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Sylvan-Agrarian Languages

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Back-Vowel Voicing
+ Glottal Deconsonantalization
+ Further Lenition

This refers to a change that occured in numerous dialects of various morphologies. In some dialects, consonants adjascent to back vowels (a, u, o) were voiced. In other dialects, consonants adjascent to rounded vowels (y, u, o) were voiced.

Variant Group A: Onset Voicing in Open Dialects

In open dialects, the onsets of syllables with back vowels were voiced.


b > m /_[a]
p > b /_[e]
p > ɸ /_[y]
b > β /_[u]
b > w /_[o]

d > n /_[a]
t > d /_[e]
t > s /_[y]
n > z /_[u]
n > ɹ /_[o]
ɾ > ɾ /_[vowel]_[same vowel]

g > ŋ /_[a]
k > g /_[e]
k > x /_[y]
g > ɣ /_[u]
g > ʎ /_[o]

Na’a-ro’i-rara’o
Open, preformative, suffixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: teqo-papequ-taqo-kitoqa taqi-taqiqo-teqi taqe-toqaqo-takikoqaqo kaqi-kiqi-papequ-tataqo

Transliteration 2: deqo-babequ-daqo-gidoqa daqi-daqiqo-deqi daqe-doqaqo-dagigoqaqo gaqi-giqi-babequ-dadaqo

Pronunciation: dĕ.o-mabĕ.u-nă.o-kiɹŏ.a nă.i-nă.ĭ.o-bĕ.i nă.e-ɹŏ.ă.o-nakiʎŏ.ă.o-ŋă.i-kĭ.i-mabĕ.u-ɾăɾă.o

Transcription: de’o-mabe’u-na’o-kiro’a na’i-na’i’o-de’i na’e-do’a’o-nakijo’a’o-ŋa’i-ki’i-mabe’u-rara’o

Gloss: cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Na’a-ro’i-rara’o
Open, preformative, suffixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: kaqi-kiqi-papequ-tataqo taqe-toqaqo-takikoqaqo taqi-taqiqo-teqi teqo-papequ-taqo-kitoqa

Transliteration 2: gaqi-giqi-babequ-dadaqo daqe-doqaqo-dagigoqaqo daqi-daqiqo-deqi deqo-babequ-daqo-gidoqa

Pronunciation: ŋa.i-ki.i-mabe.u-ɾaɾa.o na.e-ɹo.a.o-nakiʎo.a.o na.i-na.i.o-de.i de.o-mabe.u-na.o-kiɹo.a

Transcription: ŋa’i-ki’i-mabe’u-rara’o na’e-ro’a’o-nakijo’a’o na’i-na’i’o-de’i de’o-mabe’u-na’o-kiro’a

Gloss: nothing-big-ness-subject exist-verb-past-evidental things-object-all-of cause-big-object-gerund-before

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


’Ana-’iro-’orara
Open, afformative, suffixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: qote-qupepa-qota-qatoki qita-qoqita-qite qeta-qoqato-qoqakokita qika-qiki-qupepa-qotata

Transliteration 2: qode-qubeba-qoda-qadogi qida-qoqida-qide qeda-qoqado-qoqagogida qiga-qigi-qubeba-qodada

Pronunciation: ode-ubema-ona-aɹoki ina-o.ina-ide ena-o.aɹo-o.aʎokina iŋa-iki-ubema-oɾaɾa

Transcription: ’ode-’ubema-’ona-’aroki ’ina-’o’ina-’ide ’ena-’o’aro-’o’aʎokina ’iŋa-’iki-’ubema-’orara

Gloss: Cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


’Ana-’iro-’orara
Open, afformative, suffixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: qika-qiki-qupepa-qotata qeta-qoqato-qoqakokita qita-qoqita-qite qote-qupepa-qota-qatoki

Transliteration 2: qiga-qigi-qubeba-qodada qeda-qoqado-qoqagogida qida-qoqida-qide qode-qubeba-qoda-qadogi

Pronunciation: iŋa-iki-ubema-oɾaɾa ena-o.aɹo-o.aʎokina ina-o.ina-ide ode-ubema-oda-aɹoki

Transcription: ’iŋa-’iki-’ubema-’orara ’ena-’o’aro-’o’ajokina ’ina-’o’ina-’ide ’ode-’ubema-’ona-’aroki

Gloss: nothing-big-ness-subject exist-verb-past-evidental things-object-all-of cause-big-object-gerund-before

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


Rara’o-ro’i-na’a
Open, preformative, prefixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: kitoqa-taqo-papequ-teqo teqi-taqiqo-taqi takikoqaqo-toqaqo-taqe tataqo-pepequ-kiqi-kaqi

Transliteration 2: gidoqa-daqo-babequ-deqo deqi-daqiqo-daqi dagigoqaqo-doqaqo-daqe dadaqo-bebequ-giqi-gaqi

Pronunciation: kiɹo.a-na.o-mabe.u-de.o de.i-na.i.o-da.i nakiʎo.a.o-ɹ'o.a.o-na.e ɾaɾaɦo-bebeɦu-ki.i-ŋa.i

Transcription: kiro’a-na’o-mabe’u-de’o de’i-na’i’o-na’i nakijo’a’o-ro’a’o-na’e rara’o-mabe’u-ki’i-ŋa’i

Gloss: before-gerund-object-big-cause of-all-things-object evidental-past-verb-exist subject-ness-big-none

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Rara’o-ro’i-na’a
Open, preformative, prefixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: tataqo-pepequ-kiqi-kaqi takikoqaqo-toqaqo-taqe teqi-taqiqo-taqi kitoqa-taqo-papequ-teqo

Transliteration 2: dadaqo-bebequ-giqi-gaqi dagigoqaqo-doqaqo-daqe deqi-daqiqo-daqi gidoqa-daqo-babequ-deqo

Pronunciation: ɾaɾa.o-mabe.u-ki.i-ŋa.i nakiʎo.a.o-ɹo.a.o-na.e de.i-na.i.o-naʔi kiʎo.a-na.o-mabe.u-de.o

Transcription: rara’o-mabe’u-ki’i-ŋa’i nakijo’a’o-ro’a’o-da’e de’i-da’i’o-da’i kido’a-da’o-bape’u-te’o

Gloss: subject-ness-big-none evidental-past-verb-exist of-all-things-object before-gerund-object-big-cause

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


’Orara-’iro-’ana
Open, afformative, prefixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: qatoki-qota-qupepa-qote qite-qoqita-qita qoqakokita-qoqato-qeta qotata-qupepa-qiki-qika

Transliteration 2: qadogi-qoda-qubeba-qode qide-qoqida-qida qoqagogida-qoqado-qeda qodada-qubeba-qigi-qiga

Pronunciation: aɹoki-ona-ubema-ode ide-o.ina-ina o.aɹokina-o.aɹo-ena oɾaɾa-ubema-iki-iŋa

Transcription: ’aroki-’ona-’ubema-’ode ’ide-’oʔina-’ina ’o’ajokina-’o’aro-’ena ’orara-’ubema-’iki-’iŋa

Gloss: before-gerund-object-big-cause of-all-things-object evidental-past-verb-exist subject-ness-big-none

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


’Orara-’iro-’ana

Open, afformative, prefixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: qotata-qupepa-qiki-qika qoqakokita-qoqato-qeta qite-qoqita-qita qatoki-qota-qupepa-qote

Transliteration 2: qodada-qubeba-qigi-qiga qoqagogida-qoqado-qeda qide-qoqida-qida qadogi-qoda-qubeba-qode

Pronunciation: oɾaɾa-ubema-iki-iŋa o.aʎokina-o.aɹo-ena ide-o.ina-ina aɹoki-ona-ubema-ode

Transcription: ’orara-’ubema-’iki-’iŋa ’o’ajokina-’o’aro-’ena ’ide-’o’ina-’ina ’aroki-’ona-’ubema-’ode

Gloss: subject-ness-big-none evidental-past-verb-exist of-all-things-object before-gerund-object-big-cause

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.



Variant Group B: Codal Voicing in Closed Dialects

In closed dialects, the codas of syllables with back vowels were voiced.


b > m /[a]_
p > b /[e]_
p > ɸ /[y]_
b > β /[u]_
b > w /[o]_

d > n /[a]_
t > d /[e]_
t > s /[y]_
n > z /[u]_
n > ɹ /[o]_
ɾ > ɾ /[vowel]_[same vowel]_

g > ŋ /[a]_
k > g /[e]_
k > x /[y]_
g > ɣ /[u]_
g > ʎ /[o]_

Ana’-ori’-araro’
Closed, preformative, suffixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: etoq-apepuq-atoq-ikotaq atiq-atiqoq-etiq ateq-otaqoq-atikokaqoq atiq-ikiq-apepuq-atatoq

Transliteration 2: edoq-abebuq-adoq-igodaq adiq-adiqoq-ediq adeq-odaqoq-adigogaqoq agiq-igiq-abebuq-adadoq

Pronunciation: ĕdo-ămĕbu-ăno-ĭkŏɹa ăni-ăni.o-ĕbi ăne-̆oɹa.o-ănĭkŏʎa.o-ăŋi-ĭkĭ-ămĕbu-ăɾăɾo

Transcription: edo’-amebu’-ano’-ikora’ ani’-ani’o’-edi’ ane’-ora’o’-anikoja’o’ aŋi’-iki’-amebu’-araro’

Gloss: cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Ana’-ori’-araro’
Closed, preformative, suffixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: akiq-ikiq-apepuq-atatoq ateq-otaqoq-atikokaqoq atiq-atiqoq-etiq etoq-apepuq-atoq-ikotaq

Transliteration 2: agiq-igiq-abebuq-adadoq adeq-odaqoq-adigogaqoq adiq-adiqoq-ediq edoq-abebuq-adoq-igodaq

Pronunciation: aŋi-iki-amebu-aɾaɾo ane-oɹa.o-anikoɹa.o ani-ani.o-edi edo-amebu-ano-ikoɹa

Transcription: aŋi-iki-amebu-araro ane-oɹa’o-anikora’o ani-ani’o-edi edo-amebu-ano-ikora

Gloss: nothing-big-ness-subject exist-verb-past-evidental things-object-all-of cause-big-object-gerund-before

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


A’an-i’or-o’arar
Closed, afformative, suffixing, OVS

Transliteration: oqet-uqepap-oqat-aqotik iqat-oqiqat-iqet eqat-oqaqot-oqaqokikat iqat-iqik-uqepap-oqatat

Transliteration: oqed-uqebab-oqad-aqodig iqad-oqiqad-iqed eqad-oqaqod-oqaqogigad iqad-iqig-uqebab-oqadad

Pronunciation: o.ed-u.ebam-o.an-a.oɹik i.ad-o.i.an-i.ed e.an-o.a.oɹ-o.a.oʎikan i.aŋ-i.ik-u.ebam-o.aɾaɾ

Transcription: o’ed-u’ebam-o’an-a’orik i’an-o’i’an-i’ed e’an-o’a’or-o’a’ojikan i’aŋ-i’ik-u’ebam-o’arar

Gloss: Cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


A’an-i’or-o’arar
Closed, afformative, suffixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: iqak-iqik-uqepap-oqatat eqat-oqaqot-oqaqogikad iqad-oqiqad-iqed oqet-uqeqab-oqad-aqodik

Transliteration 2: iqag-iqig-uqebab-oqadad eqad-oqaqod-oqaqogigad iqad-oqiqad-iqed oqed-uqebab-oqad-aqodig

Pronunciation: i.aŋ-i.ik-u.ebam-o.aɾaɾ e.an-o.a.oɹ-o.a.oʎikan i.an-o.i.an-i.ed o.ed-u.e.an-o.an-a.oʎik

Transcription: i’aŋ-i’ik-u’ebam-o’arar e’an-o’a’or-o’a’ojikan i’an-o’i’an-i’ed o’ed-u’ebam-o’an-a’orik

Gloss: nothing-big-ness-subject exist-verb-past-evidental things-object-all-of cause-big-object-gerund-before

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


Araro’-ori’-ana’
Closed, preformative, prefixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: ikotaq-atoq-apepuq-etoq etiq-atiqoq-atiq atikokaqoq-otaqoq-ateq atatoq-etapuq-ikiq-akiq

Transliteration: igodaq-adoq-abebuq-edoq ediq-adiqoq-adiq adigogaqoq-odaqoq-adeq adadoq-edabuq-igiq-agiq

Pronunciation: ikoɹa-ano-amebu-edo edi-ani.o-ani anikoʎa.o-oɹa.o-ane aɾaɾo-amebu-iki-aŋi

Transcription: ikora’-ano’-amebu’-edo’ edi’-ani’o’-ani’ anikoja’o’-ora’o’-ane’ araro’-amebu’-iki’-aŋi’

Gloss: before-gerund-object-big-cause of-all-things-object evidental-past-verb-exist subject-ness-big-none

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Araro’-ori’-ana’
Closed, preformative, prefixing, SVO

Transliteration: atatoq-epepuq-ikiq-akiq atikokaqoq-otaqoq-ateq etiq-atiqoq-atiq ikotaq-atoq-atepuq-etoq

Transliteration: adadoq-ebebuq-igiq-agiq adigogaqoq-odaqoq-adeq ediq-adiqoq-adiq igodaq-adoq-adepuq-edoq

Pronunciation: aɾaɾo-amebu-iki-aŋi anikoʎa.o-oɹa.o-ane edi-ani.o-ani ikoʎa-ano-amebu-edo

Transcription: araro’-amebu’-iki’-aŋi’ anikoja’o’-ora’o’-ane’ edi’-ani’o’-ani’ ikora’-ano’-amebu’-edo’

Gloss: subject-ness-big-none evidental-past-verb-exist of-all-things-object before-gerund-object-big-cause

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


O’arar-i’or-a’an
Closed, afformative, prefixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: aqotik-oqat-uqepap-oqet iqet-oqiqat-iqat oqaqokikat-oqaqot-eqat oqatat-uqepap-iqik-iqak

Transliteration 2: aqodig-oqad-uqebab-oqed iqed-oqiqad-iqad oqaqogigad-oqaqod-eqad oqadad-uqebab-iqig-iqag

Pronunciation: a.oʎik-o.an-u.ebam-o.ed i.ed-o.i.an-i.an o.a.oʎikan-o.a.oɹ-e.an o.ɾaɾ-u.ebam-i.ik-i.aŋ

Transcription: a’orik-o’an-u’ebam-o’ed i’ed-o’i’an-i’an o’a’ojiknd-o’a’or-e’an o’arar-u’ebam-i’ik-i’aŋ

Gloss: before-gerund-object-big-cause of-all-things-object evidental-past-verb-exist subject-ness-big-none

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


O’arar-i’or-a’an
Closed, afformative, prefixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: oqatat-uqepap-iqik-iqak oqaqokikat-oqaqot-eqat iqet-oqiqat-iqat aqotik-oqat-uqepap-oqet

Transliteration 2: oqadad-uqebab-iqig-iqag oqaqogigad-oqaqod-eqad iqed-oqiqad-iqad aqodig-oqad-uqebab-oqed

Pronunciation: o.arar-u.ebam-i.ik-i.aŋ o.a.oʎikan-o.a.or-e.an i.ed-o.i.an-i.an a.orik-o.an-u.ebam-o.ed

Transcription: o’arar-u’ebam-i’ik-i’aŋ o’a’ojikan-o’a’or-e’an i’ed-o’i’ad-i’an a’orik-o’an-u’ebam-o’ed

Gloss: subject-ness-big-none evidental-past-verb-exist of-all-things-object before-gerund-object-big-cause

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.



Back-Vowel Voicing
+ Glottal Deconsonantalization
+ Further Lenition
+ Synalœpha

Variant I: ?

This change was only possible for open suffixing dialects and closed prefixing dialects.


a.a > a: /C_
a.e > aɛ /C_
a.i > aɪ /C_
a.y > aʏ /C_
a.u > aʊ /C_
a.o > aɔ /C_

e.a > ɛa /C_
e.e > e: /C_
pe.i > ɛɪ /C_
e.y > ɛʏ /C_
e.u > ɛʊ /C_
e.o > ɛɔ /C_

i.a > ɪa /C_
i.e > ɪɛ /C_
i.i > i: /C_
i.y > ɪʏ /C_
i.u > ɪʊ /C_
i.o > ɪɔ /C_

y.a > ʏa /C_
y.e > ʏɛ /C_
y.i > ʏɪ /C_
y.y > y: /C_
y.u > ʏʊ /C_
y.o > ʏɔ /C_

u.a > ʊa /C_
u.e > ʊɛ /C_
u.i > ʊɪ /C_
u.y > ʊʏ /C_
u.u > u: /C_
u.o > ʊɔ /C_

o.a > ɔa /C_
o.e > ɔɛ /C_
o.i > ɔɪ /C_
o.y > ɔʏ /C_
o.u > ɔʊ /C_
o.o > o:

Sample: dɛɔ-mabɛʊ-naɔ-kirɔa naɪ-naɪ.o-dɛi naɛ-ɹɔa.o-nakiʎɔa.o-ŋa-ɪki:-mabɛʊ-ɾăɾaɔ

ɪa
Naa-roi-rarao
Open, preformative, suffixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: teo-papeu-tao-kitoa tai-taio-tei tae-toao-takikoao kai-kii-papeu-tatao

Transliteration 2: deo-babeu-dao-gidoa dai-daio-dei dae-doao-dagigoao gai-gii-babeu-dadao

Pronunciation: dɛɔ-mabɛʊ-naɔ-kirɔa naɪ-naɪ.o-dɛɪ naɛ-ɹɔa.o-nakiʎɔa.o ŋaɪ-ki:-mabɛʊ-ɾăɾaɔ

Transcription: deo-mabeu-nao-kiroa nai-naio-dei nae-roao-nakijoao-ŋai-kii-mabeu-rarao

Gloss: cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Naa-roi-rarao
Open, preformative, suffixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: kai-kii-papeu-tatao tae-toao-takikoao tai-taio-tei teo-papeu-tao-kitoa

Transliteration 2: gai-gii-babeu-dadao dae-doao-dagigoao dai-daio-dei deo-babeu-dao-gidoa

Pronunciation: ŋaɪ-kɪ:-mabɛʊ-ɾaɾaɔ naɛ-rɔa.o-nakiʎɔa.o naɪ-naɪ.o-dɛɪ dɛɔ-mabɛʊ-naɔ-kirɔa

Transcription: ŋai-kii-mabeu-rarao nae-roao-nakijoao nai-naio-dei deo-mabeu-nao-kiroa

Gloss: nothing-big-ness-subject exist-verb-past-evidental things-object-all-of cause-big-object-gerund-before

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


Ana-iro-orara
Open, afformative, suffixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: ote-upepa-ota-atoki ita-oita-ite eta-oato-oakokita ika-iki-upepa-otata

Transliteration 2: ode-ubeba-oda-adogi ida-oida-ide eda-oado-oagogida iga-igi-ubeba-odada

Pronunciation: ode-ubema-ona-aroki ina-oina-ide ena-ɔaro-ɔaʎokina iŋa-iki-ubema-oɾaɾa

Transcription: ode-ubema-ona-aroki ina-oina-ide ena-oaro-oajokina iŋa-iki-ubema-orara

Gloss: Cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Ana-iro-orara
Open, afformative, suffixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: ika-iki-upepa-otata eta-oato-oakokita ita-oita-ite ote-upepa-ota-atoki

Transliteration 2: iga-igi-ubeba-odada eda-oado-oagogida ida-oida-ide ode-ubeba-oda-adogi

Pronunciation: iŋa-iki-ubema-oɾaɾa ena-ɔaro-ɔaʎokina ina-oina-ide ode-ubema-ona-aroki

Transcription: iŋa-iki-ubema-orara ena-oaro-oajokina ina-oina-ide ode-ubema-ona-aroki

Gloss: nothing-big-ness-subject exist-verb-past-evidental things-object-all-of cause-big-object-gerund-before

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


Rarao-roi-naa
Open, preformative, prefixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: kitoa-tao-papeu-teo tei-taio-tai takikoao-toao-tae tatao-pepeu-kii-kai

Transliteration 2: gidoa-dao-babeu-deo dei-daio-dai dagigoao-doao-dae dadao-bebeu-gii-gai

Pronunciation: kiɹɔa-naɔ-mabɛʊ-dɛɔ dɛɪ-naɪ.o-naɪ nakiʎɔa.o-rɔa.o-naɛ ɾaɾaɔ-mabɛʊ-kɪ:-ŋaɪ

Transcription: kiroa-nao-mabeu-deo dei-naio-nai nakijoao-roao-nae rarao-mabeu-kii-ŋai

Gloss: before-gerund-object-big-cause of-all-things-object evidental-past-verb-exist subject-ness-big-none

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Rarao-roi-naa
Open, preformative, prefixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: tatao-pepeu-kii-kai takikoao-toao-tae tei-taio-tai kitoa-tao-papeu-teo

Transliteration 2: dadao-bebeu-gii-gai dagigoao-doao-dae dei-daio-dai gidoa-dao-babeu-deo

Pronunciation: ɾaɾaɔ-mabɛʊ-kɪ:-ŋaɪ dakiʎɔa.o-rɔa.o-naɛ dɛɪ-naɪ.o-naɪ kirɔa-naɔ-mabɛʊ-dɛɔ

Transcription: rarao-mabeu-kii-ŋai nakijoao-roao-dae dei-daio-dai kidoa-dao-bapeu-teo

Gloss: subject-ness-big-none evidental-past-verb-exist of-all-things-object before-gerund-object-big-cause

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


Orara-iro-ana
Open, afformative, prefixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: atoki-ota-upepa-ote ite-oita-ita oakokita-oato-eta otata-upepa-iki-ika

Transliteration 2: adogi-oda-ubeba-ode ide-oida-ida oagogida-oado-eda odada-ubeba-igi-iga

Pronunciation: aroki-ona-ubema-ode ide-oina-ina ɔaʎokina-ɔaro-ena oɾaɾa-ubema-iki-iŋa

Transcription: aroki-ona-ubema-ode ide-oina-ina oajokina-oaro-ena orara-ubema-iki-iŋa

Gloss: before-gerund-object-big-cause of-all-things-object evidental-past-verb-exist subject-ness-big-none

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Orara-iro-ana

Open, afformative, prefixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: otata-upepa-iki-ika oakokita-oato-eta ite-oita-ita atoki-ota-upepa-ote

Transliteration 2: odada-ubeba-igi-iga oagogida-oado-eda ide-oida-ida adogi-oda-ubeba-ode

Pronunciation: oɾaɾa-ubema-iki-iŋa ɔaʎokina-ɔaro-ena ide-oina-ina aroki-ona-ubema-ode

Transcription: orara-ubema-iki-iŋa oajokina-oaro-na ide-oina-ina aroki-ona-ubema-ode

Gloss: subject-ness-big-none evidental-past-verb-exist of-all-things-object before-gerund-object-big-cause

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.



Variant II: ?

This change was only possible for open suffixing dialects and closed prefixing dialects.


a.a > a: /_C
a.e > aɛ /_C
a.i > aɪ /_C
a.y > aʏ /_C
a.u > aʊ /_C
a.o > aɔ /_C

e.a > ɛa /_C
e.e > e: /_C
pe.i > ɛɪ /_C
e.y > ɛʏ /_C
e.u > ɛʊ /_C
e.o > ɛɔ /_C

i.a > ɪa /_C
i.e > ɪɛ /_C
i.i > i: /_C
i.y > ɪʏ /_C
i.u > ɪʊ /_C
i.o > ɪɔ /_C

y.a > ʏa /_C
y.e > ʏɛ /_C
y.i > ʏɪ /_C
y.y > y: /_C
y.u > ʏʊ /_C
y.o > ʏɔ /_C

u.a > ʊa /_C
u.e > ʊɛ /_C
u.i > ʊɪ /_C
u.y > ʊʏ /_C
u.u > u: /_C
u.o > ʊɔ /_C

o.a > ɔa /_C
o.e > ɔɛ /_C
o.i > ɔɪ /_C
o.y > ɔʏ /_C
o.u > ɔʊ /_C
o.o > o:

Ana-ori-araro
Formerly-closed, preformative, suffixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: eto-apepu-ato-ikota ati-atio-eti ate-otao-atikokao ati-iki-apepu-atato

Transliteration 2: edo-abebu-ado-igoda adi-adio-edi ade-odao-adigogao agi-igi-abebu-adado

Pronunciation: edo-amebu-ano-ikoɹa ani-anio-edi ane-oɹaɔ-anikoʎaɔ-aŋi-iki-amebu-aɾaɾo

Transcription: edo-amebu-ano-ikora ani-anio-edi ane-orao-anikojao aŋi-iki-amebu-araro

Gloss: cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Ana-ori-araro
Formerly-closed, preformative, suffixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: aki-iki-apepu-atato ate-otao-atikokao ati-atio-eti eto-apepu-ato-ikota

Transliteration 2: agi-igi-abebu-adado ade-odao-adigogao adi-adio-edi edo-abebu-ado-igoda

Pronunciation: aŋi-iki-amebu-aɾaɾo ane-oɹaɔ-anikoʎaɔ ani-anio-edi edo-amebu-ano-ikoɹa

Transcription: aŋi-iki-amebu-araro ane-oɹao-anikojao ani-anio-edi edo-amebu-ano-ikora

Gloss: nothing-big-ness-subject exist-verb-past-evidental things-object-all-of cause-big-object-gerund-before

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


Aan-ior-oarar
Closed, afformative, suffixing, OVS

Transliteration: oet-uepap-oat-aotik iat-oiat-iet eat-oaot-oaokikat iat-iik-uepap-oatat

Transliteration: oed-uebab-oad-aodig iad-oiad-ied ead-oaod-oaogigad iad-iig-uebab-oadad

Pronunciation: oed-ʊɛbam-ɔan-aɔɹik ɪad-o.ɪan-ɪɛd ɛan-o.aɔɹ-o.aɔʎikan ɪaŋ-ɪ:k-ʊɛbam-ɔaɾaɾ

Transcription: oed-uebam-oan-aorik ian-oian-ied ean-oaor-oaojikan iaŋ-iik-uebam-oarar

Gloss: Cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Aan-ior-oarar
Closed, afformative, suffixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: iak-iik-uepap-oatat eat-oaot-oaogikad iad-oiad-ied oet-ueab-oad-aodik

Transliteration 2: iag-iig-uebab-oadad ead-oaod-oaogigad iad-oiad-ied oed-uebab-oad-aodig

Pronunciation: ɪaŋ-ɪ:k-ʊɛbam-ɔaɾaɾ ɛan-oaɔɹ-o.aɔʎikan ɪan-o.ɪan-ɪɛd oed-u.ɛan-ɔan-aɔʎik

Transcription: iaŋ-iik-uebam-oarar ean-oaor-oaojikan ian-oian-ied oed-uebam-oan-aorik

Gloss: nothing-big-ness-subject exist-verb-past-evidental things-object-all-of cause-big-object-gerund-before

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


Araro-ori-ana
Closed, preformative, prefixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: ikota-ato-apepu-eto eti-atio-ati atikokao-otao-ate atato-etapu-iki-aki

Transliteration: igoda-ado-abebu-edo edi-adio-adi adigogao-odao-ade adado-ebabu-igi-agi

Pronunciation: ikoɹa-ano-amebu-edo edi-anio-ani anikoʎaɔ-oɹaɔ-ane aɾaɾo-amebu-iki-aŋi

Transcription: ikora-ano-amebu-edo edi-anio-ani anikojao-orao-ane araro-amebu-iki-aŋi

Gloss: before-gerund-object-big-cause of-all-things-object evidental-past-verb-exist subject-ness-big-none

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Araro-ori-ana
Closed, preformative, prefixing, SVO

Transliteration: atato-epepu-iki-aki atikokao-otao-ate eti-atio-ati ikota-ato-apepu-eto

Transliteration: adado-ebebu-igi-agi adigogao-odao-ade edi-adio-adi igoda-ado-abebu-edo

Pronunciation: aɾaɾo-amebu-iki-aŋi anikoʎaɔ-oɹaɔ-ane edi-anio-ani ikoʎa-ano-amebu-edo

Transcription: araro-amebu-iki-aŋi anikojao-orao-ane edi-anio-ani ikora-ano-amebu-edo

Gloss: subject-ness-big-none evidental-past-verb-exist of-all-things-object before-gerund-object-big-cause

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


Oarar-ior-aan
Closed, afformative, prefixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: aotik-oat-uepap-oet iet-oiat-iat oaokikat-oaot-eat oatat-uepap-iik-iak

Transliteration 2: aodig-oad-uebab-oed ied-oiad-iad oaogigad-oaod-ead oadad-uebab-iig-iag

Pronunciation: aɔʎik-ɔan-ʊɛbam-oed ɪɛd-o.ɪan-ɪan o.aɔʎikan-o.aɔɹ-ɛan o.ɾaɾ-ʊɛbam-ɪ:k-ɪaŋ

Transcription: aorik-oan-uebam-oed ied-oian-ian oaojikad-oaor-ean oarar-uebam-iik-iaŋ

Gloss: before-gerund-object-big-cause of-all-things-object evidental-past-verb-exist subject-ness-big-none

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Oarar-ior-aan
Closed, afformative, prefixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: oatat-uepap-iik-iak oaokikat-oaot-eat iet-oiat-iat aotik-oat-uepap-oet

Transliteration 2: oadad-uebab-iig-iag oaogigad-oaod-ead ied-oiad-iad aodig-oad-uebab-oed

Pronunciation: ɔarar-ʊɛbam-ɪ:k-ɪaŋ o.aɔʎikan-o.aɔr-ɛan ɪɛd-o.ɪan-ɪan aɔrik-ɔan-ʊɛbam-oed

Transcription: oarar-uebam-iik-iaŋ oaojikan-oaor-ean ied-oiad-ian aorik-oan-uebam-oed

Gloss: subject-ness-big-none evidental-past-verb-exist of-all-things-object before-gerund-object-big-cause

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.



Back-Vowel Voicing
+ Glottal Deconsonantalization
+ Further Lenition
+ Consonantal Vowel Deletion

This refers to a change that occured in numerous dialects of various morphologies. In some dialects, consonants adjascent to back vowels (a, u, o) were voiced. In other dialects, consonants adjascent to rounded vowels (y, u, o) were voiced.

Variant Group A: Onset Voicing in Open Dialects

In open dialects, the onsets of syllables with back vowels were voiced.


ba > ma > m
pe > be > b
pi > pi > p
py > ɸy > ɸ
bu > βu > β
bo > wo > w

da > na > n
te > de > d
ti > ti > t
ty > sy > s
du > zu > z
do > ɹo > ɹ
tata > ɾaɾa > l

ga > ŋa > ŋ
ke > ge > g
ki > ki > k
ky > xy > x
gu > ɣu > ɣ
go > ʎo > ʎ

Na-ri-lo
Open, preformative, suffixing, OVS
(Elfish; Dryadic; Faerish)

Transliteration 1: do-mbu-no-kra ni-nio-di ne-rao-nkjao ŋi-ki-mbu-rro

Pronunciation: do-mbu-no-kɹa ni-ni.o-di ne-ɹa.o-nkʎa.o-ŋi-ki-mbu-lo

Transcription: do-mbu-no-kra ni-nio-di ne-rao-nkyao ngi-ki-mbu-lo

Gloss: cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Na-ri-lo
Open, preformative, suffixing, SVO
(Faerish; Dryadic; Elfish)

Transliteration 1: ŋi-ki-mbu-rro ne-rao-nkjao ni-nio-di do-mbu-no-kra

Pronunciation: ŋi-ki-mbu-lo ne-ɹa.o-nkʎa.o ni-ni.o-di do-mbu-no-kɹa

Transcription: ngi-ki-mbu-lo ne-rao-nkyao ni-nio-di do-mbu-no-kra

Gloss: nothing-big-ness-subject exist-verb-past-evidental things-object-all-of cause-big-object-gerund-before

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


An-ir-ol
Formerly-open, afformative, suffixing, OVS
(Darkelfish; Maenadic; Dark Faerish)

Transliteration 1: od-ubm-on-ark in-oin-id en-oar-oajkn iŋ-ik-ubm-orr

Pronunciation: od-ubm-on-aɹk in-o.in-id en-o.aɹ-o.aʎkn iŋ-ik-ubm-ol

Transcription: od-ubm-on-ark in-o.in-id en-oar-oaykn ing-ik-ubm-ol

Gloss: Cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


An-ir-ol
Formerly-open, afformative, suffixing, SVO
(Darkelfish; Maenadic; Dark Faerish)

Transliteration 1: iŋ-ik-ubm-orr en-oar-oajkn in-oin-id en od-ubm-on-ark

Pronunciation: iŋ-ik-ubm-ol en-o.aɹ-o.aʎkn in-o.in-id od-ubm-on-aɹk

Transcription: ing-ik-ubm-ol en-oar-oaykn in-o.in-id od-ubm-on-ark

Gloss: nothing-big-ness-subject exist-verb-past-evidental things-object-all-of cause-big-object-gerund-before

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


Lo-ri-na
Open, preformative, prefixing, OVS
(Moonelfish; Nightelfish; Oreadic; Dark Faerish)

Transliteration 1: kra-no-mbu-do di-nio-ni nkjao-rao-ne rro-mbu-ki-ŋi

Pronunciation: kɹa-no-mbu-do di-ni.o-di nkʎa.o-ɹa.o-ne lo-mbu-ki-ŋi

Transcription: kra-no-mbu-do di-nio-ni nkjao-rao-ne lo-mbu-ki-ngi

Gloss: before-gerund-object-big-cause of-all-things-object evidental-past-verb-exist subject-ness-big-none

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Lo-ri-na
Open, preformative, prefixing, SVO
(Moonelfish; Nightelfish; Dark Faerish)

Transliteration 1: rro-mbu-ki-ŋi nkjao-rao-ne di-nio-ni kra-no-mbu-do

Pronunciation: lo-mbu-ki-ŋi nkʎa.o-ɹa.o-ne di-ni.o-ni kɹa-no-mbu-do

Transcription: lo-mbu-ki-ngi nkyao-rao-ne di-nio-ni kra-no-mbu-do

Gloss: subject-ness-big-none evidental-past-verb-exist of-all-things-object before-gerund-object-big-cause

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


Ol-ir-an
Formerly-open, afformative, prefixing, OVS
(Oreadic)

Transliteration 1: ark-on-ubm-od id-oin-in oajkn-oar-en orr-ubm-ik-iŋ

Pronunciation: aɹk-on-ubm-od id-o.in-in o.aɹkn-o.aɹ-en ol-ubm-ik-iŋ

Transcription: ark-on-ubm-od id-oin-in oajkn-oar-en ol-ubm-ik-ing

Gloss: before-gerund-object-big-cause of-all-things-object evidental-past-verb-exist subject-ness-big-none

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Ol-ir-an
Formerly-open, afformative, prefixing, SVO
(Oreadic)

Transliteration 1: orr-ubm-ik-iŋ oajkn-oar-en id-oin-in ark-on-ubm-od

Pronunciation: ol-ubm-ik-iŋ o.aɹkn-o.aɹ-en id-o.in-in aɹk-on-ubm-od

Transcription: ol-ubm-ik-ing oaykn-oar-en id-oin-in ark-on-ubm-od

Gloss: subject-ness-big-none evidental-past-verb-exist of-all-things-object before-gerund-object-big-cause

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.



Variant Group B: Codal Voicing in Closed Dialects

In closed dialects, the codas of syllables with back vowels were voiced.


ab > am > m
ep > eb > b
ip > ip > p
yp > yɸ > ɸ
ub > uβ > β
ob > ow > w

ad > an > n
et > de > d
it > ti > t
yt > sy > s
ud > zu > z
od > oɹ > ɹ
atat > aɾaɾ > rr

ag > aŋ > ŋ
ek > eg > g
ik > ik > k
yk > yx > x
ug > uɣ > ɣ
og > oʎ > ʎ

Na-ri-rro
Formerly-closed, preformative, suffixing, OVS
(Wood-gnomish)

Transliteration 1: do-mbu-no-kra ni-nio-di ne-rao-nkjao ŋi-ki-mbu-rro

Pronunciation: do-mbu-no-kɹa ni-ni.o-di ne-ɹa.o-nkʎa.o-ŋi-ki-mbu-ɾɾo

Transcription: do-mbu-no-kra ni-nio-di ne-rao-nkyao ngi-ki-mbu-rro

Gloss: cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Na-ri-rro
Formerly-closed, preformative, suffixing, SVO
(Wood-gnomish)

Transliteration 1: ŋi-ki-mbu-rro ne-rao-nkjao ni-nio-di do-mbu-no-kra

Pronunciation: ŋi-ki-mbu-ɾɾo ne-ɹa.o-nkʎa.o ni-ni.o-di do-mbu-no-kɹa

Transcription: ngi-ki-mbu-rro ne-rao-nkyao ni-nio-di do-mbu-no-kra

Gloss: nothing-big-ness-subject exist-verb-past-evidental things-object-all-of cause-big-object-gerund-before

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


An-ir-orr
Closed, afformative, suffixing, OVS
(Swartelfish; Lampadic; Under-Faerish)

Transliteration 1: od-ubm-on-ark in-oin-id en-oar-oajkn iŋ-ik-ubm-orr

Pronunciation: od-ubm-on-aɹk in-o.in-id en-o.aɹ-o.aʎkn iŋ-ik-ubm-oɾɾ

Transcription: od-ubm-on-ark in-o.in-id en-oar-oaykn ing-ik-ubm-orr

Gloss: Cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


An-ir-orr
Closed, afformative, suffixing, SVO
(Swartelfish; Lampadic; Under-Faerish)

Transliteration 1: iŋ-ik-ubm-orr en-oar-oajkn in-oin-id en od-ubm-on-ark

Pronunciation: iŋ-ik-ubm-oɾɾ en-o.aɹ-o.aʎkn in-o.in-id od-ubm-on-aɹk

Transcription: ing-ik-ubm-orr en-oar-oaykn in-o.in-id od-ubm-on-ark

Gloss: nothing-big-ness-subject exist-verb-past-evidental things-object-all-of cause-big-object-gerund-before

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


Rro-ri-na
Formerly-closed, preformative, prefixing, OVS
(Oreadic)

Transliteration 1: kra-no-mbu-do di-nio-ni nkjao-rao-ne rro-mbu-ki-ŋi

Pronunciation: kɹa-no-mbu-do di-ni.o-di nkʎa.o-ɹa.o-ne ɾɾo-mbu-ki-ŋi

Transcription: kra-no-mbu-do di-nio-ni nkjao-rao-ne rro-mbu-ki-ngi

Gloss: before-gerund-object-big-cause of-all-things-object evidental-past-verb-exist subject-ness-big-none

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Rro-ri-na
Formerly-closed, preformative, prefixing, SVO
(Oreadic)

Transliteration 1: rro-mbu-ki-ŋi nkjao-rao-ne di-nio-ni kra-no-mbu-do

Pronunciation: ɾɾo-mbu-ki-ŋi nkʎa.o-ɹa.o-ne di-ni.o-ni kɹa-no-mbu-do

Transcription: rro-mbu-ki-ngi nkyao-rao-ne di-nio-ni kra-no-mbu-do

Gloss: subject-ness-big-none evidental-past-verb-exist of-all-things-object before-gerund-object-big-cause

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


Orr-ir-an
Closed, afformative, prefixing, OVS
(Hillogrish)

Transliteration 1: ark-on-ubm-od id-oin-in oajkn-oar-en orr-ubm-ik-iŋ

Pronunciation: aɹk-on-ubm-od id-o.in-in o.aɹkn-o.aɹ-en oɾɾ-ubm-ik-iŋ

Transcription: ark-on-ubm-od id-oin-in oajkn-oar-en orr-ubm-ik-ing

Gloss: before-gerund-object-big-cause of-all-things-object evidental-past-verb-exist subject-ness-big-none

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Orr-ir-an
Closed, afformative, prefixing, SVO
(Hillogrish)

Transliteration 1: orr-ubm-ik-iŋ oajkn-oar-en id-oin-in ark-on-ubm-od

Pronunciation: oɾɾ-ubm-ik-iŋ o.aɹkn-o.aɹ-en id-o.in-in aɹk-on-ubm-od

Transcription: orr-ubm-ik-ing oaykn-oar-en id-oin-in ark-on-ubm-od

Gloss: subject-ness-big-none evidental-past-verb-exist of-all-things-object before-gerund-object-big-cause

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.



Sound change 2: The Great Vowel Deletion

Sound change 2 with orthographical change 1


ba(q) or pa(q) = /ma/ > ppp = /m/
be(q) or pe(q) = /be/ > pp = /b/
bi(q) or pi(q) = /ɸi/ > qp = /ɸ/
by(q) or py(q) = /py/ > p = /p/
bu(q) or pu(q) = /βu/ > qpp = /β/
bo(q) or po(q) = /wo/ > qppp = /w/

da(q) or ta(q) = /na/ > ttt = /n/
de(q) or te(q) = /de/ > tt = /d/
di(q) or ti(q) = /si/ > qt = /s/
dy(q) or ty(q) = /ty/ > t = /t/
du(q) or tu(q) = /zu/ > qtt = /z/
do(q) or to(q) = /ro/ > qttt = /r/

dada(q) or tata(q) = /la/ > tttttt /l/
dede(q) or tete(q) = /ðe/ > ? /ð/
didi(q) or titi(q) = /ʃi/ > ? /ʃ/
dydy(q) or tyty(q) = /θy/ > ? /θ/
dudu(q) or tutu(q) = /ʒu/ > ? /ʒ/
dodo(q) or toto(q) = /rho/ > ???

ga(q) or ka(q) = /ŋa/ > kkk /ŋ/
ge(q) or ke(q) = /ge/ > kk /g/
gi(q) or ki(q) = /xi/ > qk /x/
gy(q) or ky(q) = /ky/ > k /k/
gu(q) or ku(q) = /ɣu/ > qkk /ɣ/
go(q) or ko(q) = /jo/ > qkkk /j/

New version: Ttoppppputttokqttta tttitttiotti ttteqtttaotttkqkkkao Kkkikippppputttttto. Kkkikitttopppqpppi ttttttatettttttaotttkqkkkao kkkikipppppupitttttto; pitttio kitttattttttaotttkqkkku kkkikipppppupitttttto. Qppqtttikkttti, ttteqtttiokkkue ttttttatikitttttto. Qtttoettaeqtttootttkqkkka tttittttttiottttta taokaeqtttotttkqkkkue tttittttttiotttta. Kitttikipitttotti taakaeqtttaotttkqkkkaa ttttttatikitttttto. Qtttautteqtttaotttkqkkkaa pppaeqtikitttttto. Pppaeqtikititttppppi ttteqtttiotttue tttittttttio.


Sound change 2 with orthographical change 2

Orthographical change 2 is separate and distinct from orthographical change 1. Orthrographical change 2 does not follow sequentially or build upon orthographical change 1.


ba(q) or pa(q) = /ma/ > m = /m/
be(q) or pe(q) = /be/ > ph = /b/
bi(q) or pi(q) = /ɸi/ > pp = /ɸ/
by(q) or py(q) = /py/ > p = /p/
bu(q) or pu(q) = /βu/ > phph = /β/
bo(q) or po(q) = /wo/ > mh = /w/

da(q) or ta(q) = /na/ > n = /n/
de(q) or te(q) = /de/ > th = /d/
di(q) or ti(q) = /si/ > tt = /s/
dy(q) or ty(q) = /ty/ > t = /t/
du(q) or tu(q) = /zu/ > thth = /z/
do(q) or to(q) = /ro/ > nh = /r/

dada(q) or tata(q) = /la/ > nn /l/
dede(q) or tete(q) = /ðe/ > ? /ð/
didi(q) or titi(q) = /ʃi/ > ? /ʃ/
dydy(q) or tyty(q) = /θy/ > ? /θ/
dudu(q) or tutu(q) = /ʒu/ > ? /ʒ/
dodo(q) or toto(q) = /rho/ > ???

ga(q) or ka(q) = /ŋa/ > ŋ /ŋ/
ge(q) or ke(q) = /ge/ > kh /g/
gi(q) or ki(q) = /xi/ > kk /x/
gy(q) or ky(q) = /ky/ > k /k/
gu(q) or ku(q) = /ɣu/ > khkh /ɣ/
go(q) or ko(q) = /jo/ > ŋh /j/

New version: Thomphunoknha niniothi nenhaonkŋhao Ŋikimphunno. Ŋikinommhi nnatennaonkŋhao ŋikimphupinno; pinio kinannaonkŋhu ŋikimphupinno. Phphŋhikhni, nenhioŋue nnatikinno. Nhoedaenhoonkŋha ninniontha taokaenhonkŋhue ninnionta. Kinikipinothi taakaenhaonkŋhaa nnatikinno. Nhaudenhaonkŋhaa maettikinno. Maettikitinmpi nenhionue ninnio.


Sound change 2 with orthographical change 3

Orthographical change 3 follows sequentially from and builds upon orthographical change 2.


m = /m/
ph = /b/ > b = /b/
pp = /ɸ/ > ph = /ɸ/
p = /p/
phph = /β/ > bh = /β/
mh = /w/ > mh /w/

n = /n/
th = /d/ > d = /d/
tt = /s/ > s = /s/
t = /t/
thth = /z/ > z = /z/
nh = /r/

nn /l/ > = l /l/
? /ð/ > dh = /ð/
? /ʃ/ > sh /ʃ/
? /θ/ > th = /θ/
? /ʒ/ > zh = /ʒ/
???

ŋ /ŋ/
kh = /g/ > g = /g/
kk = /x/ > kh = /x/
k = /k/
khkh = /ɣ/ > gh /ɣ/
ŋh = /j/ > lh = /j/

Newer version: Dombunoknha niniodi nenhaonklhao-Ŋikimbulo. Ŋikinommhi latelaonklhao-Ŋikimbupilo; pinio kinalaonklhu-ŋikimbupilo. Bhlhigni, nenhioŋue-latikilo. Nhoedaenhoonklhoa-nilionda taokaenhoonklhue-nilionta. Kinikipinodi taakaenhaonklhaa-latikilo. Nhaudenhaonklhaa-maesikilo. Maesikitinompi nenhionue-nilio.


Sound change 2 with orthographical change 4

Orthographical change 4 follows sequentially from and builds upon orthographical change 3.


m = /m/
b = /b/
ph = /ɸ/ > f = /ɸ/
p = /p/
bh = /β/ > v = /β/
mh /w/ > w /w/

n = /n/
d = /d/
s = /s/
t = /t/
z = /z/
nh = /r/ > r = /r/

l /l/
dh = /ð/ > ð = /ð/
sh /ʃ/ > ? = /ʃ/
> th = /θ/ > þ = /θ/
zh = /ʒ/ > ? = /ʒ/
???

ŋ /ŋ/
g = /g/
kh = /x/ > x = /x/
k = /k/
gh /ɣ/ > ? = /ɣ/
lh = /j/ > y = /j/

Newerer version: Dombunokra niniodi neraonkyao-Ŋikimbulo. Ŋikinomwi latelaonkyao-Ŋikimbupilo; pinio kinalaonkyu-ŋikimbupilo. Vyigni, nerioŋue-latikilo. Roedaeroonkyoa-nilionda taokaeroonkyue-nilionta. Kinikipinodi taakaeraonkyaa-latikilo. Rauderaonkyaa-maesikilo. Maesikitinompi nerionue-nilio.



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