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Sylvanic Languages

Copyright © 2004-2021 C.E. by Dustin Jon Scott


Introduction

The Sylvanic languages are those derived from open-syllable dialects of Proto-Palæoboreanic that underwent voicing of consonants adjascent to back-vowels (Terran languages), followed by glottal deconsonantalization (Alpine-Agrarian languages), and then further lenition (Sylvan-Agrarian languages).

While the phonaesthetic structure of the Sylvanic languages constrained their phonetic evolution, they instead evolved a great deal of variation in grammars and word boundaries.




Further Lenition: Onset Voicing in Open Dialects
+ Consonantal Vowel Deletion

ba > ma > m
pe > be > b
pi > pi > p
py > ɸy > ɸ
bu > βu > β
bo > wo > w

da > na > n
te > de > d
ti > ti > t
ty > sy > s
du > zu > z
do > ɹo > ɹ
tata > ɾaɾa > l

ga > ŋa > ŋ
ke > ge > g
ki > ki > k
ky > xy > x
gu > ɣu > ɣ
go > ʎo > ʎ




Na-ri-lo
Open, preformative, suffixing, OVS

Proto-Sylvan

Transliteration: do-mbu-no-kra ni-nio-di ne-rao-nkjao ŋi-ki-mbu-rro

Pronunciation: do-mbu-no-kɹa ni-nio-di ne-ɹao-nkʎao ŋi-ki-mbu-lo

Transcription: do-mbu-no-kra ni-nio-di ne-rao-nkyao ngi-ki-mbu-lo

Gloss: cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Ancient Sylvan appends subjects to the end of verbs in all sentences, order is [O][V][S]. In ditransitive sentences, order is [DO][IO][V][S].

Transliteration: dombuno’kra ninio’di nerao’nkjao ŋikimburro

Pronunciation: dombuno-kɹa ninio-di neɹao-nkʎao ŋikimbulo

Transcription: dombuno’kra ninio’di nerao’nkyao ngikimbulo

Gloss: cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Drayadic, the language of the Dryads (woodnymphs) appends nouns to the end of verbs in the intransitive, order [IO][V][S], but appends direct objects to the end of verbs in the transitive and ditransitive, and then appends the subject to the direct object, making the transitive order [V][O][S] and the ditransitive order [IO][V][DO][S].

Transliteration: dombunokra niniodi neraonkjao’ŋikimburro

Pronunciation: dombunokɹa niniodi neɹaonkʎao-ŋikimbulo

Transcription: dombunokra niniodi neraonkyao’ngikimbulo

Gloss: cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Alseidic, the language of Alseids (grove woodnymphs).

Transliteration: dombunokra niniodi neraonkjao’ŋikimburro

Pronunciation: dombunokɹa niniodi neɹaonkʎao-ŋikimbulo

Transcription: dombunokra niniodi neraonkyao’ngikimbulo

Gloss: cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Adryadic, the language of Adryads (forest woodnymphs).

Transliteration: dombunokra niniodi neraonkjao’ŋikimburro

Pronunciation: dombunokɹa niniodi neɹaonkʎao-ŋikimbulo

Transcription: dombunokra niniodi neraonkyao’ngikimbulo

Gloss: cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Hamadryatic, the language of Hamadryads (tree woodnymphs).

Transliteration: dombunokra niniodi neraonkjao’ŋikimburro

Pronunciation: dombunokɹa niniodi neɹaonkʎao-ŋikimbulo

Transcription: dombunokra niniodi neraonkyao’ngikimbulo

Gloss: cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Meliadic, the language of Meliads (ash tree woodnymphs).

Transliteration: dombunokra niniodi neraonkjao’ŋikimburro

Pronunciation: dombunokɹa niniodi neɹaonkʎao-ŋikimbulo

Transcription: dombunokra niniodi neraonkyao’ngikimbulo

Gloss: cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Aegeirine, the language of Aegeiri (poplar woodnymphs).

Transliteration: dombunokra niniodi neraonkjao’ŋikimburro

Pronunciation: dombunokɹa niniodi neɹaonkʎao-ŋikimbulo

Transcription: dombunokra niniodi neraonkyao’ngikimbulo

Gloss: cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Ampeline, the language of Ampeli (vine woodnymphs).

Transliteration: dombunokra niniodi neraonkjao’ŋikimburro

Pronunciation: dombunokɹa niniodi neɹaonkʎao-ŋikimbulo

Transcription: dombunokra niniodi neraonkyao’ngikimbulo

Gloss: cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Balanine, the language of Balana (acorn/oak woodnymphs).

Transliteration: dombunokra niniodi neraonkjao’ŋikimburro

Pronunciation: dombunokɹa niniodi neɹaonkʎao-ŋikimbulo

Transcription: dombunokra niniodi neraonkyao’ngikimbulo

Gloss: cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Caryaic, the language of Caryae (nut-tree woodnymphs).

Transliteration: dombunokra niniodi neraonkjao’ŋikimburro

Pronunciation: dombunokɹa niniodi neɹaonkʎao-ŋikimbulo

Transcription: dombunokra niniodi neraonkyao’ngikimbulo

Gloss: cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Craneine, the language of Cranea (cornel-tree woodnymphs).

Transliteration: dombunokra niniodi neraonkjao’ŋikimburro

Pronunciation: dombunokɹa niniodi neɹaonkʎao-ŋikimbulo

Transcription: dombunokra niniodi neraonkyao’ngikimbulo

Gloss: cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Oreine, the language of Orea (ash-tree woodnymphs).

Transliteration: dombunokra niniodi neraonkjao’ŋikimburro

Pronunciation: dombunokɹa niniodi neɹaonkʎao-ŋikimbulo

Transcription: dombunokra niniodi neraonkyao’ngikimbulo

Gloss: cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Pteleine, the language of Pteleae (elm woodnymphs).

Transliteration: dombunokra niniodi neraonkjao’ŋikimburro

Pronunciation: dombunokɹa niniodi neɹaonkʎao-ŋikimbulo

Transcription: dombunokra niniodi neraonkyao’ngikimbulo

Gloss: cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Sukene, the language of Sukea (fig-tree woodnymphs).

Transliteration: dombunokra niniodi neraonkjao’ŋikimburro

Pronunciation: dombunokɹa niniodi neɹaonkʎao-ŋikimbulo

Transcription: dombunokra niniodi neraonkyao’ngikimbulo

Gloss: cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Meliadic, the language of Meliades (fruit-tree woodnymphs).

Transliteration: dombunokra niniodi neraonkjao’ŋikimburro

Pronunciation: dombunokɹa niniodi neɹaonkʎao-ŋikimbulo

Transcription: dombunokra niniodi neraonkyao’ngikimbulo

Gloss: cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Ancient Faerish appends nouns to the end of verbs in the intransitive, order [IO][V][S], but appends direct objects to the end of verbs in the transitive and ditransitive, in which case transitive order is [S][V][O] and ditransitive order is [S][IO][V][DO].

Transliteration: dombunokra niniodi neraonkjao’ŋikimburro

Pronunciation: dombunokɹa niniodi neɹaonkʎao-ŋikimbulo

Transcription: dombunokra niniodi neraonkyao’ngikimbulo

Gloss: cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.




Na-ri-lo
Open, preformative, suffixing, SVO
Proto-Elfish (Aldeflish, Lightelfish)

Proto-Elfish had [S][V][O] word order.

Transliteration: ŋi-ki-mbu-rro ne-rao-nkjao ni-nio-di do-mbu-no-kra

Pronunciation: ŋi-ki-mbu-lo ne-ɹao-nkʎao ni-nio-di do-mbu-no-kɹa

Transcription: ngi-ki-mbu-lo ne-rao-nkyao ni-nio-di do-mbu-no-kra

Gloss: nothing-big-ness-subject exist-verb-past-evidental things-object-all-of cause-big-object-gerund-before

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


Aldelfish (Old Elfish) had [S][V][O] word order.

Transliteration: ŋikimburro neraonkjao niniodi dombunokra

Pronunciation: ŋikimbulo neɹaonkʎao niniodi dombunokɹa

Transcription: ngikimbulo neraonkyao niniodi dombunokra

Gloss: nothing-big-ness-subject exist-verb-past-evidental things-object-all-of cause-big-object-gerund-before

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


Unnamed dialect had [S][V][O] word order.

Adpositional case markings take the form of prefixes; probably due to influence from Moonelfish and/or Nightelfish.

Transliteration: ŋikimburro neraonkjao di’ninio kra’dombuno

Pronunciation: ŋikimbulo neɹaonkʎao di-ninio kɹa-dombuno

Transcription: ngikimbulo neraonkyao di’ninio kra’dombuno

Gloss: nothing-big-ness-subject exist-verb-past-evidental of-things-object-all before-cause-big-object-gerund

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


Old Sylphish began with OVS word order, but, perhaps influenced SVO languages such as Aldelfish and Old Faerish, began placing topical nouns at the beginning of sentences while appending the appropriate pronouns to the verbs, having the order [T][V][S] or [T][IO][V][S] in intransitive sentences, with [S] being a pronoun referring to [T]. Functionally, this made the language [S][V] or [S][IO][V] in the intransitive.

Transliteration: ŋikimbujo dombuno’kra ninio’di nerao’nkjao’nirro

Pronunciation: ŋikimbuʎo dombuno-kɹa ninio-di neɹao-nkʎao-nilo

Transcription: ngikimbuyo dombuno’kra ninio’di nerao’nkyao’nilo

Gloss: nothing-big-ness-topic cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


Classical Sylvan, a descendant of Old Sylphish influenced by Unnamed dialect and Old Faerish.

Transliteration: ŋikimbjo nkjao’nerao’nilo di’ninio kra’dombuno

Pronunciation: ŋikimbuʎo kɹa-dombuno di-ninio neɹaonkʎao-nilo

Transcription: ngikimbuyo nkyao’nerao’nilo di’ninio kra’dombuno

Gloss: nothing-big-ness-topic cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


Middle Sylphish.

Transliteration: ŋikimburro nkjao’neraon di’ninio kra’dombuno

Pronunciation: ŋikimbulo kɹa-dombuno di-ninio nkʎao-neɹaon

Transcription: ngikimbulo nkyao’neraon di’ninio kra’dombuno

Gloss: nothing-big-ness-topic cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


Old Faerish began with OVS word order, but, perhaps influenced by a SVO language such as Aldelfish, began placing topical nouns at the beginning of sentences while appending the appropriate pronouns to the verbs, having the order [T][V][S] or [T][IO][V][S] in intransitive sentences, with [S] being a pronoun referring to [T]. Functionally, this made the language [S][V] or [S][IO][V] in the intransitive. In the transitive, the sentence would begin with a topical noun [T], followed by a nominative noun [S], followed by the verb [V], to which the objective pronoun [DO] would be appended referring to the topic [T], for a [T][S][V][O] word order that was functionally [O][S][V].

Transliteration: ŋikimbujo dombunokra niniodi neraonkjao’nirro

Pronunciation: ŋikimbuʎo dombunokɹa niniodi neɹaonkʎao-nilo

Transcription: ngikimbuyo dombunokra niniodi neraonkyao’nilo

Gloss: nothing-big-ness-topic cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.




An-ir-ol
Formerly-open, afformative, suffixing, OVS

Proto-Maenadic

Transliteration 1: od-ubm-on-ark in-oin-id en-oar-oajkn iŋ-ik-ubm-orr

Pronunciation: od-ubm-on-aɹk in-o.in-id en-o.aɹ-o.aʎkn iŋ-ik-ubm-ol

Transcription: od-ubm-on-ark in-o.in-id en-oar-oaykn ing-ik-ubm-ol

Gloss: Cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Maenadic

Transliteration 1: odumbonakr inoinid enoaroankj’iŋikumborr

Pronunciation: od-umb-on-akṛ in-o.in-id en-o.aɹ-o.ankʎiŋ-ik-umb-ol

Transcription: odumbonakr inoinid enoaroanky’ingikumbol

Gloss: Cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.




An-ir-ol
Formerly-open, afformative, suffixing, SVO
Proto-Darkelfish

Proto-Darkelfish

Transliteration 1: iŋ-ik-ubm-orr en-oar-oajkn in-oin-id en-od-ubm-on-ark

Pronunciation: iŋ-ik-ubm-ol en-o.aɹ-o.aʎkn in-o.in-id od-ubm-on-ark

Transcription: ing-ik-ubm-ol en-oar-oaykn in-oin-id od-ubm-on-ark

Gloss: nothing-big-ness-subject exist-verb-past-evidental things-object-all-of cause-big-object-gerund-before

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


Old Darkelfish

Transliteration 1: iŋikumborr enoaroankj inoinid enodumbonakr

Pronunciation: iŋikumbol eno.aɹo.ankʎ ino.inid odumbonakṛ

Transcription: ingikumbol enoaroaykn inoinid odumbonakr

Gloss: nothing-big-ness-subject exist-verb-past-evidental things-object-all-of cause-big-object-gerund-before

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.




Lo-ri-na
Open, preformative, prefixing, OVS

Proto-Nightelfish

Transliteration 1: kra-no-mbu-do di-nio-ni nkjao-rao-ne rro-mbu-ki-ŋi

Pronunciation: kɹa-no-mbu-do di-ni.o-di nkʎa.o-ɹa.o-ne lo-mbu-ki-ŋi

Transcription: kra-no-mbu-do di-nio-ni nkjao-rao-ne lo-mbu-ki-ngi

Gloss: before-gerund-object-big-cause of-all-things-object evidental-past-verb-exist subject-ness-big-none

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.




Lo-ri-na
Open, preformative, prefixing, SVO

Proto-Moonelfish

Transliteration 1: rro-mbu-ki-ŋi nkjao-rao-ne di-nio-ni kra-no-mbu-do

Pronunciation: lo-mbu-ki-ŋi nkʎa.o-ɹa.o-ne di-ni.o-ni kɹa-no-mbu-do

Transcription: lo-mbu-ki-ngi nkyao-rao-ne di-nio-ni kra-no-mbu-do

Gloss: subject-ness-big-none evidental-past-verb-exist of-all-things-object before-gerund-object-big-cause

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.




Ol-ir-an
Formerly-open, afformative, prefixing, OVS

Proto-Swartelfish

Transliteration 1: ark-on-ubm-od id-oin-in oajkn-oar-en orr-ubm-ik-iŋ

Pronunciation: aɹk-on-ubm-od id-o.in-in o.aɹkn-o.aɹ-en ol-ubm-ik-iŋ

Transcription: ark-on-ubm-od id-oin-in oajkn-oar-en ol-ubm-ik-ing

Gloss: before-gerund-object-big-cause of-all-things-object evidental-past-verb-exist subject-ness-big-none

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.




Ol-ir-an
Formerly-open, afformative, prefixing, SVO

Proto-Oreadic

Transliteration 1: orr-ubm-ik-iŋ oajkn-oar-en id-oin-in ark-on-ubm-od

Pronunciation: ol-ubm-ik-iŋ o.aɹkn-o.aɹ-en id-o.in-in aɹk-on-ubm-od

Transcription: ol-ubm-ik-ing oaykn-oar-en id-oin-in ark-on-ubm-od

Gloss: subject-ness-big-none evidental-past-verb-exist of-all-things-object before-gerund-object-big-cause

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.




Sound change 2: The Great Vowel Deletion

Sound change 2 with orthographical change 1


ba(q) or pa(q) = /ma/ > ppp = /m/
be(q) or pe(q) = /be/ > pp = /b/
bi(q) or pi(q) = /ɸi/ > qp = /ɸ/
by(q) or py(q) = /py/ > p = /p/
bu(q) or pu(q) = /βu/ > qpp = /β/
bo(q) or po(q) = /wo/ > qppp = /w/

da(q) or ta(q) = /na/ > ttt = /n/
de(q) or te(q) = /de/ > tt = /d/
di(q) or ti(q) = /si/ > qt = /s/
dy(q) or ty(q) = /ty/ > t = /t/
du(q) or tu(q) = /zu/ > qtt = /z/
do(q) or to(q) = /ro/ > qttt = /r/

dada(q) or tata(q) = /la/ > tttttt /l/
dede(q) or tete(q) = /ðe/ > ? /ð/
didi(q) or titi(q) = /ʃi/ > ? /ʃ/
dydy(q) or tyty(q) = /θy/ > ? /θ/
dudu(q) or tutu(q) = /ʒu/ > ? /ʒ/
dodo(q) or toto(q) = /rho/ > ???

ga(q) or ka(q) = /ŋa/ > kkk /ŋ/
ge(q) or ke(q) = /ge/ > kk /g/
gi(q) or ki(q) = /xi/ > qk /x/
gy(q) or ky(q) = /ky/ > k /k/
gu(q) or ku(q) = /ɣu/ > qkk /ɣ/
go(q) or ko(q) = /jo/ > qkkk /j/

New version: Ttoppppputttokqttta tttitttiotti ttteqtttaotttkqkkkao Kkkikippppputttttto. Kkkikitttopppqpppi ttttttatettttttaotttkqkkkao kkkikipppppupitttttto; pitttio kitttattttttaotttkqkkku kkkikipppppupitttttto. Qppqtttikkttti, ttteqtttiokkkue ttttttatikitttttto. Qtttoettaeqtttootttkqkkka tttittttttiottttta taokaeqtttotttkqkkkue tttittttttiotttta. Kitttikipitttotti taakaeqtttaotttkqkkkaa ttttttatikitttttto. Qtttautteqtttaotttkqkkkaa pppaeqtikitttttto. Pppaeqtikititttppppi ttteqtttiotttue tttittttttio.


Sound change 2 with orthographical change 2

Orthographical change 2 is separate and distinct from orthographical change 1. Orthrographical change 2 does not follow sequentially or build upon orthographical change 1.


ba(q) or pa(q) = /ma/ > m = /m/
be(q) or pe(q) = /be/ > ph = /b/
bi(q) or pi(q) = /ɸi/ > pp = /ɸ/
by(q) or py(q) = /py/ > p = /p/
bu(q) or pu(q) = /βu/ > phph = /β/
bo(q) or po(q) = /wo/ > mh = /w/

da(q) or ta(q) = /na/ > n = /n/
de(q) or te(q) = /de/ > th = /d/
di(q) or ti(q) = /si/ > tt = /s/
dy(q) or ty(q) = /ty/ > t = /t/
du(q) or tu(q) = /zu/ > thth = /z/
do(q) or to(q) = /ro/ > nh = /r/

dada(q) or tata(q) = /la/ > nn /l/
dede(q) or tete(q) = /ðe/ > ? /ð/
didi(q) or titi(q) = /ʃi/ > ? /ʃ/
dydy(q) or tyty(q) = /θy/ > ? /θ/
dudu(q) or tutu(q) = /ʒu/ > ? /ʒ/
dodo(q) or toto(q) = /rho/ > ???

ga(q) or ka(q) = /ŋa/ > ŋ /ŋ/
ge(q) or ke(q) = /ge/ > kh /g/
gi(q) or ki(q) = /xi/ > kk /x/
gy(q) or ky(q) = /ky/ > k /k/
gu(q) or ku(q) = /ɣu/ > khkh /ɣ/
go(q) or ko(q) = /jo/ > ŋh /j/

New version: Thomphunoknha niniothi nenhaonkŋhao Ŋikimphunno. Ŋikinommhi nnatennaonkŋhao ŋikimphupinno; pinio kinannaonkŋhu ŋikimphupinno. Phphŋhikhni, nenhioŋue nnatikinno. Nhoedaenhoonkŋha ninniontha taokaenhonkŋhue ninnionta. Kinikipinothi taakaenhaonkŋhaa nnatikinno. Nhaudenhaonkŋhaa maettikinno. Maettikitinmpi nenhionue ninnio.


Sound change 2 with orthographical change 3

Orthographical change 3 follows sequentially from and builds upon orthographical change 2.


m = /m/
ph = /b/ > b = /b/
pp = /ɸ/ > ph = /ɸ/
p = /p/
phph = /β/ > bh = /β/
mh = /w/ > mh /w/

n = /n/
th = /d/ > d = /d/
tt = /s/ > s = /s/
t = /t/
thth = /z/ > z = /z/
nh = /r/

nn /l/ > = l /l/
? /ð/ > dh = /ð/
? /ʃ/ > sh /ʃ/
? /θ/ > th = /θ/
? /ʒ/ > zh = /ʒ/
???

ŋ /ŋ/
kh = /g/ > g = /g/
kk = /x/ > kh = /x/
k = /k/
khkh = /ɣ/ > gh /ɣ/
ŋh = /j/ > lh = /j/

Newer version: Dombunoknha niniodi nenhaonklhao-Ŋikimbulo. Ŋikinommhi latelaonklhao-Ŋikimbupilo; pinio kinalaonklhu-ŋikimbupilo. Bhlhigni, nenhioŋue-latikilo. Nhoedaenhoonklhoa-nilionda taokaenhoonklhue-nilionta. Kinikipinodi taakaenhaonklhaa-latikilo. Nhaudenhaonklhaa-maesikilo. Maesikitinompi nenhionue-nilio.


Sound change 2 with orthographical change 4

Orthographical change 4 follows sequentially from and builds upon orthographical change 3.


m = /m/
b = /b/
ph = /ɸ/ > f = /ɸ/
p = /p/
bh = /β/ > v = /β/
mh /w/ > w /w/

n = /n/
d = /d/
s = /s/
t = /t/
z = /z/
nh = /r/ > r = /r/

l /l/
dh = /ð/ > ð = /ð/
sh /ʃ/ > ? = /ʃ/
> th = /θ/ > þ = /θ/
zh = /ʒ/ > ? = /ʒ/
???

ŋ /ŋ/
g = /g/
kh = /x/ > x = /x/
k = /k/
gh /ɣ/ > ? = /ɣ/
lh = /j/ > y = /j/

Newerer version: Dombunokra niniodi neraonkyao-Ŋikimbulo. Ŋikinomwi latelaonkyao-Ŋikimbupilo; pinio kinalaonkyu-ŋikimbupilo. Vyigni, nerioŋue-latikilo. Roedaeroonkyoa-nilionda taokaeroonkyue-nilionta. Kinikipinodi taakaeraonkyaa-latikilo. Rauderaonkyaa-maesikilo. Maesikitinompi nerionue-nilio.



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