-object before-gerund-object-big-cause

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.



Back-Vowel Voicing
+ Glottal Deconsonantalization

This refers to a change that occured in numerous dialects of various morphologies. In some dialects, consonants adjascent to back vowels (a, u, o) were voiced. In other dialects, consonants adjascent to rounded vowels (y, u, o) were voiced.

Variant Group A: Onset Voicing in Open Dialects

In open dialects, the onsets of syllables with back vowels were voiced.

Open, preformative, suffixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: teqo-papequ-taqo-kitoqa taqi-taqiqo-teqi taqe-toqaqo-takikoqaqo kaqi-kiqi-papequ-tataqo

Transliteration 2: deqo-babequ-daqo-gidoqa daqi-daqiqo-deqi daqe-doqaqo-dagigoqaqo gaqi-giqi-babequ-dadaqo

Pronunciation: te.o-bape.u-da.o-kido.a da.i-da.i.o-de.i da.e-do.a.o-dakigo.a.o-ga.i-ki.i-bape.u-ɾaɾa.o

Transcription: teo-bapeu-dao-kidoa dai-daio-dei dae-doao-dakigoao-gai-kii-bapeu-rarao

Gloss: cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Open, preformative, suffixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: kaqi-kiqi-papequ-tataqo taqe-toqaqo-takikoqaqo taqi-taqiqo-teqi teqo-papequ-taqo-kitoqa

Transliteration 2: gaqi-giqi-babequ-dadaqo daqe-doqaqo-dagigoqaqo daqi-daqiqo-deqi deqo-babequ-daqo-gidoqa

Pronunciation: ga.i-ki.i-bape.u-ɾaɾa.o da.e-do.a.o-dakigo.a.o da.i-da.i.o-de.i te.o-bape.u-da.o-kido.a

Transcription: gai-kii-bapeu-rarao dae-doao-dakigoao dai-daio-dei teo-bapeu-dao-kidoa

Gloss: nothing-big-ness-subject exist-verb-past-evidental things-object-all-of cause-big-object-gerund-before

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


Open, afformative, suffixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: qote-qupepa-qota-qatoki qita-qoqita-qite qeta-qoqato-qoqakokita qika-qiki-qupepa-qotata

Transliteration 2: qode-qubeba-qoda-qadogi qida-qoqida-qide qeda-qoqado-qoqagogida qiga-qigi-qubeba-qodada

Pronunciation: ote-upeba-oda-adoki ida-o.ida-ite eda-o.ado-o.agokida iga-iki-upeba-oɾaɾa

Transcription: ote-upeba-oda-adoki ida-oida-ide eda-oado-oagokida iga-iki-upeba-orara

Gloss: Cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Open, afformative, suffixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: qika-qiki-qupepa-qotata qeta-qoqato-qoqakokita qita-qoqita-qite qote-qupepa-qota-qatoki

Transliteration 2: qiga-qigi-qubeba-qodada qeda-qoqado-qoqagogida qida-qoqida-qide qode-qubeba-qoda-qadogi

Pronunciation: iga-iki-upeba-oɾaɾa eda-o.ado-o.agokida ida-o.ida-ite ote-upeba-oda-adoki

Transcription: iga-iki-upeba-orara eda-oado-oagokida ida-oida-ide ote-upeba-oda-adoki

Gloss: nothing-big-ness-subject exist-verb-past-evidental things-object-all-of cause-big-object-gerund-before

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


Open, preformative, prefixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: kitoqa-taqo-papequ-teqo teqi-taqiqo-taqi takikoqaqo-toqaqo-taqe tataqo-pepequ-kiqi-kaqi

Transliteration 2: gidoqa-daqo-babequ-deqo deqi-daqiqo-daqi dagigoqaqo-doqaqo-daqe dadaqo-bebequ-giqi-gaqi

Pronunciation: kido.a-da.o-bape.u-te.o de.i-da.i.o-da.i dakigo.a.o-do.a.o-da.e ɾaɾa.o-pepe.u-ki.i-ga.i

Transcription: kidoa-dao-bapeu-teo dei-daio-dai dakigoao-doao-dae rarao-bepeu-kii-gai

Gloss: before-gerund-object-big-cause of-all-things-object evidental-past-verb-exist subject-ness-big-none

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Open, preformative, prefixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: tataqo-pepequ-kiqi-kaqi takikoqaqo-toqaqo-taqe teqi-taqiqo-taqi kitoqa-taqo-papequ-teqo

Transliteration 2: dadaqo-bebequ-giqi-gaqi dagigoqaqo-doqaqo-daqe deqi-daqiqo-daqi gidoqa-daqo-babequ-deqo

Pronunciation: ɾaɾa.o-bepe.u-ki.i-ga.i dakigo.a.o-do.a.o-da.e te.i-da.i.o-da.i kido.a-da.o-bape.u-te.o

Transcription: rarao-bepeu-kii-gai dakigoao-doao-dae dei-daio-dai kidoa-dao-bapeu-teo

Gloss: subject-ness-big-none evidental-past-verb-exist of-all-things-object before-gerund-object-big-cause

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


Open, afformative, prefixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: qatoki-qota-qupepa-qote qite-qoqita-qita qoqakokita-qoqato-qeta qotata-qupepa-qiki-qika

Transliteration 2: qadogi-qoda-qubeba-qode qide-qoqida-qida qoqagogida-qoqado-qeda qodada-qubeba-qigi-qiga

Pronunciation: adoki-oda-upeba-ote ite-o.ida-ida o.agokida-o.ado-eda oɾaɾa-upeba-iki-iga

Transcription: adoki-oda-upeba-ote ite-oida-ida oagokida-oado-eda orara-upeba-iki-iga

Gloss: before-gerund-object-big-cause of-all-things-object evidental-past-verb-exist subject-ness-big-none

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Open, afformative, prefixing, SVO

Transliteration: qotata-qupepa-qiki-qika qoqakokita-qoqato-qeta qite-qoqita-qita qatoki-qota-qupepa-qote

Transliteration: qodada-qubeba-qigi-qiga qoqagogida-qoqado-qeda qide-qoqida-qida qadogi-qoda-qubeba-qode

Pronunciation: oɾaɾa-upeba-iki-iga o.agokida-o.ado-eda ite-o.ida-ida adoki-oda-upeba-ote

Transliteration: orara-upeba-iki-iga oagokida-oado-eda ite-oida-ida adoki-oda-upeba-ote

Gloss: subject-ness-big-none evidental-past-verb-exist of-all-things-object before-gerund-object-big-cause

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.



Variant Group B: Codal Voicing in Closed Dialects

In closed dialects, the codas of syllables with back vowels were voiced.


p > b /[a]_
p > b /[u]_
p > b /[o]_
t > d /[a]_
t > d /[u]_
t > d /[o]_
t > ɾ /[vowel]_[same vowel]_
k > g /[a]_
k > g /[u]_
k > g /[o]_
q > ɦ /[a]_
q > ɦ /[u]_
q > ɦ /[o]_
Closed, preformative, suffixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: etoq-apepuq-adoq-ikotaq atiq-atiqoq-etiq ateq-otaqoq-atikokaqoq akiq-ikiq-apepuq-atatoq

Transliteration 2: edoq-abebuq-adoq-igodaq adiq-adiqoq-ediq adeq-odaqoq-adigogaqoq agiq-igiq-abebuq-adadoq

Pronunciation: eto-abepu-ado-ikoda adi-adio-eti ade-oda.o-adikoga.o agi-iki-abepu-aɾaɾo

Transcription: eto-abepu-ado-ikoda adi-adio-eti ade-odao-adikogao agi-iki-abepu-araro

Gloss: cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Closed, preformative, suffixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: akiq-ikiq-apepuq-atatoq ateq-otaqoq-atikokaqoq atiq-atiqoq-etiq etoq-apepuq-atoq-ikotaq

Transliteration 2: agiq-igiq-abebuq-atatoq adeq-odaqoq-adigogaqoq adiq-adiqoq-ediq edoq-abebuq-adoq-igodaq

Pronunciation: agi-iki-abepu-aɾaɾo ade-oda.o-adikoga.o adi-adiqo-eti eto-abepu-ado-ikoda

Transcription: agi-iki-abepu-araro ade-odao-adikogao adi-adiqo-eti eto-abepu-ado-ikoda

Gloss: nothing-big-ness-subject exist-verb-past-evidental things-object-all-of cause-big-object-gerund-before

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


Closed, afformative, suffixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: oqet-uqepap-oqat-aqotik iqat-oqiqat-iqet eqat-oqaqot-oqaqokikat iqaq-iqik-uqepap-oqatat

Transliteration 2: oqed-uqebab-oqad-aqodig iqad-oqiqad-iqed eqad-oqaqod-oqaqogigad iqaq-iqig-uqebab-oqadad

Pronunciation: o.et-u.epab-o.ad-a.odik i.ad-o.i.ad-i.et e.ad-o.a.od-o.a.ogikad i.ag-i.ik-u.epab-o.aɾaɾ

Transcription: oet-uepab-oad-aodik iad-oiad-iet ead-oaod-oaogikad iag-iik-uepab-oarar

Gloss: Cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Closed, afformative, suffixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: iqak-iqik-uqepap-oqatat eqat-oqaqot-oqaqokikat iqat-oqiqat-iqet oqet-uqepap-oqat-aqotik

Transliteration 2: iqag-iqig-uqebab-oqadad eqad-oqaqod-oqaqogigad iqad-oqiqad-iqed oqed-uqebab-oqad-aqodig

Pronunciation: i.ag-i.ik-u.epab-o.aɾaɾ e.ad-o.a.od-o.a.ogikad i.ad-o.i.ad-i.et o.et-u.e.ab-o.ad-a.odik

Transcription: iag-iik-uepab-oarar ead-oaod-oaogikad iad-oiad-iet oet-uepab-oad-aodik

Gloss: nothing-big-ness-subject exist-verb-past-evidental things-object-all-of cause-big-object-gerund-before

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


Closed, preformative, prefixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: ikotaq-atoq-apepuq-etoq etiq-atiqoq-atiq atikokaqoq-otaqoq-ateq atatoq-epepuq-ikiq-akiq

Transliteration 2: igodaq-adoq-abebuq-edoq ediq-adiqoq-adiq adigogaqoq-odaqoq-adeq adadoq-ebebuq-igiq-agiq

Pronunciation: ikoda-ado-abepu-eto eti-adi.o-adi adikoga.o-oda.o-ade aɾaɾo-epebu-iki-agi

Transcription: ikoda-ado-abepu-eto eti-adio-adi adikogao-odao-ade araro-epebu-iki-agi

Gloss: before-gerund-object-big-cause of-all-things-object evidental-past-verb-exist subject-ness-big-none

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Closed, preformative, prefixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: atatoq-epepuq-ikiq-akiq atikokaqoq-otaqoq-ateq etiq-atiqoq-atiq ikotaq-atoq-atepuq-etoq

Transliteration 2: adadoq-ebebuq-igiq-agiq adigogaqoq-odaqoq-adeq ediq-adiqoq-adiq igodaq-adoq-adepuq-edoq

Pronunciation: aɾaɾo-ebepu-iki-agi adikoga.o-oda.o-ade eti-adiqo-adi ikoda-ado-adepu-eto

Transcription: araro-ebepu-iki-agi adikogao-odao-ade eti-adiqo-adi ikoda-ado-adepu-eto

Gloss: subject-ness-big-none evidental-past-verb-exist of-all-things-object before-gerund-object-big-cause

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


Closed, afformative, prefixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: aqotik-oqat-uqepap-oqet iqet-oqiqat-iqat oqaqokikat-oqaqot-eqat oqatat-uqepap-iqik-iqak

Transliteration 2: aqodig-oqad-uqebab-oqed iqed-oqiqad-iqad oqaqogigad-oqaqod-eqad oqadad-uqebab-iqig-iqag

Pronunciation: a.odik-o.ad-u.epab-o.et i.et-o.i.ad-i.ad o.a.ogikad-o.a.od-eqad o.aɾaɾ-u.epab-i.ik-i.ag

Transcription: aodik-oad-uepab-oet iet-oiad-iad oaogikad-oaod-eqad oarar-uepab-iik-iag

Gloss: before-gerund-object-big-cause of-all-things-object evidental-past-verb-exist subject-ness-big-none

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Closed, afformative, prefixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: oqatat-uqepab-iqik-iqag oqaqogikad-oqaqod-eqad iqed-oqiqad-iqad aqodik-oqad-uqepab-oqet

Transliteration 2: oqatat-uqepab-iqik-iqag oqaqogikad-oqaqod-eqad iqed-oqiqad-iqad aqodik-oqad-uqepab-oqet

Pronunciation: o.aɾaɾ-u.epab-i.ik-i.ag o.a.ogikad-o.a.od-e.ad i.et-o.i.ad-i.ad a.odik-o.ad-u.epab-o.et

Transcription: oarar-uepab-iik-iag oaogikad-oaod-ead iet-oiad-iad aodik-oad-uepab-oet

Gloss: subject-ness-big-none evidental-past-verb-exist of-all-things-object before-gerund-object-big-cause

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.



Further Lenition
+ Pre-Glottal Vowel Reduction

Affected languages which had already undergone Back-Vowel Voicing.

Variant I: Open Dialects

Affected open dialects which underwent phase 1, type A, variant I, but did not undergo phase 2 type A.


(Note that the consonantal lenition occurs both in association with long and short vowels, but vowels are only shortened before glottals.)

Open, preformative, suffixing, OVS: dĕɦo-mabĕɦu-năɦo-kiɹŏɦa năʔi-năʔĭɦo-bĕʔi năʔe-ɹŏɦăɦo-nakiʎŏɦăɦo-ŋăʔi-kĭʔi-mabĕɦu-ɾăɾăɦo

Open, preformative, suffixing, SVO: ŋaʔi-kiʔi-mabeɦu-ɾaɾaɦo naʔe-ɹoɦaɦo-nakiʎoɦaɦo naʔi-naʔiɦo-deʔi deɦo-mabeɦu-naɦo-kiɹoɦa

Open, afformative, suffixing, OVS: ɦode-ɦubema-ɦona-ɦaɹoki ʔina-ɦoʔina-ʔide ʔena-ɦoɦaɹo-ɦoɦaʎokina ʔiŋa-ʔiki-ɦubema-ɦoɾaɾa

Open, afformative, suffixing, SVO: ʔiŋa-ʔiki-ɦubema-ɦoɾaɾa ʔena-ɦoɦaɹo-ɦoɦaʎokina ʔina-ɦoʔina-ʔide ɦode-ɦubema-ɦoda-ɦaɹoki

Open, preformative, prefixing, OVS: kiɹoɦa-naɦo-mabeɦu-deɦo deʔi-naʔiʔo-daʔi nakiʎoɦaɦo-ɹ'oɦaɦo-naʔe ɾaɾaɦo-bebeɦu-kiʔi-ŋaʔi

Open, preformative, prefixing, SVO: ɾaɾaɦo-bebeɦu-kiʔi-ŋaʔi nakiʎoɦaɦo-ɹoɦaɦo-naʔe deʔi-naʔiɦo-naʔi kiʎoɦa-naɦo-mabeɦu-deɦo

Open, afformative, prefixing, OVS: ɦaɹoki-ɦona-ɦubema-ɦode ʔide-ɦoʔina-ʔina ɦoɦaɹokina-ɦoɦaɹo-ʔena ɦoɾaɾa-ɦubema-ʔiki-ʔiŋa

Open, afformative, prefixing, SVO: ɦoɾaɾa-ɦubema-ʔiki-ʔiŋa ɦoɦaʎokina-ɦoɦaɹo-ʔena ʔide-ɦoʔina-ʔina ɦaɹoki-ɦona-ɦubema-ɦode


Variant II: Closed Dialects

Affected closed dialects which underwent phase 1, type A, variant I, but did not undergo phase 2 type A.


b > m /[a]_
p > b /[e]_
p > ɸ /[y]_
b > β /[u]_
b > w /[o]_
d > n /[a]_
t > d /[e]_
t > s /[y]_
n > z /[u]_
n > ɹ /[o]_
ɾ > ɾ /[vowel]_[same vowel]_
g > ŋ /[a]_
k > g /[e]_
k > x /[y]_
g > ɣ /[u]_
g > ʎ /[o]_

(Note that the consonantal lenition occurs both in association with long and short vowels, but vowels are only shortened before glottals.)

Closed, preformative, suffixing, OVS: edŏɦ-amebŭɦ-anŏɦ-ikoɹăɦ anĭʔ-anĭʔŏɦ-ebĭʔ anĕʔ-oɹăɦŏɦ-anikoʎăɦŏɦ-aŋĭʔ-ikĭʔ-amebŭɦ-aɾăɾŏɦ

Closed, preformative, suffixing, SVO: aŋiʔ-ikiʔ-amebuɦ-aɾaɾoɦ aneʔ-oɹaɦoɦ-adikogaɦoɦ aniʔ-aniʔoɦ-ediʔ edoɦ-amebuɦ-anoɦ-ikoɹaɦ

Closed, afformative, suffixing, OVS: oɦed-uɦebam-oɦan-aɦoɹik iʔad-oɦiʔan-iʔed eʔan-oɦaɦoɹ-oɦaɦoʎikan iʔaŋ-iʔik-uɦebam-oɦaɾaɾ

Closed, afformative, suffixing, SVO: iʔaŋ-iʔik-uɦebam-oɦaɾaɾ eʔan-oɦaɦoɹ-oɦaɦoʎikan iʔan-oɦiʔan-iʔed oɦed-uɦeʔan-oɦan-aɦoʎik

Closed, preformative, prefixing, OVS: ikoʎaɦ-anoɦ-amebuɦ-edoɦ ediʔ-aniʔoɦ-aniʔ anikoʎaɦoɦ-oʎaɦoɦ-aneʔ aɾaɾoɦ-amebuɦ-ikiʔ-aŋiʔ

Closed, preformative, prefixing, SVO: aɾaɾoɦ-amebuɦ-ikiʔ-aŋiʔ anikoʎaɦoɦ-oɹaɦoɦ-aneʔ ediʔ-aniʔoɦ-aniʔ ikoʎaɦ-anoɦ-amebuɦ-edoɦ

Closed, afformative, prefixing, OVS: aɦoʎik-oɦan-uɦebam-oɦed iʔed-oɦiʔan-iʔan oɦaɦoʎikan-oɦaɦoɹ-eʔan oɦaɾaɾ-uɦebam-iʔik-iʔaŋ

Closed, afformative, prefixing, SVO: oɦaɾaɾ-uɦebam-iʔik-iʔaŋ oɦaɦoʎikan-oɦaɦoʎ-eʔan iʔet-oɦiʔan-iʔan aɦoɹik-oɦan-uɦebam-oɦed


Further Lenition
+ [Non-Glottal Consonant]-Associated Vowel Reduction
+ Intervocalic Glottal Deconsonantalization

Affected languages which had already undergone Back-Vowel Voicing.

Variant I: Open Dialects

Affected open dialects which underwent phase 1, type A, variant I, but did not undergo phase 2 type A.


b > m /_[a]
p > b /_[e]
p > ɸ /_[y]
b > β /_[u]
b > w /_[o]
d > n /_[a]
t > d /_[e]
t > s /_[y]
n > z /_[u]
n > ɹ /_[o]
ɾ > ɾ /_[vowel]_[same vowel]
g > ŋ /_[a]
k > g /_[e]
k > x /_[y]
g > ɣ /_[u]
g > ʎ /_[o]

(Note that the consonantal lenition occurs both in association with long and short vowels, but vowels are only shortened before glottals.)

Open, preformative, suffixing, OVS: dĕ.o-mabĕ.u-nă.o-kiɹŏ.a nă.i-nă.ĭ.o-bĕ.i nă.e-ɹŏ.ă.o-nakiʎŏ.ă.o-ŋă.i-kĭ.i-mabĕ.u-ɾăɾă.o

Open, preformative, suffixing, SVO: ŋa.i-ki.i-mabe.u-ɾaɾa.o na.e-ɹo.a.o-nakiʎo.a.o na.i-na.i.o-de.i de.o-mabe.u-na.o-kiɹo.a

Open, afformative, suffixing, OVS: ode-ubema-ona-aɹoki ina-o.ina-ide ena-o.aɹo-o.aʎokina iŋa-iki-ubema-oɾaɾa

Open, afformative, suffixing, SVO: iŋa-iki-ubema-oɾaɾa ena-o.aɹo-o.aʎokina ina-o.ina-ide ode-ubema-oda-aɹoki

Open, preformative, prefixing, OVS: kiɹo.a-na.o-mabe.u-de.o de.i-na.i.o-da.i nakiʎo.a.o-ɹ'o.a.o-na.e ɾaɾaɦo-bebeɦu-ki.i-ŋa.i

Open, preformative, prefixing, SVO: ɾaɾa.o-bebe.u-ki.i-ŋa.i nakiʎo.a.o-ɹo.a.o-na.e de.i-na.i.o-naʔi kiʎo.a-na.o-mabe.u-de.o

Open, afformative, prefixing, OVS: aɹoki-ona-ubema-ode ide-o.ina-ina o.aɹokina-o.aɹo-ena oɾaɾa-ubema-iki-iŋa

Open, afformative, prefixing, SVO: oɾaɾa-ubema-iki-iŋa o.aʎokina-o.aɹo-ena ide-o.ina-ina aɹoki-ona-ubema-ode


Variant II: Closed Dialects

Affected closed dialects which underwent phase 1, type A, variant I, but did not undergo phase 2 type A.


b > m /[a]_
p > b /[e]_
p > ɸ /[y]_
b > β /[u]_
b > w /[o]_
d > n /[a]_
t > d /[e]_
t > s /[y]_
n > z /[u]_
n > ɹ /[o]_
ɾ > ɾ /[vowel]_[same vowel]_
g > ŋ /[a]_
k > g /[e]_
k > x /[y]_
g > ɣ /[u]_
g > ʎ /[o]_

(Note that the consonantal lenition occurs both in association with long and short vowels, but vowels are only shortened before glottals.)

Closed, preformative, suffixing, OVS: ĕdo-ămĕbu-ăno-ĭkŏɹa ăni-ăni.o-ĕbi ăne-̆oɹa.o-ănĭkŏʎa.o-ăŋi-ĭkĭ-ămĕbu-ăɾăɾo

Closed, preformative, suffixing, SVO: aŋi-iki-amebu-aɾaɾo ane-oɹa.o-anikoɹa.o ani-ani.o-edi edo-amebu-ano-ikoɹ

Closed, afformative, suffixing, OVS: o.ed-u.ebam-o.an-a.oɹik i.ad-o.i.an-i.ed e.an-o.a.oɹ-o.a.oʎikan i.aŋ-i.ik-u.ebam-o.aɾaɾ

Closed, afformative, suffixing, SVO: i.aŋ-i.ik-u.ebam-o.aɾaɾ e.an-o.a.oɹ-o.a.oʎikan i.an-o.i.an-i.ed o.ed-u.e.an-o.an-a.oʎik

Closed, preformative, prefixing, OVS: ikoɹa-ano-amebu-edo edi-ani.o-ani anikoʎa.o-oɹa.o-ane aɾaɾo-amebu-iki-aŋi

Closed, preformative, prefixing, SVO: aɾaɾo-amebu-iki-aŋi anikoʎa.o-oɹa.o-ane edi-ani.o-ani ikoʎa-ano-amebu-edo

Closed, afformative, prefixing, OVS: a.oʎik-o.an-u.ebam-o.ed i.ed-o.i.an-i.an o.a.oʎikan-o.a.oɹ-e.an o.ɾaɾ-u.ebam-i.ik-i.aŋ

Closed, afformative, prefixing, SVO: o.aɾaɾ-u.ebam-i.ik-i.aŋ o.a.oʎikan-o.a.oʎ-e.an i.et-o.i.an-i.an a.oɹik-o.an-u.ebam-o.ed



Further Lenition
+ Non-Glottal, Pre-Consonantal Vowel Reduction
+ Intervocalic Glottal Deconsonantalization

Affected languages which had already undergone Back-Vowel Voicing.

Variant I: Open Dialects

Affected open dialects which underwent phase 1, type A, variant I, but did not undergo phase 2 type A.


b > m /_[a]
p > b /_[e]
p > ɸ /_[y]
b > β /_[u]
b > w /_[o]
d > n /_[a]
t > d /_[e]
t > s /_[y]
n > z /_[u]
n > ɹ /_[o]
ɾ > ɾ /_[vowel]_[same vowel]
g > ŋ /_[a]
k > g /_[e]
k > x /_[y]
g > ɣ /_[u]
g > ʎ /_[o]

(Note that the consonantal lenition occurs both in association with long and short vowels, but vowels are only shortened before glottals.)

Open, preformative, suffixing, OVS: dĕ.o-măbĕ.u-nă.o-kiɹŏ.a nă.i-nă.ĭ.o-bĕ.i nă.e-ɹŏ.ă.o-nakiʎŏ.ă.o-ŋă.i-kĭ.i-măbĕ.u-ɾăɾă.o

Open, preformative, suffixing, SVO: ŋa.i-ki.i-mabe.u-ɾaɾa.o na.e-ɹo.a.o-nakiʎo.a.o na.i-na.i.o-de.i de.o-mabe.u-na.o-kiɹo.a

Open, afformative, suffixing, OVS: ode-ubema-ona-aɹoki ina-o.ina-ide ena-o.aɹo-o.aʎokina iŋa-iki-ubema-oɾaɾa

Open, afformative, suffixing, SVO: iŋa-iki-ubema-oɾaɾa ena-o.aɹo-o.aʎokina ina-o.ina-ide ode-ubema-oda-aɹoki

Open, preformative, prefixing, OVS: kiɹo.a-na.o-mabe.u-de.o de.i-na.i.o-da.i nakiʎo.a.o-ɹ'o.a.o-na.e ɾaɾaɦo-bebeɦu-ki.i-ŋa.i

Open, preformative, prefixing, SVO: ɾaɾa.o-bebe.u-ki.i-ŋa.i nakiʎo.a.o-ɹo.a.o-na.e de.i-na.i.o-naʔi kiʎo.a-na.o-mabe.u-de.o

Open, afformative, prefixing, OVS: aɹoki-ona-ubema-ode ide-o.ina-ina o.aɹokina-o.aɹo-ena oɾaɾa-ubema-iki-iŋa

Open, afformative, prefixing, SVO: oɾaɾa-ubema-iki-iŋa o.aʎokina-o.aɹo-ena ide-o.ina-ina aɹoki-ona-ubema-ode


Further Lenition
+ Synalœpha

Variant I: ?

This change was only possible for open suffixing dialects and closed prefixing dialects.


ba.a > ma:
ba.e > maɛ
ba.i > maɪ
ba.y > maʏ
ba.u > maʊ
ba.o > maɔ
pe.a > bɛa
pe.e > be:
pe.i > bɛɪ
pe.y > bɛʏ
pe.u > bɛʊ
pe.o > bɛɔ
pi.a > pɪa
pi.e > pɪɛ
pi.i > pi:
pi.y > pɪʏ
pi.u > pɪʊ
pi.o > pɪɔ
py.a > ɸʏa
py.e > ɸʏɛ
py.i > ɸʏɪ
py.y > ɸy:
py.u > ɸʏʊ
py.o > ɸʏɔ
bu.a > βʊa
bu.e > βʊɛ
bu.i > βʊɪ
bu.y > βʊʏ
bu.u > βu:
bu.o > βaɔ
bo.a > wɔa
bo.e > wɔɛ
bo.i > wɔɪ
bo.y > wɔʏ
bo.u > wɔʊ
bo.o > wo:

da.a > na:
da.e > naɛ
da.i > naɪ
da.y > naʏ
da.u > naʊ
da.o > naɔ
te.a > dɛa
te.e > de:
te.i > dɛɪ
te.y > dɛʏ
te.u > dɛʊ
te.o > dɛɔ
ti.a > tɪa
ti.e > tɪɛ
ti.i > ti:
ti.y > tɪʏ
ti.u > tɪʊ
ti.o > tɪɔ
ty.a > sʏa
ty.e > sʏɛ
ty.i > sʏɪ
ty.y > sy:
ty.u > sʏʊ
ty.o > sʏɔ
du.a > zʊa
du.e > zʊɛ
du.i > zʊɪ
du.y > zʊʏ
du.u > zu:
du.o > zaɔ
do.a > ɹɔa
do.e > ɹɔɛ
do.i > ɹɔɪ
do.y > ɹɔʏ
do.u > ɹɔʊ
do.o > ɹo:

ga.a > ŋa:
ga.e > ŋaɛ
ga.i > ŋaɪ
ga.y > ŋaʏ
ga.u > ŋaʊ
ga.o > ŋaɔ
ke.a > gɛa
ke.e > ge:
ke.i > gɛɪ
ke.y > gɛʏ
ke.u > gɛʊ
ke.o > gɛɔ
ki.a > kɪa
ki.e > kɪɛ
ki.i > ki:
ki.y > kɪʏ
ki.u > kɪʊ
ki.o > kɪɔ
ky.a > xʏa
ky.e > xʏɛ
ky.i > xʏɪ
ky.y > xy:
ky.u > xʏʊ
ky.o > xʏɔ
gu.a > ɣʊa
gu.e > ɣʊɛ
gu.i > ɣʊɪ
gu.y > ɣʊʏ
gu.u > ɣu:
gu.o > ɣʊɔ
go.a > ɰɔa
go.e > ɰɔɛ
go.i > ɰɔɪ
go.y > ɰɔʏ
go.u > ɰɔʊ
go.o > ɰo:

Sample: dɛɔ-mabɛʊ-naɔ-kirɔa naɪ-naɪ.o-dɛi naɛ-ɹɔa.o-nakiʎɔa.o-ŋa-ɪki:-mabɛʊ-ɾăɾaɔ


Open, back-voiced, preformative, suffixing, OVS: dɛɔ-mabɛʊ-naɔ-kirɔa naɪ-naɪ.o-dɛi naɛ-ɹɔa.o-nakiʎɔa.o ŋaɪ-ki:-mabɛʊ-ɾăɾaɔ

Open, back-voiced, preformative, suffixing, SVO: ŋai-kii-mabeu-ɾaɾao nae-roa.o-nakiʎoa.o nai-nai.o-dei deo-mabeu-nao-kiroa

Open, back-voiced, afformative, suffixing, OVS: ode-ubema-ona-aroki ina-oina-ide ena-oaro-oaʎokina iŋa-iki-ubema-oɾaɾa

Open, back-voiced, afformative, suffixing, SVO: iŋa-iki-ubema-oɾaɾa ena-oaro-oaʎokina ina-oina-ide ode-ubema-ona-aroki

Open, back-voiced, preformative, prefixing, OVS: kiroa-nao-mabeu-deo dei-nai.o-nai nakiʎoa.o-roa.o-nae ɾaɾao-mabeu-kii-ŋai

Open, back-voiced, preformative, prefixing, SVO: ɾaɾao-mabeu-kii-ŋai dakiʎoa.o-roa.o-nae dei-nai.o-nai kiroa-nao-mabeu-deo

Open, back-voiced, afformative, prefixing, OVS: aroki-ona-ubema-ode ide-oina-ina oaʎokina-oaro-ena oɾaɾa-ubema-iki-iŋa

Open, back-voiced, afformative, prefixing, SVO: oɾaɾa-ubema-iki-iŋa oaʎokina-oaro-ena ide-oina-ina aroki-ona-ubema-ode


Variant II: ?

This change was only possible for open suffixing dialects and closed prefixing dialects.



a.a > a:m
a.e > aɛm
a.i > aɪm
a.y > aʏm
a.u > aʊm
a.o > aɔm
e.a > ɛab
e.e > e:b
e.i > ɛɪb
e.y > ɛʏb
e.u > ɛʊb
e.o > ɛɔb
i.a > ɪap
i.e > ɪɛp
i.i > i:p
i.y > ɪʏp
i.u > ɪʊp
i.o > ɪɔp
y.a > ʏaɸ
y.e > ʏɛɸ
y.i > ʏɪɸ
y.y > y:ɸ
y.u > ʏʊɸ
y.o > ʏɔɸ
u.a > ʊaβ
u.e > ʊɛβ
u.i > ʊɪβ
u.y > ʊʏβ
u.u > u:β
u.o > aɔβ
o.a > ɔaw
o.e > ɔɛw
o.i > ɔɪw
o.y > ɔʏw
o.u > ɔʊw
o.o > o:w

da.a > na:
da.e > naɛ
da.i > naɪ
da.y > naʏ
da.u > naʊ
da.o > naɔ
te.a > dɛa
te.e > de:
te.i > dɛɪ
te.y > dɛʏ
te.u > dɛʊ
te.o > dɛɔ
ti.a > tɪa
ti.e > tɪɛ
ti.i > ti:
ti.y > tɪʏ
ti.u > tɪʊ
ti.o > tɪɔ
ty.a > sʏa
ty.e > sʏɛ
ty.i > sʏɪ
ty.y > sy:
ty.u > sʏʊ
ty.o > sʏɔ
du.a > zʊa
du.e > zʊɛ
du.i > zʊɪ
du.y > zʊʏ
du.u > zu:
du.o > zaɔ
do.a > ɹɔa
do.e > ɹɔɛ
do.i > ɹɔɪ
do.y > ɹɔʏ
do.u > ɹɔʊ
do.o > ɹo:

ga.a > ŋa:
ga.e > ŋaɛ
ga.i > ŋaɪ
ga.y > ŋaʏ
ga.u > ŋaʊ
ga.o > ŋaɔ
ke.a > gɛa
ke.e > ge:
ke.i > gɛɪ
ke.y > gɛʏ
ke.u > gɛʊ
ke.o > gɛɔ
ki.a > kɪa
ki.e > kɪɛ
ki.i > ki:
ki.y > kɪʏ
ki.u > kɪʊ
ki.o > kɪɔ
ky.a > xʏa
ky.e > xʏɛ
ky.i > xʏɪ
ky.y > xy:
ky.u > xʏʊ
ky.o > xʏɔ
gu.a > ɣʊa
gu.e > ɣʊɛ
gu.i > ɣʊɪ
gu.y > ɣʊʏ
gu.u > ɣu:
gu.o > ɣʊɔ
go.a > ɰɔa
go.e > ɰɔɛ
go.i > ɰɔɪ
go.y > ɰɔʏ
go.u > ɰɔʊ
go.o > ɰo:

Sample: dɛɔ-mabɛʊ-naɔ-kirɔa naɪ-naɪ.o-bɛi naɛ-ɹɔa.o-nakiʎɔa.o-ŋa-ɪki:-mabɛʊ-ɾăɾaɔ



(Note that the consonantal lenition occurs both in association with long and short vowels, but vowels are only shortened before glottals.)

Closed, preformative, suffixing, OVS: edo-amebu-ano-ikoɹa ani-anio-ebi ane-oɹao-anikoʎa.o-aŋi-iki-amebu-aɾaɾo

Closed, preformative, suffixing, SVO: aŋi-iki-amebu-aɾaɾo ane-oɹao-anikoɹao ani-anio-edi edo-amebu-ano-ikoɹ

Closed, afformative, suffixing, OVS: oed-uebam-oan-aoɹik iad-o.ian-ied ean-o.aoɹ-o.aoʎikan iaŋ-iik-uebam-oaɾaɾ

Closed, afformative, suffixing, SVO: iaŋ-iik-uebam-oaɾaɾ ean-o.aoɹ-o.aoʎikan ian-o.ian-ied oed-uebam-oan-aoɹik

Closed, preformative, prefixing, OVS: ikoɹa-ano-amebu-edo edi-anio-ani anikoʎao-oɹao-ane aɾaɾo-amebu-iki-aŋi

Closed, preformative, prefixing, SVO: aɾaɾo-amebu-iki-aŋi anikoʎao-oɹao-ane edi-anio-ani ikoʎa-ano-amebu-edo

Closed, afformative, prefixing, OVS: aoʎik-oan-uebam-oed ied-o.ian-ian o.aoʎikan-o.aoɹ-ean oɾaɾ-uebam-iik-iaŋ

Closed, afformative, prefixing, SVO: oaɾaɾ-uebam-iik-iaŋ o.aoʎikan-o.aoʎ-ean iet-o.ian-ian aoɹik-oan-uebam-oed



Variant II: Further Lenition + Non-Glottal, Pre-Consonantal Shortening
Variant II, Subtype α: Back Vowels & Back-Voiced Consonants


b > m /[a]_
p > b /[e]_
p > ɸ /[y]_
b > β /[u]_
b > w /[o]_
d > n /[a]_
t > d /[e]_
t > s /[y]_
n > z /[u]_
n > ɹ /[o]_
ɾ > ɾ /[vowel]_[same vowel]_
g > ŋ /[a]_
k > g /[e]_
k > x /[y]_
g > ɣ /[u]_
g > ʎ /[o]_

Sample: ĕdoɦ-ămĕbuɦ-ănoɦ-ĭkŏɹaɦ năʔi-năʔĭɦo-bĕʔi năʔe-ɹŏɦăɦo-nakiʎŏɦăɦo-ŋăʔi-kĭʔi-mabĕɦu-ɾăɾăɦo

Type B, Phase I: Intervocalic Deconsonantalization

In


j > . /[vowel]_[vowel]

Open, back-voiced, preformative, suffixing, OVS: te.o-bape.u-da.o-kido.a da.i-da.i.o-de.i da.e-do.a.o-dakigo.a.o-ga.i-ki.i-bape.u-ɾaɾa.o

Open, back-voiced, preformative, suffixing, SVO: ga.i-ki.i-bape.u-ɾaɾa.o da.e-do.a.o-dakigo.a.o da.i-da.i.o-de.i te.o-bape.u-da.o-kido.a

Open, back-voiced, afformative, suffixing, OVS: ote-upeba-oda-adoki ida-o.ida-ite eda-o.ado-o.agokida iga-iki-upeba-oɾaɾa

Open, back-voiced, afformative, suffixing, SVO: iga-iki-upeba-oɾaɾa eda-o.ado-o.agokida ida-o.ida-ite ote-upeba-oda-adoki

Open, back-voiced, preformative, prefixing, OVS: kido.a-da.o-bape.u-te.o de.i-da.i.o-da.i dakigo.a.o-do.a.o-da.e ɾaɾa.o-pepe.u-ki.i-ga.i

Open, back-voiced, preformative, prefixing, SVO: ɾaɾa.o-bepe.u-ki.i-ga.i dakigo.a.o-do.a.o-da.e te.i-da.i.o-da.i kido.a-da.o-bape.u-te.o

Open, back-voiced, afformative, prefixing, OVS: adoki-oda-upeba-ote ite-o.ida-ida o.agokida-o.ado-eda oɾaɾa-upeba-iki-iga

Open, back-voiced, afformative, prefixing, SVO: oɾaɾa-upeba-iki-iga o.agokida-o.ado-eda ite-o.ida-ida adoki-oda-upeba-ote


Step III: Synalœpha


Open, back-voiced, preformative, suffixing, OVS: teo-bapeu-dao-kidoa dai-dai.o-dei dae-doa.o-dakigoa.o-gai-kii-bapeu-ɾaɾao

Open, back-voiced, preformative, suffixing, SVO: gai-kii-bapeu-ɾaɾao dae-doa.o-dakigoa.o dai-dai.o-dei teo-bapeu-dao-kidoa

Open, back-voiced, afformative, suffixing, OVS: ote-upeba-oda-adoki ida-oida-ite eda-oado-oagokida iga-iki-upeba-oɾaɾa

Open, back-voiced, afformative, suffixing, SVO: iga-iki-upeba-oɾaɾa eda-oado-oagokida ida-oida-ite ote-upeba-oda-adoki

Open, back-voiced, preformative, prefixing, OVS: kidoa-dao-bapeu-teo dei-dai.o-dai dakigoa.o-doa.o-dae ɾaɾao-pepeu-kii-gai

Open, back-voiced, preformative, prefixing, SVO: ɾaɾao-bepeu-kii-gai dakigoa.o-doa.o-dae tei-dai.o-dai kidoa-dao-bapeu-teo

Open, back-voiced, afformative, prefixing, OVS: adoki-oda-upeba-ote ite-oida-ida oagokida-oado-eda oɾaɾa-upeba-iki-iga

Open, back-voiced, afformative, prefixing, SVO: oɾaɾa-upeba-iki-iga oagokida-oado-eda ite-oida-ida adoki-oda-upeba-ote



Subtype α-ii: Closed Dialects

Variant III: Pre-Consonantal Shortening
Variant III, Subtype α: Back-Voiced Consonants

Affected dialects which underwent phase 1, type A, variant I, followed by phase 2 type A, step I, but not steps II or III.

Sample: tĕjo-păpĕju-tăjo-kĭdŏja tăji-tăjĭjo-tĕji tăje-dŏjăjo-tăkĭgŏjăjo-kăji-kĭji-păpĕju-ɾăɾăɦo


>Variant III, Subtype β: Round-Voiced Consonants

Affected dialects which underwent phase 1, type B, variant A, followed by phase 2 type A, step I, but not steps II or III.

Sample: tĕjo-băpĕju-dăjo-kĭdŏja dăji-dăjĭjo-tĕji dăje-dŏjajo-dakigojajo-gaji-kiji-bapeju-ɾaɾaɦo



p > b /_[e]
p > ɸ /_[y]
b > β /_[u]
b > w /_[o]
d > n /_[a]
t > d /_[e]
t > s /_[y]
n > z /_[u]
n > ɹ /_[o]
ɾ > ɾ /_[vowel]_[same vowel]
g > ŋ /_[a]
k > g /_[e]
k > x /_[y]
g > ɣ /_[u]
g > ʎ /_[o]


p > b /_[a]
p > ɸ /_[y]
p > m /_[u]
p > β /_[o]
t > d /_[a]
t > s /_[y]
t > n /_[u]
t > ɹ /_[o]
t > ɾ /_[vowel]_[same vowel]
k > g /_[a]
k > x /_[y]
k > ŋ /_[u]
k > ɣj /_[o]
q > ʔ /_[a]
q > h /_[y]
q > ŋ /_[u]
q > ɦj /_[o]

Sound change 1 — Phase 2, Group A:



p > b /_[a]
p > ɸ /_[y]
p > m /_[u]
p > β /_[o]
t > d /_[a]
t > s /_[y]
t > n /_[u]
t > ɹ /_[o]
t > ɾ /_[vowel]_[same vowel]
k > g /_[a]
k > x /_[y]
k > ŋ /_[u]
k > ɣj /_[o]
q > ʔ /_[a]
q > h /_[y]
q > ŋ /_[u]
q > ɦj /_[o]

dada(h) or tata(q) = /ɾăɾa/ > dada(q) or tata(q) = /ðăɾa/
dede(h) or tete(q) = /ɾɛ̆ɾe/ > dede(q) or tete(q) = /ðɛ̆ðe/
didi(h) or titi(q) = /ɾɪ̆ɾi/ > didi(q) or titi(q) = /tɪ̆θi/
dydy(h) or tyty(q) = /ɾʏ̆ɾy/ > dydy(q) or tyty(q) = /tsjʏ̆tsjy/
dudu(h) or tutu(q) = /ɾʊ̆ɾu/ > dudu(q) or tutu(q) = /ðjʊ̆ðju/
dodo(h) or toto(q) = /ɾɔ̆ɾo/ > dodo(q) or toto(q) = /ɾɔ̆ro/

Na'a-lo'i-dada'o


Transcription: Te'o-bape'u-da'o-kylo'a da'i-da'i'o-te'i da'e-βo'a'o-dakyjoo'a'o Ga'i-ky'i-bape'u-ðaða'o. Ga'i-ky'i-da'o-baβo'i ðaða'a-ty'e-ðaða'a'o-daky'a'o Ga'i-ky'i-bape'u-py'i-ðaða'o; py'i-da'i'o ky'i-da'a-ðaða'a'o-dakyjo'u ga'i-ky'i-bape'u-py'i-ðaða'o. Bujo'i-ke'a'i, da'e-jo'i'o-ga'u'e ðaða'a-ty'i-ky'i-ðaða'o. Lo'o'e-te'a'e-lo'o'o-dakyjo'o'a da'i-ðaða'i'-ðaðe'a ty'a'o-ky'a'e-lo'o'o-dakyjo'u'e da'i-ðaða'i'o-daty'a. Ky'i-da'i-ky'i-py'i-da'o-te'i ty'a'a-ky'a'e-lo'a'o-dakyjo'a'a ðaða'a-ty'i-ky'i-ðaða'o. Lo'a'u-te'e-lo'a'o-dakyjo'a'a ba'a'e-tsi'i-ky'i-ðaða'o. Ba'a'e-tsi'i-ky'i-ty'i-da'o-bapy'i da'e-lo'i'o-da'u'e da'i-ðaða'i'o.


Introduction

The Geneticon is the primary book of origins and lineages for the Palæoboreanic people.


First Paragraph Full Text: Dombunokra niniodi neraonkyao-ngikimbulo. Ngikinomwi latelaonkyao-ngikimbupilo; pinio kinalaonkyu-ngikimbupilo. Vyigni, neriongue-latikilo. Roedaeroonkyoa-nilionda taokaeroonkyue-nilionta. Kinikipinodi taakaeraonkyaa-latikilo. Rauderaonkyaa-maesikilo. Maesikitinompi nerionue-nilio.

First Paragraph Full Translation: In the time before the great cause/origin of all things, certainly must have existed back in the day a great nothingness. This nothingness must have been in those days perfect in its nothingness; everywhere the same this great nothingness had to be. However, it is known, perfection does not endure forever. All things must someday begin to erode and all things must inevitably evermore die. The perfection of this symmetry back then certainly broke. Chaos raged forth. Within that chaos all things endure.

Breakdown:

First Sentence: Dombunokra niniodi neraonkyao-ngikimbulo.

First Sentence Gloss: Dombunikra = do- (cause/origin) + -mbu- (great; big) + -n- (objective) + -o- (gerund, adjective, or concept) + -kra (in the time before); niniodi = ni- (third person pronoun) + -n- (objective) + -i- (inanimate object) + -o- (all) + -di (of); neraonkyao = n- (to be) + -e- (intransitive) -r- (non-stative verb) + -ao- (back in the day; long ago) + -nky- (deductive) + -ao (habitual; “used to”); ngikimbuli = ngi (nothing; negative; zero) + -ki (-ness; -ity) + -mbu- (great; big) + -l- (nominative) + -o (gerund, adjective, or concept).

First Sentence Translation: In the time before the great cause/origin of all things, certainly must have existed back in the day a great nothingness.

Second Sentence: Ngikinomwi latelaonkyao-ngikimbupilo; pinio kinalaonkyu-ngikimbupilo.

Second Sentence Gloss: Ngikinomwi = ngi- (nothing; negative; zero) + -ki- (-ness; -ity) + -n- (objective) + -o- (gerund, adjective, or concept) + -mwi (with itself); latelaonkyao = lat- (perfected; completed) + -e- (intransitive) + -l- (adjective or stative verb) + -ao- (back in the day; long ago) + -nky- (deductive) + -ao (habitual; “used to”); ngikimbupilo = ngi- (nothing; negative; zero) + -ki- (-ness; -ity) + -mbu- (great; big) + -pi (proximal demonstrative) + -l- (nominative) + -o (gerund, adjective, or concept); pinio = pi- (place) + -n- (objective) + -i- (inanimate object) + -o (all); kinilaonkyu = kin- (same) + -i- (descriptive) + -l- (adjective or stative verb) + -ao- (back in the day; long ago) + -nky- (deductive) + -u (durative); ngikimbulipi = ngi- (nothing; negative; zero) + -ki- (-ness; -ity) + -mbu- (great; big) + -pi (proximal demonstrative) + -l- (nominative) + -o (gerund, adjective, or concept).

Second Sentence Translation: This nothingness must have been in those days perfect in its nothingness; everywhere the same this great nothingness had to be.

Third Sentence: Vyigni, neriongue-latikilo.

Third Sentence Gloss: Vyigni = vyi- (alternate) + -gni (known); neriongue = n- (to be) + -e- (intransitive) + r (non-stative verb) + -io- (kind-level description) + -ng- (negative) + -ue (continuative); latikilo = lati- (perfect; complete) + -ki- (-ness; -ity) + -l- (nominative) + -o (gerund, adjective, or concept).

Third Sentence Translation: However, it is known, perfection does not endure forever.

Fourth Sentence: Roedaeroonkyoa-nilionda taokaeroonkyue-nilionta.

Fourth Sentence Gloss: Roedaeroonkyoa = roed- (erode; eat away at) + -ae- (middle or mediopassive voice) + -r- (non-stative verb) + -oo- (distant future; someday) + -nky- (deductive) + -oa (inceptive); nilionda = ni- (third person pronoun) + -l- (nominative) + -i- (inanimate object) + -o- (all) + -nda (correlative “and”); taokaeraondyue = taok- (to evermore end; to end more and more) + -ae- (middle or mediopassive voice) + -r- (non-stative verb) + -oo- (distant future; someday) + -nky- (deductive) + -ue (continuative); nilionta = ni- (third person pronoun) + -l- (nominative) + -i- (inanimate object) + -o- (all) + -nta (coordinating “and”).

Fourth Sentence Translation: All things must someday begin to erode and all things must inevitably evermore die.

Fifth Sentence: Kinikipinodi taakaeraonkyaa-latikilo.

Fifth Sentence Gloss: Kinikipinodi = kini- (same) + -ki- (-ness; -ity) + -pi- (proximal demonstrative) + -o- (gerund, adjective, or concept) + -di (of); taakaeraonkyaa = taak- (to break) + -ae- (middle or mediopassive voice) + -r- (non-stative verb) + -ao- (back in the day; long ago) + -nky- (deductive) + -aa (semelfactive); latikilo = lati- (perfect; complete) + -ki- (-ness; -ity) + -l- (nominative) + -o (gerund, adjective, or concept).

Fifth Sentence Translation: The perfection of this symmetry back then certainly broke.

Sixth Sentence: Rauderaonkyaa-maesikilo.

Sixth Sentence Gloss: Rauderaonkyaa = raud- (to burn, erupt, or rage) + -e- (intransitive) + -r- (non-stative verb) + -ao- (back in the day; long ago) + -nky- (deductive) + -aa (semelfactive); maesikilo = maesi- (going in different directions) + -ki- (-ness; -ity) + -l- (nominative) + -o (gerund, adjective, or concept).

Sixth Sentence Translation: Chaos raged forth.

Seventh Sentence: Maesikitinompi nerionue-nilio.

Seventh Sentence Gloss: Maesikitinompi = maesi- (going in different directions) + -ki- (-ness; -ity) + -ti- (medial demonstrative) + -n- (objective) + -o- (gerund, adjective, or concept) + -mpi (within); nerionao = n- (to be) + -e- (intransitive) + -r- (non-stative verb) + -io- (kind-level description) + -n- (narrative) + -ue (continuative); nilio = ni- (third person pronoun) + -l- (nominative) + -i- (inanimate object) + -o (all).

Seventh Sentence Translation: Within that chaos all things endure.


Reconstruction

Transliteration scheme 1: Deqo-babequ-daqo-gydoqa daqi-daqiqo-deqi daqe-doqaqo-dagygoqaqo Gaqi-gyqi-babequ-dadaqo. Gaqi-gyqi-daqo-baboqi dadaqa-dyqe-dadaaqo-dagyqaqo Gaqi-gyqi-babequ-byqi-dadaqo; byqi-daqiqo gyqi-daqa-dadaqaqo-dagygoqu gaqi-gyqi-babequ-byqi-dadaqo. Bugoqi-gedaqi, daqe-doqiqo-gaquqe dadaqa-dyqi-gyqi-dadaqo. Doqoqe-deqaqe-doqoqo-dakygoqoqa daqi-dadaqiqo-dadeqa dyqaqo-gyqaqe-doqoqo-dagygoquqe daqi-dadaqiqo-datyqa. Gyqi-daqi-gyqi-byqi-daqo-deqi dyqaqa-gyqaqe-doqaqo-dagygoqaqa dadaqa-dyqi-gyqi-dadaqo. Doqaqu-deqe-doqaqo-dagygoqaqa baqaqe-diqi-gyqi-dadaqo. Baqaqe-diqi-gyqi-dyqi-daqo-babyqi daqe-doqiqo-daquqe daqi-dadaqiqo.

Transliteration scheme 2: Teqo-papequ-taqo-kytoqa taqi-taqiqo-teqi taqe-toqaqo-takykoqaqo Kaqi-kyqi-papequ-tataqo. Kaqi-kyqi-taqo-papoqi tataqa-tyqe-tataqaqo-takyqaqo Kaqi-kyqi-papequ-pyqi-tataqo; pyqi-taqiqo kyqi-taqa-tataqaqo-takykoqu kaqi-kyqi-papequ-pyqi-tataqo. Pukoqi-ketaqi, taqe-toqiqo-kaquqe tataqa-tyqi-kyqi-tataqo. Toqoqe-teqaqe-toqoqo-takykoqoqa taqi-tataqiqo-tateqa tyqaqo-kyqaqe-toqoqo-takykoquqe taqi-tataqiqo-tatyqa. Kyqi-taqi-kyqi-pyqi-taqo-teqi tyqaqa-kyqaqe-toqaqo-takykoqaqa tataqa-tyqi-kyqi-tataqo. Toqaqu-teqe-toqaqo-takykoqaqa paqaqe-tiqi-kyqi-tataqo. Paqaqe-tiqi-kyqi-tyqi-taqo-papyqi taqe-toqiqo-taquqe taqi-tataqiqo.

Transcription: Te'o-pape'u-ta'o-kydo'a ta'i-ta'i'o-te'i ta'e-do'a'o-takygo'a'o Ka'i-ky'i-pape'u-daða'o. Ka'i-ky'i-ta'o-pabo'i daða'a-ty'e-daða'a'o-taky'a'o Ka'i-ky'i-pape'u-py'i-daða'o; py'i-ta'i'o ky'i-ta'a-daða'a'o-takygo'u ka'i-ky'i-pape'u-py'i-daða'o. Bugo'i-ke'a'i, ta'e-do'i'o-ka'u'e daða'a-ty'i-ky'i-daða'o. Do'o'e-te'a'e-Do'o'o-takygo'o'a ta'i-daðaq'iq'-daðe'a ty'a'o-ky'a'e-do'o'o-takygo'u'e ta'i-daða'i'o-taty'a. Ky'i-ta'i-ky'i-py'i-ta'o-te'i ty'a'a-ky'a'e-do'a'o-takygo'a'a daða'a-ty'i-ky'i-daða'o. Do'a'u-te'e-do'a'o-takygo'a'a pa'a'e-ti'i-ky'i-daða'o. Pa'a'e-ti'i-ky'i-ty'i-ta'o-papy'i ta'e-do'i'o-ta'u'e ta'i-daða'i'o.

In one dialect: Voicing of consonants before back vowels, then later shortening of vowels before glottal stops combined with "The Great Lenition".

In another dialect: Voicing of consonants before rounded vowels, then later intervocalic lenition of gottal stops and subsequent synalœpha.


The Great Lenition

Phase 1: The Great Voicing

This refers to a change that occured in numerous dialects of various morphologies. In some dialects, consonants adjascent to back vowels (a, u, o) were voiced. In other dialects, consonants adjascent to rounded vowels (y, u, o) were voiced.

Phase 1, Type A: Back-Vowel Voicing
Dialectival Variant I: Onset Voicing

In open dialects, the onsets of syllables with back vowels were voiced.


p > b /_[a]
p > b /_[u]
p > b /_[o]
t > d /_[a]
t > d /_[u]
t > d /_[o]
t > ɾ /_[vowel]_[same vowel]
k > g /_[a]
k > g /_[u]
k > g /_[o]
q > ɦ /_[a]
q > ɦ /_[u]
q > ɦ /_[o]

Sample preformative dialect: teɦo-bapeɦu-daɦo-kidoɦa daʔi-daʔiɦo-deʔi daʔe-doɦaɦo-dakigoɦaɦo-gaʔi-kiʔi-bapeɦu-ɾaɾaɦo

Sample afformative dialect: ɦote-ɦupeba-ɦoda-ɦadoki ʔida-ɦoʔida-ʔide ʔeda-ɦoɦado-ɦoɦagokida-ʔiga-ʔiki-ɦupeba-ɦoɾaɾa



Dialectical Variant II: Codal Voicing

In closed dialects, the codas of syllables with back vowels were voiced.


p > b /[a]_
p > b /[u]_
p > b /[o]_
t > d /[a]_
t > d /[u]_
t > d /[o]_
t > ɾ /[vowel]_[same vowel]_
k > g /[a]_
k > g /[u]_
k > g /[o]_
q > ɦ /[a]_
q > ɦ /[u]_
q > ɦ /[o]_

Sample suffixing dialect: etoɦ-abepuɦ-adoɦ-ikodaɦ adiʔ-adiʔoɦ-etiʔ adeʔ-odaɦoɦ-adikogaɦoɦ-agiʔ-ikiʔ-abepuɦ-aɾaɾoɦ

Sample prefixing dialect: oɦet-uɦabep-oɦad-aɦikod iʔad-oɦadiʔ-iʔet eʔad-oɦodaɦ-oɦadikogaɦ-iʔag-iʔik-uɦabep-oɦaɾaɾ


Phase 1, Type B: Round-Vowel Voicing
Dialectical Variant I: Onset Voicing

In open dialects, the onsets of syllables with round vowels were voiced.


p > b /_[y]
p > b /_[u]
p > b /_[o]
t > d /_[y]
t > d /_[u]
t > d /_[o]
t > ɾ /_[vowel]_[same vowel]
k > g /_[y]
k > g /_[u]
k > g /_[o]
q > ɦ /_[y]
q > ɦ /_[u]
q > ɦ /_[o]

Sample suffixing dialect: teɦo-papeɦu-taɦo-kidoɦa taʔi-taʔiɦo-teʔi taʔe-doɦaɦo-takigoɦaɦo-kaʔi-kiʔi-papeɦu-ɾaɾaɦo


Phase 2:


Phase 2, Type A: Intervocalic Glottal Lenition
Step I, variant α:

In


q > ɦ /[vowel]_[vowel]

Sample suffixing dialect: teɦo-bapeɦu-baɦo-kidoɦa daɦi-daɦiɦo-teɦi daɦe-doɦaɦo-dakigoɦaɦo-gaɦi-kiɦi-bapeɦu-ɾaɾaɦo


Step I, variant β: Palatalization

In some dialects the intervocalic glottal stop was replaced with an intervocalic palatal approximant.


q > j /[vowel]_[vowel]

Sample: tejo-papeju-tajo-kidoja taji-tajijo-teji taje-dojajo-takigojajo-kaji-kiji-papeju-ɾaɾaɦo

Sample: tejo-bapeju-dajo-kidoja daji-dajijo-teji daje-dojajo-dakigojajo-gaji-kiji-bapeju-ɾaɾaɦo


Step II, variant α:

In


ɦ > . /[vowel]_[vowel]
Step II, variant β:

In


j > . /[vowel]_[vowel]
Step III, variant α: Synalœpha

Phase 2, Type B: Vowel-Shortening + Further Consonantal Lenition
Variant I: Further Lenition + Pre-Glottal Shortening
Variant I, Subtype α: Back Vowels & Back-Voiced Consonants
Subtype α-i: Open Dialects

Affected open dialects which underwent phase 1, type A, variant I, but did not undergo phase 2 type A.


b > m /_[a]
p > b /_[e]
p > ɸ /_[y]
b > β /_[u]
b > w /_[o]
d > n /_[a]
t > d /_[e]
t > s /_[y]
n > z /_[u]
n > ɹ /_[o]
ɾ > ɾ /_[vowel]_[same vowel]
g > ŋ /_[a]
k > g /_[e]
k > x /_[y]
g > ɣ /_[u]
g > ʎ /_[o]

(Note that the consonantal lenition occurs both in association with long and short vowels, but vowels are only shortened before glottals.)

Sample: dĕɦo-mabĕɦu-năɦo-kiɹŏɦa năʔi-năʔĭɦo-bĕʔi năʔe-ɹŏɦăɦo-nakiʎŏɦăɦo-ŋăʔi-kĭʔi-mabĕɦu-ɾăɾăɦo

Subtype α-ii: Closed Dialects

Affected closed dialects which underwent phase 1, type A, variant I, but did not undergo phase 2 type A.


b > m /[a]_
p > b /[e]_
p > ɸ /[y]_
b > β /[u]_
b > w /[o]_
d > n /[a]_
t > d /[e]_
t > s /[y]_
n > z /[u]_
n > ɹ /[o]_
ɾ > ɾ /[vowel]_[same vowel]_
g > ŋ /[a]_
k > g /[e]_
k > x /[y]_
g > ɣ /[u]_
g > ʎ /[o]_

(Note that the consonantal lenition occurs both in association with long and short vowels, but vowels are only shortened before glottals.)

Sample: edŏɦ-amebŭɦ-anŏɦ-ikoɹăɦ anĭʔ-anĭʔŏɦ-ebĭʔ anĕʔ-oɹăɦŏɦ-anikoʎăɦŏɦ-aŋĭʔ-ikĭʔ-amebŭɦ-aɾăɾŏɦ

Variant I, Subtype β: Round Vowels & Round-Voiced Consonants

Affected open dialects which underwent phase 1, type B, variant I, but did not undergo phase 2 type A.


b > ɸ /_[a]
p > b /_[i]
p > m /_[y]
b > w /_[u]
b > β /_[o]
d > s /_[a]
t > d /_[i]
t > n /_[y]
d > ɹ /_[u]
d > z /_[o]
ɾ > ɾ /_[vowel]_[same vowel]
g > x /_[a]
k > g /_[e]
k > ŋ /_[y]
g > ʎ /_[u]
g > ɣ /_[o]

Sample: pĕɦo-ɸapĕɦu-săɦo-gizŏɦa săʔi-săʔĭɦo-pĕʔi săʔe-zŏɦăɦo-sagiɣŏɦăɦo-xăʔi-gĭʔi-ɸapĕɦu-ɾăɾăɦo


Variant II: Further Lenition + Non-Glottal, Pre-Consonantal Shortening
Variant II, Subtype α: Back Vowels & Back-Voiced Consonants


b > m /[a]_
p > b /[e]_
p > ɸ /[y]_
b > β /[u]_
b > w /[o]_
d > n /[a]_
t > d /[e]_
t > s /[y]_
n > z /[u]_
n > ɹ /[o]_
ɾ > ɾ /[vowel]_[same vowel]_
g > ŋ /[a]_
k > g /[e]_
k > x /[y]_
g > ɣ /[u]_
g > ʎ /[o]_

Sample: ĕdoɦ-ămĕbuɦ-ănoɦ-ĭkŏɹaɦ năʔi-năʔĭɦo-bĕʔi năʔe-ɹŏɦăɦo-nakiʎŏɦăɦo-ŋăʔi-kĭʔi-mabĕɦu-ɾăɾăɦo

Variant III: Pre-Consonantal Shortening
Variant III, Subtype α: Back-Voiced Consonants

Affected dialects which underwent phase 1, type A, variant I, followed by phase 2 type A, step I, but not steps II or III.

Sample: tĕjo-păpĕju-tăjo-kĭdŏja tăji-tăjĭjo-tĕji tăje-dŏjăjo-tăkĭgŏjăjo-kăji-kĭji-păpĕju-ɾăɾăɦo


>Variant III, Subtype β: Round-Voiced Consonants

Affected dialects which underwent phase 1, type B, variant A, followed by phase 2 type A, step I, but not steps II or III.

Sample: tĕjo-băpĕju-dăjo-kĭdŏja dăji-dăjĭjo-tĕji dăje-dŏjajo-dakigojajo-gaji-kiji-bapeju-ɾaɾaɦo


Phase 2, Type C: Further Consonantal Lenition + Synalœpha
Variant I: ?

This change was only possible for open suffixing dialects and closed prefixing dialects.


ba.a > ma:
ba.e > maɛ
ba.i > maɪ
ba.y > maʏ
ba.u > maʊ
ba.o > maɔ
pe.a > bɛa
pe.e > be:
pe.i > bɛɪ
pe.y > bɛʏ
pe.u > bɛʊ
pe.o > bɛɔ
pi.a > pɪa
pi.e > pɪɛ
pi.i > pi:
pi.y > pɪʏ
pi.u > pɪʊ
pi.o > pɪɔ
py.a > ɸʏa
py.e > ɸʏɛ
py.i > ɸʏɪ
py.y > ɸy:
py.u > ɸʏʊ
py.o > ɸʏɔ
bu.a > βʊa
bu.e > βʊɛ
bu.i > βʊɪ
bu.y > βʊʏ
bu.u > βu:
bu.o > βaɔ
bo.a > wɔa
bo.e > wɔɛ
bo.i > wɔɪ
bo.y > wɔʏ
bo.u > wɔʊ
bo.o > wo:

da.a > na:
da.e > naɛ
da.i > naɪ
da.y > naʏ
da.u > naʊ
da.o > naɔ
te.a > dɛa
te.e > de:
te.i > dɛɪ
te.y > dɛʏ
te.u > dɛʊ
te.o > dɛɔ
ti.a > tɪa
ti.e > tɪɛ
ti.i > ti:
ti.y > tɪʏ
ti.u > tɪʊ
ti.o > tɪɔ
ty.a > sʏa
ty.e > sʏɛ
ty.i > sʏɪ
ty.y > sy:
ty.u > sʏʊ
ty.o > sʏɔ
du.a > zʊa
du.e > zʊɛ
du.i > zʊɪ
du.y > zʊʏ
du.u > zu:
du.o > zaɔ
do.a > ɹɔa
do.e > ɹɔɛ
do.i > ɹɔɪ
do.y > ɹɔʏ
do.u > ɹɔʊ
do.o > ɹo:

ga.a > ŋa:
ga.e > ŋaɛ
ga.i > ŋaɪ
ga.y > ŋaʏ
ga.u > ŋaʊ
ga.o > ŋaɔ
ke.a > gɛa
ke.e > ge:
ke.i > gɛɪ
ke.y > gɛʏ
ke.u > gɛʊ
ke.o > gɛɔ
ki.a > kɪa
ki.e > kɪɛ
ki.i > ki:
ki.y > kɪʏ
ki.u > kɪʊ
ki.o > kɪɔ
ky.a > xʏa
ky.e > xʏɛ
ky.i > xʏɪ
ky.y > xy:
ky.u > xʏʊ
ky.o > xʏɔ
gu.a > ɣʊa
gu.e > ɣʊɛ
gu.i > ɣʊɪ
gu.y > ɣʊʏ
gu.u > ɣu:
gu.o > ɣʊɔ
go.a > ɰɔa
go.e > ɰɔɛ
go.i > ɰɔɪ
go.y > ɰɔʏ
go.u > ɰɔʊ
go.o > ɰo:

Sample: dɛɔ-mabɛʊ-naɔ-kirɔa naɪ-naɪ.o-bɛi naɛ-ɹɔa.o-nakiʎɔa.o-ŋa-ɪki:-mabɛʊ-ɾăɾaɔ


a.a > a:m
a.e > aɛm
a.i > aɪm
a.y > aʏm
a.u > aʊm
a.o > aɔm
e.a > ɛab
e.e > e:b
e.i > ɛɪb
e.y > ɛʏb
e.u > ɛʊb
e.o > ɛɔb
i.a > ɪap
i.e > ɪɛp
i.i > i:p
i.y > ɪʏp
i.u > ɪʊp
i.o > ɪɔp
y.a > ʏaɸ
y.e > ʏɛɸ
y.i > ʏɪɸ
y.y > y:ɸ
y.u > ʏʊɸ
y.o > ʏɔɸ
u.a > ʊaβ
u.e > ʊɛβ
u.i > ʊɪβ
u.y > ʊʏβ
u.u > u:β
u.o > aɔβ
o.a > ɔaw
o.e > ɔɛw
o.i > ɔɪw
o.y > ɔʏw
o.u > ɔʊw
o.o > o:w

da.a > na:
da.e > naɛ
da.i > naɪ
da.y > naʏ
da.u > naʊ
da.o > naɔ
te.a > dɛa
te.e > de:
te.i > dɛɪ
te.y > dɛʏ
te.u > dɛʊ
te.o > dɛɔ
ti.a > tɪa
ti.e > tɪɛ
ti.i > ti:
ti.y > tɪʏ
ti.u > tɪʊ
ti.o > tɪɔ
ty.a > sʏa
ty.e > sʏɛ
ty.i > sʏɪ
ty.y > sy:
ty.u > sʏʊ
ty.o > sʏɔ
du.a > zʊa
du.e > zʊɛ
du.i > zʊɪ
du.y > zʊʏ
du.u > zu:
du.o > zaɔ
do.a > ɹɔa
do.e > ɹɔɛ
do.i > ɹɔɪ
do.y > ɹɔʏ
do.u > ɹɔʊ
do.o > ɹo:

ga.a > ŋa:
ga.e > ŋaɛ
ga.i > ŋaɪ
ga.y > ŋaʏ
ga.u > ŋaʊ
ga.o > ŋaɔ
ke.a > gɛa
ke.e > ge:
ke.i > gɛɪ
ke.y > gɛʏ
ke.u > gɛʊ
ke.o > gɛɔ
ki.a > kɪa
ki.e > kɪɛ
ki.i > ki:
ki.y > kɪʏ
ki.u > kɪʊ
ki.o > kɪɔ
ky.a > xʏa
ky.e > xʏɛ
ky.i > xʏɪ
ky.y > xy:
ky.u > xʏʊ
ky.o > xʏɔ
gu.a > ɣʊa
gu.e > ɣʊɛ
gu.i > ɣʊɪ
gu.y > ɣʊʏ
gu.u > ɣu:
gu.o > ɣʊɔ
go.a > ɰɔa
go.e > ɰɔɛ
go.i > ɰɔɪ
go.y > ɰɔʏ
go.u > ɰɔʊ
go.o > ɰo:

Sample: dɛɔ-mabɛʊ-naɔ-kirɔa naɪ-naɪ.o-bɛi naɛ-ɹɔa.o-nakiʎɔa.o-ŋa-ɪki:-mabɛʊ-ɾăɾaɔ



p > b /_[e]
p > ɸ /_[y]
b > β /_[u]
b > w /_[o]
d > n /_[a]
t > d /_[e]
t > s /_[y]
n > z /_[u]
n > ɹ /_[o]
ɾ > ɾ /_[vowel]_[same vowel]
g > ŋ /_[a]
k > g /_[e]
k > x /_[y]
g > ɣ /_[u]
g > ʎ /_[o]


p > b /_[a]
p > ɸ /_[y]
p > m /_[u]
p > β /_[o]
t > d /_[a]
t > s /_[y]
t > n /_[u]
t > ɹ /_[o]
t > ɾ /_[vowel]_[same vowel]
k > g /_[a]
k > x /_[y]
k > ŋ /_[u]
k > ɣj /_[o]
q > ʔ /_[a]
q > h /_[y]
q > ŋ /_[u]
q > ɦj /_[o]

Sound change 1 — Phase 2, Group A:



p > b /_[a]
p > ɸ /_[y]
p > m /_[u]
p > β /_[o]
t > d /_[a]
t > s /_[y]
t > n /_[u]
t > ɹ /_[o]
t > ɾ /_[vowel]_[same vowel]
k > g /_[a]
k > x /_[y]
k > ŋ /_[u]
k > ɣj /_[o]
q > ʔ /_[a]
q > h /_[y]
q > ŋ /_[u]
q > ɦj /_[o]

dada(h) or tata(q) = /ɾăɾa/ > dada(q) or tata(q) = /ðăɾa/
dede(h) or tete(q) = /ɾɛ̆ɾe/ > dede(q) or tete(q) = /ðɛ̆ðe/
didi(h) or titi(q) = /ɾɪ̆ɾi/ > didi(q) or titi(q) = /tɪ̆θi/
dydy(h) or tyty(q) = /ɾʏ̆ɾy/ > dydy(q) or tyty(q) = /tsjʏ̆tsjy/
dudu(h) or tutu(q) = /ɾʊ̆ɾu/ > dudu(q) or tutu(q) = /ðjʊ̆ðju/
dodo(h) or toto(q) = /ɾɔ̆ɾo/ > dodo(q) or toto(q) = /ɾɔ̆ro/

Na'a-lo'i-dada'o


Transcription: Te'o-bape'u-da'o-kylo'a da'i-da'i'o-te'i da'e-βo'a'o-dakyjoo'a'o Ga'i-ky'i-bape'u-ðaða'o. Ga'i-ky'i-da'o-baβo'i ðaða'a-ty'e-ðaða'a'o-daky'a'o Ga'i-ky'i-bape'u-py'i-ðaða'o; py'i-da'i'o ky'i-da'a-ðaða'a'o-dakyjo'u ga'i-ky'i-bape'u-py'i-ðaða'o. Bujo'i-ke'a'i, da'e-jo'i'o-ga'u'e ðaða'a-ty'i-ky'i-ðaða'o. Lo'o'e-te'a'e-lo'o'o-dakyjo'o'a da'i-ðaða'i'-ðaðe'a ty'a'o-ky'a'e-lo'o'o-dakyjo'u'e da'i-ðaða'i'o-daty'a. Ky'i-da'i-ky'i-py'i-da'o-te'i ty'a'a-ky'a'e-lo'a'o-dakyjo'a'a ðaða'a-ty'i-ky'i-ðaða'o. Lo'a'u-te'e-lo'a'o-dakyjo'a'a ba'a'e-tsi'i-ky'i-ðaða'o. Ba'a'e-tsi'i-ky'i-ty'i-da'o-bapy'i da'e-lo'i'o-da'u'e da'i-ðaða'i'o.


Sound change 1 — Phase 2


ba(q) or pa(q) = /ba/ > ba(q) or pa(q) = /ma/
be(q) or pe(q) = /pe/ > be(q) or pe(q) = /be/
bi(q) or pi(q) = /pɸi/ > bi(q) or pi(q) = /ɸi/
by(q) or py(q) = /py/
bu(q) or pu(q) = /mu/ > bu(q) or pu(q) = /βu/
bo(q) or po(q) = /βo/ > bo(q) or po(q) = /wo/

da(q) or ta(q) = /da/ > da(q) or ta(q) = /na/
de(q) or te(q) = /te/ > de(q) or te(q) = /de/
di(q) or ti(q) = /tsi/ > di(q) or ti(q) = /si/
dy(q) or ty(q) = /ty/
du(q) or tu(q) = /nu/ > du(q) or tu(q) = /zu/
do(q) or to(q) = /lo/ > do(q) or to(q) = /ro/

dada(q) or tata(q) = /ðada/ > dada(q) or tata(q) = /la/
dede(q) or tete(q) = /dðedðe/ > dede(q) or tete(q) = /ðe/
didi(q) or titi(q) = /tsisi/ > didi(q) or titi(q) = /ʃi/
dydy(q) or tyty(q) = /θyθy/ > dydy(q) or tyty(q) = /θy/
dudu(q) or tutu(q) = /ðjuðu/ > dudu(q) or tutu(q) = /ʒu/
dodo(q) or toto(q) = /?/ > dodo(q) or toto(q) = /rho/

ga(q) or ka(q) = /ga/ > ga(q) or ka(q) = /ŋa/
ge(q) or ke(q) = /ke/ > ge(q) or ke(q) = /ge/
gi(q) or ki(q) = /kxi/ > gi(q) or ki(q) = /xi/
gy(q) or ky(q) = /ky/
gu(q) or ku(q) = /ŋu/ > gu(q) or ku(q) = /ɣu/
go(q) or ko(q) = /ɣjo/ > go(q) or ko(q) = /jo/

Phonetic transcription: De'o-mabe'u-na'o-kyro'a na'i-na'i'o-de'i na'e-ro'a'o-nakyjo'a'o ŋa'i-ky'i-mabe'u-la'o. ŋa'i-ky'i-na'o-mawo'i la'a-ty'e-la'a'o-naky'a'o Ŋa'i-ky'i-mabe'u-py'i-la'o; py'i-na'i'o ky'i-na'a-la'a'o-nakyjo'u ŋa'i-ky'i-mabe'u-py'i-la'o. Vujo'i-gena'i, na'e-ro'i'o-ŋa'u'e la'a-ty'i-ky'i-la'o. Ro'o'e-de'a'e-ro'o'o-nakyro'o'a na'i-la'i'o-nade'a ty'a'o-ky'a'e-ro'o'o-nakyjo'u'e na'i-la'i'o-naty'a. Ky'i-na'i-ky'i-py'i-na'o-de'i ty'a'a-ky'a'e-ro'a'o-nakyro'a'a la'a-ty'i-ky'i-la'o. Ro'a'u-de'e-ro'a'o-nakyro'a'a ma'a'e-si'i-ky'i-la'o. Ma'a'e-si'i-ky'i-ty'i-na'o-mapy'i na'e-ro'i'o-na'u'e na'i-la'i'o.


Sound change 2: The Great Vowel Deletion

Sound change 2 with orthographical change 1


ba(q) or pa(q) = /ma/ > ppp = /m/
be(q) or pe(q) = /be/ > pp = /b/
bi(q) or pi(q) = /ɸi/ > qp = /ɸ/
by(q) or py(q) = /py/ > p = /p/
bu(q) or pu(q) = /βu/ > qpp = /β/
bo(q) or po(q) = /wo/ > qppp = /w/

da(q) or ta(q) = /na/ > ttt = /n/
de(q) or te(q) = /de/ > tt = /d/
di(q) or ti(q) = /si/ > qt = /s/
dy(q) or ty(q) = /ty/ > t = /t/
du(q) or tu(q) = /zu/ > qtt = /z/
do(q) or to(q) = /ro/ > qttt = /r/

dada(q) or tata(q) = /la/ > tttttt /l/
dede(q) or tete(q) = /ðe/ > ? /ð/
didi(q) or titi(q) = /ʃi/ > ? /ʃ/
dydy(q) or tyty(q) = /θy/ > ? /θ/
dudu(q) or tutu(q) = /ʒu/ > ? /ʒ/
dodo(q) or toto(q) = /rho/ > ???

ga(q) or ka(q) = /ŋa/ > kkk /ŋ/
ge(q) or ke(q) = /ge/ > kk /g/
gi(q) or ki(q) = /xi/ > qk /x/
gy(q) or ky(q) = /ky/ > k /k/
gu(q) or ku(q) = /ɣu/ > qkk /ɣ/
go(q) or ko(q) = /jo/ > qkkk /j/

New version: Ttoppppputttokqttta tttitttiotti ttteqtttaotttkqkkkao Kkkikippppputttttto. Kkkikitttopppqpppi ttttttatettttttaotttkqkkkao kkkikipppppupitttttto; pitttio kitttattttttaotttkqkkku kkkikipppppupitttttto. Qppqtttikkttti, ttteqtttiokkkue ttttttatikitttttto. Qtttoettaeqtttootttkqkkka tttittttttiottttta taokaeqtttotttkqkkkue tttittttttiotttta. Kitttikipitttotti taakaeqtttaotttkqkkkaa ttttttatikitttttto. Qtttautteqtttaotttkqkkkaa pppaeqtikitttttto. Pppaeqtikititttppppi ttteqtttiotttue tttittttttio.


Sound change 2 with orthographical change 2

Orthographical change 2 is separate and distinct from orthographical change 1. Orthrographical change 2 does not follow sequentially or build upon orthographical change 1.


ba(q) or pa(q) = /ma/ > m = /m/
be(q) or pe(q) = /be/ > ph = /b/
bi(q) or pi(q) = /ɸi/ > pp = /ɸ/
by(q) or py(q) = /py/ > p = /p/
bu(q) or pu(q) = /βu/ > phph = /β/
bo(q) or po(q) = /wo/ > mh = /w/

da(q) or ta(q) = /na/ > n = /n/
de(q) or te(q) = /de/ > th = /d/
di(q) or ti(q) = /si/ > tt = /s/
dy(q) or ty(q) = /ty/ > t = /t/
du(q) or tu(q) = /zu/ > thth = /z/
do(q) or to(q) = /ro/ > nh = /r/

dada(q) or tata(q) = /la/ > nn /l/
dede(q) or tete(q) = /ðe/ > ? /ð/
didi(q) or titi(q) = /ʃi/ > ? /ʃ/
dydy(q) or tyty(q) = /θy/ > ? /θ/
dudu(q) or tutu(q) = /ʒu/ > ? /ʒ/
dodo(q) or toto(q) = /rho/ > ???

ga(q) or ka(q) = /ŋa/ > ŋ /ŋ/
ge(q) or ke(q) = /ge/ > kh /g/
gi(q) or ki(q) = /xi/ > kk /x/
gy(q) or ky(q) = /ky/ > k /k/
gu(q) or ku(q) = /ɣu/ > khkh /ɣ/
go(q) or ko(q) = /jo/ > ŋh /j/

New version: Thomphunoknha niniothi nenhaonkŋhao Ŋikimphunno. Ŋikinommhi nnatennaonkŋhao ŋikimphupinno; pinio kinannaonkŋhu ŋikimphupinno. Phphŋhikhni, nenhioŋue nnatikinno. Nhoedaenhoonkŋha ninniontha taokaenhonkŋhue ninnionta. Kinikipinothi taakaenhaonkŋhaa nnatikinno. Nhaudenhaonkŋhaa maettikinno. Maettikitinmpi nenhionue ninnio.


Sound change 2 with orthographical change 3

Orthographical change 3 follows sequentially from and builds upon orthographical change 2.


m = /m/
ph = /b/ > b = /b/
pp = /ɸ/ > ph = /ɸ/
p = /p/
phph = /β/ > bh = /β/
mh = /w/ > mh /w/

n = /n/
th = /d/ > d = /d/
tt = /s/ > s = /s/
t = /t/
thth = /z/ > z = /z/
nh = /r/

nn /l/ > = l /l/
? /ð/ > dh = /ð/
? /ʃ/ > sh /ʃ/
? /θ/ > th = /θ/
? /ʒ/ > zh = /ʒ/
???

ŋ /ŋ/
kh = /g/ > g = /g/
kk = /x/ > kh = /x/
k = /k/
khkh = /ɣ/ > gh /ɣ/
ŋh = /j/ > lh = /j/

Newer version: Dombunoknha niniodi nenhaonklhao-Ŋikimbulo. Ŋikinommhi latelaonklhao-Ŋikimbupilo; pinio kinalaonklhu-ŋikimbupilo. Bhlhigni, nenhioŋue-latikilo. Nhoedaenhoonklhoa-nilionda taokaenhoonklhue-nilionta. Kinikipinodi taakaenhaonklhaa-latikilo. Nhaudenhaonklhaa-maesikilo. Maesikitinompi nenhionue-nilio.


Sound change 2 with orthographical change 4

Orthographical change 4 follows sequentially from and builds upon orthographical change 3.


m = /m/
b = /b/
ph = /ɸ/ > f = /ɸ/
p = /p/
bh = /β/ > v = /β/
mh /w/ > w /w/

n = /n/
d = /d/
s = /s/
t = /t/
z = /z/
nh = /r/ > r = /r/

l /l/
dh = /ð/ > ð = /ð/
sh /ʃ/ > ? = /ʃ/
> th = /θ/ > þ = /θ/
zh = /ʒ/ > ? = /ʒ/
???

ŋ /ŋ/
g = /g/
kh = /x/ > x = /x/
k = /k/
gh /ɣ/ > ? = /ɣ/
lh = /j/ > y = /j/

Newerer version: Dombunokra niniodi neraonkyao-Ŋikimbulo. Ŋikinomwi latelaonkyao-Ŋikimbupilo; pinio kinalaonkyu-ŋikimbupilo. Vyigni, nerioŋue-latikilo. Roedaeroonkyoa-nilionda taokaeroonkyue-nilionta. Kinikipinodi taakaeraonkyaa-latikilo. Rauderaonkyaa-maesikilo. Maesikitinompi nerionue-nilio.



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