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Terran Languages

Copyright © 2004-2021 C.E. by D. Jon Scott

Main branching patterns

Terran branch
+Back-Vowel Voicing
Alpine-Agrarian subbranch
+Glottal Deconsonantalization
Alpine-Nomadic subbranch
(Closed syllables)
+Further Lenition
Alpine subbranch
+Consonantal Vowel Deletion
Nomadic subbranch
+Synalœpha
Sylvan-Agrarian subbranch
(Open syllables)
+Further Lenition
Sylvan subbranch
+Consonantal Vowel Deletion
Agrarian subbranch
+Synalœpha
Chthonic subbranch
(Closed syllables)
+Glottal Assimilation
Colline subbranch
+Further Lenition
+Consonantal Vowel Deletion
Infernal subbranch
+Further Lenition



Morphological Overview

Open syllables Preformative morphemes Suffixing lexemes
OPS
OPP
OPH
OAS
OAP
OAH
OHS
OHP
OHH
OPS
OPP
OPH
CPS
CPP
CPH
HPS
HPP
HPH
OPS
OAS
OHS
CPS
CAS
CHS
HPS
HAS
HHS
Closed syllables Afformative morphemes Prefixing lexemes
CPS
CPP
CPH
CAS
CAP
CAH
CHS
CHP
CHH
OAS
OAP
OAH
CAS
CAP
CAH
HAS
HAP
HAH
OPP
OAP
OHP
CPP
CAP
CHP
HPP
HAP
HHP
Hybrid syllables Hybrid morphemes Hybrid affixation
CPS
HPP
HPH
HAS
HAP
HAH
HHS
HHP
HHH
OHS
OHP
OHH
CHS
CHP
CHH
HHS
HHP
HHH
OPH
OAH
OHH
CPH
CAH
CHH
HPH
HAH
HHH

Dialectical Overview

Open morphologies Preformative morphologies Suffixing morphologies Object-Verb-Subject morphologies
OPS-OVS
OPS-SVO
OPS-HYB
OPP-OVS
OPP-SVO
OPP-HYB
OPH-OVS
OPH-SVO
OPH-HYB
OAS-OVS
OAS-SVO
OAS-HYB
OAP-OVS
OAP-SVO
OAP-HYB
OAH-OVS
OAH-SVO
OAH-HYB
OHS-OVS
OHS-SVO
OHS-HYB
OHP-OVS
OHP-SVO
OHP-HYB
OHH-OVS
OHH-SVO
OHH-HYB
OPS-OVS
OPS-SVO
OPS-HYB
OPP-OVS
OPP-SVO
OPP-HYB
OPH-OVS
OPH-SVO
OPH-HYB
CPS-OVS
CPS-SVO
CPS-HYB
CPP-OVS
CPP-SVO
CPP-HYB
CPH-OVS
CPH-SVO
CPH-HYB
HPS-OVS
HPS-SVO
HPS-HYB
HPP-OVS
HPP-SVO
HPP-HYB
HPH-OVS
HPH-SVO
HPH-HYB
OPS-OVS
OPS-SVO
OPS-HYB
OAS-OVS
OAS-SVO
OAS-HYB
OHS-OVS
OHS-SVO
OHS-HYB
CPS-OVS
CPS-SVO
CPS-HYB
CAS-OVS
CAS-SVO
CAS-HYB
CHS-OVS
CHS-SVO
CHS-HYB
HPS-OVS
HPS-SVO
HPS-HYB
HAS-OVS
HAS-SVO
HAS-HYB
HHS-OVS
HHS-SVO
HHS-HYB
OPS-OVS
OPP-OVS
OPH-OVS
OAS-OVS
OAP-OVS
OAH-OVS
OHS-OVS
OHP-OVS
OHH-OVS
CPS-OVS
CPP-OVS
CPH-OVS
CAS-OVS
CAP-OVS
CAH-OVS
CHS-OVS
CHP-OVS
CHH-OVS
HPS-OVS
HPP-OVS
HPH-OVS
HAS-OVS
HAP-OVS
HAH-OVS
HHS-OVS
HHP-OVS
HHH-OVS
Closed morphologies Afformative morphologies Prefixing morphologies Subject-Verb-Object morphologies
CPS-OVS
CPS-SVO
CPS-HYB
CPP-OVS
CPP-SVO
CPP-HYB
CPH-OVS
CPH-SVO
CPH-HYB
CAS-OVS
CAS-SVO
CAS-HYB
CAP-OVS
CAP-SVO
CAP-HYB
CAH-OVS
CAH-SVO
CAH-HYB
CHS-OVS
CHS-SVO
CHS-HYB
CHP-OVS
CHP-SVO
CHP-HYB
CHH-OVS
CHH-SVO
CHH-HYB
OAS-OVS
OAS-SVO
OAS-HYB
OAP-OVS
OAP-SVO
OAP-HYB
OAH-OVS
OAH-SVO
OAH-HYB
CAS-OVS
CAS-SVO
CAS-HYB
CAP-OVS
CAP-SVO
CAP-HYB
CAH-OVS
CAH-SVO
CAH-HYB
HAS-OVS
HAS-SVO
HAS-HYB
HAP-OVS
HAP-SVO
HAP-HYB
HAH-OVS
HAH-SVO
HAH-HYB
OPP-OVS
OPP-SVO
OPP-HYB
OAP-OVS
OAP-SVO
OAP-HYB
OHP-OVS
OHP-SVO
OHP-HYB
CPP-OVS
CPP-SVO
CPP-HYB
CAP-OVS
CAP-SVO
CAP-HYB
CHP-OVS
CHP-SVO
CHP-HYB
HPP-OVS
HPP-SVO
HPP-HYB
HAP-OVS
HAP-SVO
HAP-HYB
HHP-OVS
HHP-SVO
HHP-HYB
OPS-SVO
OPP-SVO
OPH-SVO
OAS-SVO
OAP-SVO
OAH-SVO
OHS-SVO
OHP-SVO
OHH-SVO
CPS-SVO
CPP-SVO
CPH-SVO
CAS-SVO
CAP-SVO
CAH-SVO
CHS-SVO
CHP-SVO
CHH-SVO
HPS-SVO
HPP-SVO
HPH-SVO
HAS-SVO
HAP-SVO
HAH-SVO
HHS-SVO
HHP-SVO
HHH-SVO
O/C hybrid morphologies P/A hybrid morphologies S/P hybrid morphologies OVS/SVO hybrid morphologies
HPS-OVS
HPS-SVO
HPS-HYB
HPP-OVS
HPP-SVO
HPP-HYB
HPH-OVS
HPH-SVO
HPH-HYB
HAS-OVS
HAS-SVO
HAS-HYB
HAP-OVS
HAP-SVO
HAP-HYB
HAH-OVS
HAH-SVO
HAH-HYB
HHS-OVS
HHS-SVO
HHS-HYB
HHP-OVS
HHP-SVO
HHP-HYB
HHH-OVS
HHH-SVO
HHH-HYB
OHS-OVS
OHS-SVO
OHS-HYB
OHP-OVS
OHP-SVO
OHP-HYB
OHH-OVS
OHH-SVO
OHH-HYB
CHS-OVS
CHS-SVO
CHS-HYB
CHP-OVS
CHP-SVO
CHP-HYB
CHH-OVS
CHH-SVO
CHH-HYB
HHS-OVS
HHS-SVO
HHS-HYB
HHP-OVS
HHP-SVO
HHP-HYB
HHH-OVS
HHH-SVO
HHH-HYB
OPH-OVS
OPH-SVO
OPH-HYB
OAH-OVS
OAH-SVO
OAH-HYB
OHH-OVS
OHH-SVO
OHH-HYB
CPH-OVS
CPH-SVO
CPH-HYB
CAH-OVS
CAH-SVO
CAH-HYB
CHH-OVS
CHH-SVO
CHH-HYB
HPH-OVS
HPH-SVO
HPH-HYB
HAH-OVS
HAH-SVO
HAH-HYB
HHH-OVS
HHH-SVO
HHH-HYB
OPS-HYB
OPP-HYB
OPH-HYB
OAS-HYB
OAP-HYB
OAH-HYB
OHS-HYB
OHP-HYB
OHH-HYB
CPS-HYB
CPP-HYB
CPH-HYB
CAS-HYB
CAP-HYB
CAH-HYB
CHS-HYB
CHP-HYB
CHH-HYB
HPS-HYB
HPP-HYB
HPH-HYB
HAS-HYB
HAP-HYB
HAH-HYB
HHS-HYB
HHP-HYB
HHH-HYB



Back-Vowel Voicing

This refers to a change that occured in numerous dialects of various morphologies. In some dialects, consonants adjascent to back vowels (a, u, o) were voiced. In other dialects, consonants adjascent to rounded vowels (y, u, o) were voiced.

Variant Group A: Onset Voicing in Open Dialects

In open dialects, the onsets of syllables with back vowels were voiced.


p > b /_[a]
p > b /_[u]
p > b /_[o]

t > d /_[a]
t > d /_[u]
t > d /_[o]
t > ɾ /_[vowel]_[same vowel]

k > g /_[a]
k > g /_[u]
k > g /_[o]

q > ɦ /_[a]
q > ɦ /_[u]
q > ɦ /_[o]


Da’a-do’i-rara’o
Open, preformative, suffixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: teqo-papequ-taqo-kitoqa taqi-taqiqo-teqi taqe-toqaqo-takikoqaqo kaqi-kiqi-papequ-tataqo

Transliteration 2: deqo-babequ-daqo-gidoqa daqi-daqiqo-deqi daqe-doqaqo-dagigoqaqo gaqi-giqi-babequ-dadaqo

Pronunciation: teɦo-bapeɦu-daɦo-kidoɦa daʔi-daʔiɦo-deʔi daʔe-doɦaɦo-dakigoɦaɦo-gaʔi-kiʔi-bapeɦu-ɾaɾaɦo

Transcription: te’o-bape’u-da’o-kido’a da’i-da’i’o-de’i da’e-do’a’o-dakigo’a’o-ga’i-ki’i-bape’u-rara’o

Gloss: cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Da’a-do’i-rara’o
Open, preformative, suffixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: kaqi-kiqi-papequ-tataqo taqe-toqaqo-takikoqaqo taqi-taqiqo-teqi teqo-papequ-taqo-kitoqa

Transliteration 2: gaqi-giqi-babequ-dadaqo daqe-doqaqo-dagigoqaqo daqi-daqiqo-deqi deqo-babequ-daqo-gidoqa

Pronunciation: gaʔi-kiʔi-bapeɦu-ɾaɾaɦo daʔe-doɦaɦo-dakigoɦaɦo daʔi-daʔiɦo-deʔi teɦo-bapeɦu-daɦo-kidoɦa

Transcription: ga’i-ki’i-bape’u-rara’o da’e-do’a’o-dakigo’a’o da’i-da’i’o-de’i te’o-bape’u-da’o-kido’a

Gloss: nothing-big-ness-subject exist-verb-past-evidental things-object-all-of cause-big-object-gerund-before

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


’Ada-’ido-’orara
Open, afformative, suffixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: qote-qupepa-qota-qatoki qita-qoqita-qite qeta-qoqato-qoqakokita qika-qiki-qupepa-qotata

Transliteration 2: qode-qubeba-qoda-qadogi qida-qoqida-qide qeda-qoqado-qoqagogida qiga-qigi-qubeba-qodada

Pronunciation: ɦote-ɦupeba-ɦoda-ɦadoki ʔida-ɦoʔida-ʔite ʔeda-ɦoɦado-ɦoɦagokida ʔiga-ʔiki-ɦupeba-ɦoɾaɾa

Transcription: ’ote-’upeba-’oda-’adoki ’ida-’o’ida-’ide ’eda-’o’ado-’o’agokida ’iga-’iki-’upeba-’orara

Gloss: Cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


’Ada-’ido-’orara
Open, afformative, suffixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: qika-qiki-qupepa-qotata qeta-qoqato-qoqakokita qita-qoqita-qite qote-qupepa-qota-qatoki

Transliteration 2: qiga-qigi-qubeba-qodada qeda-qoqado-qoqagogida qida-qoqida-qide qode-qubeba-qoda-qadogi

Pronunciation: ʔiga-ʔiki-ɦupeba-ɦoɾaɾa ʔeda-ɦoɦado-ɦoɦagokida ʔida-ɦoʔida-ʔite ɦote-ɦupeba-ɦoda-ɦadoki

Transcription: ’iga-’iki-’upeba-’orara ’eda-’o’ado-’o’agokida ’ida-’o’ida-’ide ’ote-’upeba-’oda-’adoki

Gloss: nothing-big-ness-subject exist-verb-past-evidental things-object-all-of cause-big-object-gerund-before

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


Rara’o-do’i-da’a
Open, preformative, prefixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: kitoqa-taqo-papequ-teqo teqi-taqiqo-taqi takikoqaqo-toqaqo-taqe tataqo-pepequ-kiqi-kaqi

Transliteration 2: gidoqa-daqo-babequ-deqo deqi-daqiqo-daqi dagigoqaqo-doqaqo-daqe dadaqo-bebequ-giqi-gaqi

Pronunciation: kidoɦa-daɦo-bapeɦu-teɦo deʔi-daʔiqo-daʔi dakigoɦaɦo-doɦaɦo-daʔe ɾaɾaɦo-pepeɦu-kiʔi-gaʔi

Transcription: kido’a-da’o-bape’u-te’o de’i-da’i’o-da’i dakigo’a’o-do’a’o-da’e rara’o-bepe’u-ki’i-ga’i

Gloss: before-gerund-object-big-cause of-all-things-object evidental-past-verb-exist subject-ness-big-none

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Rara’o-do’i-da’a
Open, preformative, prefixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: tataqo-pepequ-kiqi-kaqi takikoqaqo-toqaqo-taqe teqi-taqiqo-taqi kitoqa-taqo-papequ-teqo

Transliteration 2: dadaqo-bebequ-giqi-gaqi dagigoqaqo-doqaqo-daqe deqi-daqiqo-daqi gidoqa-daqo-babequ-deqo

Pronunciation: ɾaɾaɦo-bepeɦu-kiʔi-gaʔi dakigoɦaɦo-doɦaɦo-daʔe teʔi-daʔiɦo-daʔi kidoɦa-daɦo-bapeɦu-teɦo

Transcription: rara’o-bepe’u-ki’i-ga’i dakigo’a’o-do’a’o-da’e de’i-da’i’o-da’i kido’a-da’o-bape’u-te’o

Gloss: subject-ness-big-none evidental-past-verb-exist of-all-things-object before-gerund-object-big-cause

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


’Orara-’ido-’ada
Open, afformative, prefixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: qatoki-qota-qupepa-qote qite-qoqita-qita qoqakokita-qoqato-qeta qotata-qupepa-qiki-qika

Transliteration 2: qadogi-qoda-qubeba-qode qide-qoqida-qida qoqagogida-qoqado-qeda qodada-qubeba-qigi-qiga

Pronunciation: ɦadoki-ɦoda-ɦupeba-ɦote ʔite-ɦoʔida-ʔida ɦoɦagokida-ɦoɦado-ʔeda ɦoɾaɾa-ɦupeba-ʔiki-ʔiga

Transcription: ’adoki-’oda-’upeba-’ote ’ite-’oʔida-’ida ’o’agokida-’o’ado-’eda ’orara-’upeba-’iki-’iga

Gloss: before-gerund-object-big-cause of-all-things-object evidental-past-verb-exist subject-ness-big-none

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


’Orara-’ido-’ada

Open, afformative, prefixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: qotata-qupepa-qiki-qika qoqakokita-qoqato-qeta qite-qoqita-qita qatoki-qota-qupepa-qote

Transliteration 2: qodada-qubeba-qigi-qiga qoqagogida-qoqado-qeda qide-qoqida-qida qadogi-qoda-qubeba-qode

Pronunciation: ɦoɾaɾa-ɦupeba-ʔiki-ʔiga ɦoɦagokida-ɦoɦado-ʔeda ʔite-ɦoʔida-ʔida ɦadoki-ɦoda-ɦupeba-ɦote

Pronunciation: ’oɾaɾa-’upeba-’iki-’iga ’o’agokida-’o’ado-’eda ’ite-’o’ida-’ida ’adoki-’oda-’upeba-’ote

Gloss: subject-ness-big-none evidental-past-verb-exist of-all-things-object before-gerund-object-big-cause

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.



Variant Group B: Codal Voicing in Closed Dialects

In closed dialects, the codas of syllables with back vowels were voiced.


p > b /[a]_
p > b /[u]_
p > b /[o]_

t > d /[a]_
t > d /[u]_
t > d /[o]_
t > ɾ /[vowel]_[same vowel]_

k > g /[a]_
k > g /[u]_
k > g /[o]_

q > ɦ /[a]_
q > ɦ /[u]_
q > ɦ /[o]_

Ada’-odi’-araro’
Closed, preformative, suffixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: etoq-apepuq-atoq-ikotaq atiq-atiqoq-etiq ateq-otaqoq-atikokaqoq atiq-ikiq-apepuq-atatoq

Transliteration 2: edoq-abebuq-adoq-igodaq adiq-adiqoq-ediq adeq-odaqoq-adigogaqoq agiq-igiq-abebuq-adadoq

Pronunciation: etoɦ-abepuɦ-adoɦ-ikodaɦ adiʔ-adiʔoɦ-etiʔ adeʔ-odaɦoɦ-adikogaɦoɦ agiʔ-ikiʔ-abepuɦ-aɾaɾoɦ

Transcription: eto’-abepu’-ado’-ikoda’ adi’-adi’o’-eti’ ade’-oda’o’-adikoga’o’ agi’-iki’-abepu’-araro’

Gloss: cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Ada’-odi’-araro’
Closed, preformative, suffixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: atiq-ikiq-apepuq-atatoq ateq-otaqoq-atikokaqoq atiq-atiqoq-etiq etoq-apepuq-atoq-ikotaq

Transliteration 2: agiq-igiq-abebuq-adadoq adeq-odaqoq-adigogaqoq adiq-adiqoq-ediq edoq-abebuq-adoq-igodaq

Pronunciation: agiʔ-ikiʔ-abepuɦ-aɾaɾoɦ adeʔ-odaɦoɦ-adikogaɦoɦ adiʔ-adiqoɦ-etiʔ etoɦ-abepuɦ-adoɦ-ikodaɦ

Gloss: nothing-big-ness-subject exist-verb-past-evidental things-object-all-of cause-big-object-gerund-before

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


A’ad-i’od-o’arar
Closed, afformative, suffixing, OVS

Transliteration: oqet-uqepap-oqat-aqotik iqat-oqiqat-iqet eqat-oqaqot-oqaqokikat iqat-iqik-uqepap-oqatat

Transliteration: oqed-uqebab-oqad-aqodig iqad-oqiqad-iqed eqad-oqaqod-oqaqogigad iqad-iqig-uqebab-oqadad

Pronunciation: oɦet-uɦepab-oɦad-aɦodik iʔad-oɦiʔad-iʔet eʔad-oɦaɦod-oɦaɦogikad iʔag-iʔik-uɦepab-oɦaɾaɾ

Pronunciation: o’et-u’epab-o’ad-a’odik i’ad-o’i’ad-i’et e’ad-o’a’od-o’a’ogikad i’ag-i’ik-u’epab-o’arar

Gloss: Cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


A’ad-i’od-o’arar
Closed, afformative, suffixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: iqak-iqik-uqepap-oqatat eqat-oqaqot-oqaqogikad iqad-oqiqad-iqed oqet-uqeqab-oqad-aqodik

Transliteration 2: iqag-iqig-uqebab-oqadad eqad-oqaqod-oqaqogigad iqad-oqiqad-iqed oqed-uqebab-oqad-aqodig

Pronunciation: iʔag-iʔik-uɦepab-oɦaɾaɾ eʔad-oɦaɦod-oɦaɦogikad iʔad-oɦiʔad-iʔet oɦet-uɦeʔab-oɦad-aɦodik

Pronunciation: i’ag-i’ik-u’epab-o’arar e’ad-o’a’od-o’a’ogikad i’ad-o’i’ad-i’et o’et-u’e’ab-o’ad-a’odik

Gloss: nothing-big-ness-subject exist-verb-past-evidental things-object-all-of cause-big-object-gerund-before

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


Araro’-odi’-ada’
Closed, preformative, prefixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: ikotaq-atoq-apepuq-etoq etiq-atiqoq-atiq atikokaqoq-otaqoq-ateq atatoq-etapuq-ikiq-akiq

Transliteration: igodaq-adoq-abebuq-edoq ediq-adiqoq-adiq adigogaqoq-odaqoq-adeq adadoq-edabuq-igiq-agiq

Pronunciation: ikodaɦ-adoɦ-abepuɦ-etoɦ etiʔ-adiqoɦ-adiʔ adikogaɦoɦ-odaɦoɦ-adeʔ aɾaɾoɦ-edepuɦ-ikiʔ-agiʔ

Transcription: ikoda’-ado’-abepu’-eto’ eti’-adiqo’-adi’ adikoga’o’-oda’o’-ade’ araro’-edepu’-iki’-agi’

Gloss: before-gerund-object-big-cause of-all-things-object evidental-past-verb-exist subject-ness-big-none

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Araro’-odi’-ada’
Closed, preformative, prefixing, SVO

Transliteration: atatoq-epepuq-ikiq-akiq atikokaqoq-otaqoq-ateq etiq-atiqoq-atiq ikotaq-atoq-atepuq-etoq

Transliteration: adadoq-ebebuq-igiq-agiq adigogaqoq-odaqoq-adeq ediq-adiqoq-adiq igodaq-adoq-adepuq-edoq

Pronunciation: aɾaɾoɦ-ebepuɦ-ikiʔ-agiʔ adikogaɦoɦ-odaɦoɦ-adeʔ etiʔ-adiqoɦ-adiʔ ikodaɦ-adoɦ-adepuɦ-etoɦ

Transcription: araro’-ebepu’-iki’-agi’ adikoga’o’-oda’o’-ade’ eti’-adiqo’-adi’ ikoda’-ado’-adepu’-eto’

Gloss: subject-ness-big-none evidental-past-verb-exist of-all-things-object before-gerund-object-big-cause

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


O’arar-i’od-a’ad
Closed, afformative, prefixing, OVS

Transliteration 1: aqotik-oqat-uqepap-oqet iqet-oqiqat-iqat oqaqokikat-oqaqot-eqat oqatat-uqepap-iqik-iqak

Transliteration 2: aqodig-oqad-uqebab-oqed iqed-oqiqad-iqad oqaqogigad-oqaqod-eqad oqadad-uqebab-iqig-iqag

Pronunciation: aɦodik-oɦad-uɦepab-oɦet iʔet-oɦiʔad-iʔad oɦaɦogikad-oɦaɦod-eqad oɦaɾaɾ-uɦepab-iʔik-iʔag

Transcription: a’odik-o’ad-u’epab-o’et i’et-o’i’ad-i’ad o’a’ogikad-o’a’od-eqad o’arar-u’epab-i’ik-i’ag

Gloss: before-gerund-object-big-cause of-all-things-object evidental-past-verb-exist subject-ness-big-none

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


O’arar-i’od-a’ad
Closed, afformative, prefixing, SVO

Transliteration 1: oqatat-uqepap-iqik-iqak oqaqokikat-oqaqot-eqat iqet-oqiqat-iqat aqotik-oqat-uqepap-oqet

Transliteration 2: oqadad-uqebab-iqig-iqag oqaqogigad-oqaqod-eqad iqed-oqiqad-iqad aqodig-oqad-uqebab-oqed

Pronunciation: oɦaɾaɾ-uɦepab-iʔik-iʔag oɦaɦogikad-oɦaɦod-eʔad iʔet-oɦiʔad-iʔad aɦodik-oɦad-uɦepab-oɦet

Transcription: o’arar-u’epab-i’ik-iʔag o’a’ogikad-o’a’od-e’ad i’et-o’i’ad-i’ad a’odik-o’ad-u’epab-o’et

Gloss: subject-ness-big-none evidental-past-verb-exist of-all-things-object before-gerund-object-big-cause

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.





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