Humans are inherently social organisms, not unlike bees, ants, crows, wolves, apes, and a variety of other organisms.
I. What is a Society?
I.a. Types of Society
I.a-1.) Level of Sociality
I.a-2.) Level of Political Integration
Band-level Societies —
Acephalous Societies —
Big Man Societies —
Ranked Chieftainships —
State-level Societies —
Coalitions of States —
I.a-3.) Kardashev Typology
Civilizations may be typed according to the Kardashev scale, such as described by Dr. Michio Kaku in Michio Kaku vs Stephen Hawking - Aliens, Humanity, and God.
♕ Type 0 (Regional) Civilization —
♕ Type ½ (Multiregional) Civilization —
♕ Type 0.7 (Demiglobal/hemispheral?) Civilization —
♕ Type I (Planetary) Civilization — according to Kaku, we will be a Type I Civilization in about 100 years. He cites the internet as the beginning of a Type I communications technology, English as the beginning of a Type I language, the European Union the beginning of a Type I economy, "youth music" (rock n' roll, rap) and modern clothing and accessory fashions as the beginnings of a Type I culture, soccer and the Olympics as the beginnings of Type I sports / initiation rites. Kaku cites "terrorists" (presumably the Islamic fundamentalist terrorists that have been much feared in recent years) as reacting against the march toward a Type I civilization. Conservative Christian fundamentalists in the United States also oppose globalization.
♕ Type I½ (Interplanetary) Civilization —
♕ Type II (Stellar) Civilization — Kaku uses Star Trek's "United Federation of Planets" as an example of a Type II, though it's actually an interstellar coalition, between a Type II and a Type III in terms of territory commanded, of civilizations which are technologically only just barely Type I.
♕ Type II½ (Interstellar) Civilization —
♕ Type III (Galactic) Civilization — Examples of true Type III Civilizations in popular fiction are a bit difficult to come by. Kaku uses Star Trek's Borg and Star Wars's Galactic Empire as examples of a Type III Civilizations. The Galactic Empire occupies most of the Star Wars galaxy and is therefore close to a Type III in terms of territory, but falls far short in terms of technological sophistication as only the non-cannonical material set in the Star Wars fictional universe's future has the political powers of the galaxy experimenting with technologies that can harness the power of an entire star, as would mark a Type II civilization. By contrast, the Borg occupy only a fraction of Star Trek's fictional version of the Milkyway Galaxy, in a region known as the "Delta Quadrant", and as such are only between Type II and Type III in terms of occupied territory, and being unable to harness the energy of entire stars are below Type II in terms of technological sophistication, but are probably a bit closer to a Type II in this regard than Star Wars's Galactic Empire.
♕ Type III½ (Intergalactic) Civilization —
♕ Type IV (Universal) Civilization —
♕ Type V (Multiversal) Civilization —
I.b. Sociological Theories
I.b-1.) Organismic analogy
Society is a system of social institutions which work together to maintain equilibrium.
I.b-1.) Hegelian Dialectic
Thesis vs. antithesis = synthesis
I.b-1.) Dialectical materialism
I.b-1.) Bourgeoisie vs. Proletariat
Proletarian class movement.
I.c. Is Government Necessary?
In Understanding Human Nature with Steven Pinker - Conversations with History (4:15), Steven Pinker discusses the issue of political anarchism, the necessity of police, fiat currency, and government, which was a live issue in the 1960s and which he claims was put to an empirical test when the police went on strike in Quebec in 1969, and shortly thereafter was a complete breakdown of social cohesion, with luting, riots, and two deaths within just a few hours. Pinker claims this was "an empirical disconfirmation of [Pinker's] fourteen-year-old self's favorite political theory, namely anarchism." Pinker's reasoning here is extremely questionable. Does the withdrawal that a heroin addict experiences when suddenly severed from his or her drug supply prove that all humans everywhere should be constantly sedated with narcotic analgesics? Or does it merely prove that being habituated to a substance and then being suddenly withdrawn from it can have unpleasant side-effects? Certainly, the sudden removal of government in general or police in particular from a society that has become morally dependent on external institutions for their sense of right and wrong will have some very nasty short-term side effects, just as a sudden withdrawal from a drug will, but this does not prove that government is somehow necessary or that humans are incapable of surviving without it.
II. Social Problems
“Costa Rica as you know's abolished its military. And that has meant that all the money that was used for the military has been used for social issues, social development, and for the environment. It's the only country I know of that has got the rights of the environment and living things as part of their constitution. And of course the model is, is so tantalizing. If the world gave up its military there'd be no more poverty, we'd have money for everything. And all the things we're discussing now would be unnecessary.” — Jane Goodall (2014; 30:00)
II.a-2.) Violent Crime