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Sylvanic Languages

Copyright © 2004-2021 C.E. by Dustin Jon Scott


Introduction

The Sylvanic languages are those derived from open-syllable dialects of Proto-Palæoboreanic that underwent voicing of consonants adjascent to back-vowels (Terran languages), followed by glottal deconsonantalization (Alpine-Agrarian languages), and then further lenition (Sylvan-Agrarian languages).




Further Lenition: Onset Voicing in Open Dialects
+ Consonantal Vowel Deletion

ba > ma > m
pe > be > b
pi > pi > p
py > ɸy > ɸ
bu > βu > β
bo > wo > w

da > na > n
te > de > d
ti > ti > t
ty > sy > s
du > zu > z
do > ɹo > ɹ
tata > ɾaɾa > l

ga > ŋa > ŋ
ke > ge > g
ki > ki > k
ky > xy > x
gu > ɣu > ɣ
go > ʎo > ʎ

Na-ri-lo
Open, preformative, suffixing, OVS
Proto-Sylvan (Drayadic, Woodelfish)

Old Sylvan appends subjects to the end of verbs in all sentences, order is [O][V][S]. In ditransitive sentences, order is [DO][IO][V][S].

Drayadic appends nouns to the end of verbs in the intransitive, order [IO][V][S], but appends direct objects to the end of verbs in the transitive and ditransitive, and then appends the subject to the direct object, making the transitive order [V][O][S] and the ditransitive order [IO][V][DO][S].

Old Faerish appends nouns to the end of verbs in the intransitive, order [IO][V][S], but appends direct objects to the end of verbs in the transitive and ditransitive, in which case transitive order is [S][V][O] and ditransitive order is [S][IO][V][DO].

Transliteration 1: do-mbu-no-kra ni-nio-di ne-rao-nkjao ŋi-ki-mbu-rro

Pronunciation: do-mbu-no-kɹa ni-ni.o-di ne-ɹa.o-nkʎa.o-ŋi-ki-mbu-lo

Transcription: do-mbu-no-kra ni-nio-di ne-rao-nkyao ngi-ki-mbu-lo

Gloss: cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.




Na-ri-lo
Open, preformative, suffixing, SVO
Proto-Elfish (Aldeflish, Lightelfish)

Aldelfish (Old Elfish) had [S][V][O] word order.

Transliteration: ŋi-ki-mbu-rro ne-rao-nkjao ni-nio-di do-mbu-no-kra

Pronunciation: ŋi-ki-mbu-lo ne-ɹa.o-nkʎa.o ni-ni.o-di do-mbu-no-kɹa

Transcription: ngi-ki-mbu-lo ne-rao-nkyao ni-nio-di do-mbu-no-kra

Gloss: nothing-big-ness-subject exist-verb-past-evidental things-object-all-of cause-big-object-gerund-before

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.

Sylvan dialect began with OVS word order, but, perhaps influenced by a SVO language, began placing topical nouns at the beginning of sentences while appending the appropriate pronouns to the verbs, having the order [T][V][S] or [T][IO][V][S] in intransitive sentences, with [S] being a pronoun referring to [T]. Functionally, this made the language [S][V] or [S][IO][V] in the intransitive.

Faerish began with OVS word order, but, perhaps influenced by a SVO language, began placing topical nouns at the beginning of sentences while appending the appropriate pronouns to the verbs, having the order [T][V][S] or [T][IO][V][S] in intransitive sentences, with [S] being a pronoun referring to [T]. Functionally, this made the language [S][V] or [S][IO][V] in the intransitive. In the transitive, the sentence would begin with a topical noun [T], followed by a nominative noun [S], followed by the verb [V], to which the objective pronoun [DO] would be appended referring to the topic [T], for a [T][S][V][O] word order that was functionally [O][S][V].

Transliteration: ŋi-ki-mbu-jo do-mbu-no-kra ni-nio-di ne-rao-nkjao-ni-rro

Pronunciation: ŋi-ki-mbu-ʎo do-mbu-no-kɹa ni-ni.o-di ne-ɹa.o-nkʎa.o-ni-lo

Transcription: ngi-ki-mbu-yo do-mbu-no-kra ni-nio-di ne-rao-nkyao-ni-lo


An-ir-ol
Formerly-open, afformative, suffixing, OVS
Proto-Maenadic

Transliteration 1: od-ubm-on-ark in-oin-id en-oar-oajkn iŋ-ik-ubm-orr

Pronunciation: od-ubm-on-aɹk in-o.in-id en-o.aɹ-o.aʎkn iŋ-ik-ubm-ol

Transcription: od-ubm-on-ark in-o.in-id en-oar-oaykn ing-ik-ubm-ol

Gloss: Cause-big-object-gerund-before things-object-all-of exist-verb-past-evidental nothing-big-ness-subject

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


An-ir-ol
Formerly-open, afformative, suffixing, SVO
Proto-Darkelfish

Transliteration 1: iŋ-ik-ubm-orr en-oar-oajkn in-oin-id en od-ubm-on-ark

Pronunciation: iŋ-ik-ubm-ol en-o.aɹ-o.aʎkn in-o.in-id od-ubm-on-aɹk

Transcription: ing-ik-ubm-ol en-oar-oaykn in-o.in-id od-ubm-on-ark

Gloss: nothing-big-ness-subject exist-verb-past-evidental things-object-all-of cause-big-object-gerund-before

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


Lo-ri-na
Open, preformative, prefixing, OVS
Proto-Nightelfish

Transliteration 1: kra-no-mbu-do di-nio-ni nkjao-rao-ne rro-mbu-ki-ŋi

Pronunciation: kɹa-no-mbu-do di-ni.o-di nkʎa.o-ɹa.o-ne lo-mbu-ki-ŋi

Transcription: kra-no-mbu-do di-nio-ni nkjao-rao-ne lo-mbu-ki-ngi

Gloss: before-gerund-object-big-cause of-all-things-object evidental-past-verb-exist subject-ness-big-none

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Lo-ri-na
Open, preformative, prefixing, SVO
Proto-Moonelfish

Transliteration 1: rro-mbu-ki-ŋi nkjao-rao-ne di-nio-ni kra-no-mbu-do

Pronunciation: lo-mbu-ki-ŋi nkʎa.o-ɹa.o-ne di-ni.o-ni kɹa-no-mbu-do

Transcription: lo-mbu-ki-ngi nkyao-rao-ne di-nio-ni kra-no-mbu-do

Gloss: subject-ness-big-none evidental-past-verb-exist of-all-things-object before-gerund-object-big-cause

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.


Ol-ir-an
Formerly-open, afformative, prefixing, OVS
Proto-Swartelfish

Transliteration 1: ark-on-ubm-od id-oin-in oajkn-oar-en orr-ubm-ik-iŋ

Pronunciation: aɹk-on-ubm-od id-o.in-in o.aɹkn-o.aɹ-en ol-ubm-ik-iŋ

Transcription: ark-on-ubm-od id-oin-in oajkn-oar-en ol-ubm-ik-ing

Gloss: before-gerund-object-big-cause of-all-things-object evidental-past-verb-exist subject-ness-big-none

Translation: Before the great origin of all things, there must have existed in those days a great nothingness.


Ol-ir-an
Formerly-open, afformative, prefixing, SVO
Proto-Oreadic

Transliteration 1: orr-ubm-ik-iŋ oajkn-oar-en id-oin-in ark-on-ubm-od

Pronunciation: ol-ubm-ik-iŋ o.aɹkn-o.aɹ-en id-o.in-in aɹk-on-ubm-od

Transcription: ol-ubm-ik-ing oaykn-oar-en id-oin-in ark-on-ubm-od

Gloss: subject-ness-big-none evidental-past-verb-exist of-all-things-object before-gerund-object-big-cause

Translation: A great nothingness it seems existed in the days before the great cause of all things.




Sound change 2: The Great Vowel Deletion

Sound change 2 with orthographical change 1


ba(q) or pa(q) = /ma/ > ppp = /m/
be(q) or pe(q) = /be/ > pp = /b/
bi(q) or pi(q) = /ɸi/ > qp = /ɸ/
by(q) or py(q) = /py/ > p = /p/
bu(q) or pu(q) = /βu/ > qpp = /β/
bo(q) or po(q) = /wo/ > qppp = /w/

da(q) or ta(q) = /na/ > ttt = /n/
de(q) or te(q) = /de/ > tt = /d/
di(q) or ti(q) = /si/ > qt = /s/
dy(q) or ty(q) = /ty/ > t = /t/
du(q) or tu(q) = /zu/ > qtt = /z/
do(q) or to(q) = /ro/ > qttt = /r/

dada(q) or tata(q) = /la/ > tttttt /l/
dede(q) or tete(q) = /ðe/ > ? /ð/
didi(q) or titi(q) = /ʃi/ > ? /ʃ/
dydy(q) or tyty(q) = /θy/ > ? /θ/
dudu(q) or tutu(q) = /ʒu/ > ? /ʒ/
dodo(q) or toto(q) = /rho/ > ???

ga(q) or ka(q) = /ŋa/ > kkk /ŋ/
ge(q) or ke(q) = /ge/ > kk /g/
gi(q) or ki(q) = /xi/ > qk /x/
gy(q) or ky(q) = /ky/ > k /k/
gu(q) or ku(q) = /ɣu/ > qkk /ɣ/
go(q) or ko(q) = /jo/ > qkkk /j/

New version: Ttoppppputttokqttta tttitttiotti ttteqtttaotttkqkkkao Kkkikippppputttttto. Kkkikitttopppqpppi ttttttatettttttaotttkqkkkao kkkikipppppupitttttto; pitttio kitttattttttaotttkqkkku kkkikipppppupitttttto. Qppqtttikkttti, ttteqtttiokkkue ttttttatikitttttto. Qtttoettaeqtttootttkqkkka tttittttttiottttta taokaeqtttotttkqkkkue tttittttttiotttta. Kitttikipitttotti taakaeqtttaotttkqkkkaa ttttttatikitttttto. Qtttautteqtttaotttkqkkkaa pppaeqtikitttttto. Pppaeqtikititttppppi ttteqtttiotttue tttittttttio.


Sound change 2 with orthographical change 2

Orthographical change 2 is separate and distinct from orthographical change 1. Orthrographical change 2 does not follow sequentially or build upon orthographical change 1.


ba(q) or pa(q) = /ma/ > m = /m/
be(q) or pe(q) = /be/ > ph = /b/
bi(q) or pi(q) = /ɸi/ > pp = /ɸ/
by(q) or py(q) = /py/ > p = /p/
bu(q) or pu(q) = /βu/ > phph = /β/
bo(q) or po(q) = /wo/ > mh = /w/

da(q) or ta(q) = /na/ > n = /n/
de(q) or te(q) = /de/ > th = /d/
di(q) or ti(q) = /si/ > tt = /s/
dy(q) or ty(q) = /ty/ > t = /t/
du(q) or tu(q) = /zu/ > thth = /z/
do(q) or to(q) = /ro/ > nh = /r/

dada(q) or tata(q) = /la/ > nn /l/
dede(q) or tete(q) = /ðe/ > ? /ð/
didi(q) or titi(q) = /ʃi/ > ? /ʃ/
dydy(q) or tyty(q) = /θy/ > ? /θ/
dudu(q) or tutu(q) = /ʒu/ > ? /ʒ/
dodo(q) or toto(q) = /rho/ > ???

ga(q) or ka(q) = /ŋa/ > ŋ /ŋ/
ge(q) or ke(q) = /ge/ > kh /g/
gi(q) or ki(q) = /xi/ > kk /x/
gy(q) or ky(q) = /ky/ > k /k/
gu(q) or ku(q) = /ɣu/ > khkh /ɣ/
go(q) or ko(q) = /jo/ > ŋh /j/

New version: Thomphunoknha niniothi nenhaonkŋhao Ŋikimphunno. Ŋikinommhi nnatennaonkŋhao ŋikimphupinno; pinio kinannaonkŋhu ŋikimphupinno. Phphŋhikhni, nenhioŋue nnatikinno. Nhoedaenhoonkŋha ninniontha taokaenhonkŋhue ninnionta. Kinikipinothi taakaenhaonkŋhaa nnatikinno. Nhaudenhaonkŋhaa maettikinno. Maettikitinmpi nenhionue ninnio.


Sound change 2 with orthographical change 3

Orthographical change 3 follows sequentially from and builds upon orthographical change 2.


m = /m/
ph = /b/ > b = /b/
pp = /ɸ/ > ph = /ɸ/
p = /p/
phph = /β/ > bh = /β/
mh = /w/ > mh /w/

n = /n/
th = /d/ > d = /d/
tt = /s/ > s = /s/
t = /t/
thth = /z/ > z = /z/
nh = /r/

nn /l/ > = l /l/
? /ð/ > dh = /ð/
? /ʃ/ > sh /ʃ/
? /θ/ > th = /θ/
? /ʒ/ > zh = /ʒ/
???

ŋ /ŋ/
kh = /g/ > g = /g/
kk = /x/ > kh = /x/
k = /k/
khkh = /ɣ/ > gh /ɣ/
ŋh = /j/ > lh = /j/

Newer version: Dombunoknha niniodi nenhaonklhao-Ŋikimbulo. Ŋikinommhi latelaonklhao-Ŋikimbupilo; pinio kinalaonklhu-ŋikimbupilo. Bhlhigni, nenhioŋue-latikilo. Nhoedaenhoonklhoa-nilionda taokaenhoonklhue-nilionta. Kinikipinodi taakaenhaonklhaa-latikilo. Nhaudenhaonklhaa-maesikilo. Maesikitinompi nenhionue-nilio.


Sound change 2 with orthographical change 4

Orthographical change 4 follows sequentially from and builds upon orthographical change 3.


m = /m/
b = /b/
ph = /ɸ/ > f = /ɸ/
p = /p/
bh = /β/ > v = /β/
mh /w/ > w /w/

n = /n/
d = /d/
s = /s/
t = /t/
z = /z/
nh = /r/ > r = /r/

l /l/
dh = /ð/ > ð = /ð/
sh /ʃ/ > ? = /ʃ/
> th = /θ/ > þ = /θ/
zh = /ʒ/ > ? = /ʒ/
???

ŋ /ŋ/
g = /g/
kh = /x/ > x = /x/
k = /k/
gh /ɣ/ > ? = /ɣ/
lh = /j/ > y = /j/

Newerer version: Dombunokra niniodi neraonkyao-Ŋikimbulo. Ŋikinomwi latelaonkyao-Ŋikimbupilo; pinio kinalaonkyu-ŋikimbupilo. Vyigni, nerioŋue-latikilo. Roedaeroonkyoa-nilionda taokaeroonkyue-nilionta. Kinikipinodi taakaeraonkyaa-latikilo. Rauderaonkyaa-maesikilo. Maesikitinompi nerionue-nilio.



Sylvanic Languages
Proto-Sylvanic
Ancient Sylvanic
Classical Sylvan
Old Sylphish
Middle Sylphish
Late Sylvanese
Faerish languages
Drayadic
Elfish languages
Dark Faerish languages
Under-Faerish languages

Sylvan-Agrarian Languages
⚑ Sylvanic subbranch
Agrarian subbranch
⚑ = You Are Here.

Alpine-Agrarain Languages
Alpine-Nomadic subbranch
Sylvan-Agrarian subbranch
⚑ = You Are Here.

Terran Languages
Alpine-Agrarian subbranch
Chthonic subbranch
⚑ = You Are Here.

Palaeoboreanic Languages
Terran branch
Marine subbranch
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