I. The Big Questions


The origin and evolution of the Mitochondrion.

Evolution: Reptiles to Mammals
The evolutionary transition from synapsid reptiles to mammals.

Mechanisms for Change: Mutation
What mutations are, what they do, and what they can tell us.

Mechanisms for Change: Natural Selection
About Natural Selection.

Convergence or Introgression?
Could the mosaic of characteristics seen in fossil and extant hominids be evidence of past hybridization?

“Through a Glass, Darkly”
Dinosaurian hominids.


It’s lactastic.

The Primatorium
Go primal.

The Hominid Homepage
For all your filthy monkey-man needs.

The Hive
About the ethology of the human animal.

Religion & Spirituality
Humans and their imaginary friends.


Fossil Hominid Specimens


Causes & Affiliations

Social Media



D. J. Scott

☣ Sol III ☣

[Planet Earth]
Copyright © 2000-2017 by Dustin Jon Scott
[Last Update: September 4th, 2017]



I. Hadean Eon

II. Archean Eon

III. Proterozoic Eon

IV. Phanerozoic Eon

IV.a. Palaeozoic Era

IV.a-1.) Cambrian Period

IV.a-2.) Ordovician Period

IV.a-3.) Silurian Period

IV.a-4.) Devonian Period

IV.a-5.) Carboniferous Period

IV.a-6.) Permian Period

IV.a-6A.) Cisuralian Epoch

IV.a-6B.) Guadalupian Epoch

IV.a-6C.) Lopingian Epoch

IV.b. Mesozoic Era

IV.b-1.) Triassic Period

IV.b-1A.) Lower/Early Triassic Epoch

IV.b-1Aα.) Induan Stage

IV.b-1Aβ.) Olenekian Stage

IV.b-1B.) Middle Triassic Epoch

IV.b-1Bα.) Anisian Stage

IV.b-1Bβ.) Ladinian Stage

IV.b-1C.) Upper/Late Triassic Epoch

IV.b-1Cα.) Carnian Stage

IV.b-1Cβ.) Norian Stage

IV.b-1Cγ.) Rhaetian Stage

IV.b-2.) Jurassic Period

IV.b-2A.) Lower/Early Jurassic Epoch

IV.b-2Aα.) Hettangian Stage

IV.b-2Aβ.) Sinemurian Stage

IV.b-2Aγ.) Pliensbachian Stage

IV.b-2Aδ.) Toarcian Stage

IV.b-2B.) Middle Jurassic Epoch

IV.b-2Bα.) Aalenian Stage

IV.b-2Bβ.) Bajocian Stage

IV.b-2Bγ.) Bathonian Stage

IV.b-2Bδ.) Callovian Stage

IV.b-2C.) Upper/Late Jurassic Epoch

IV.b-2Cα.) Oxfordian Stage

IV.b-2Cβ.) Kimmeridgian Stage

IV.b-2Cγ.) Tithonian Stage

IV.b-3.) Cretaceous Period

IV.b-3A.) Lower/Early Cretaceous Epoch

IV.b-3Aα.) Berriasian Stage

IV.b-3Aβ.) Valanginian Stage

IV.b-3Aγ.) Hauterivian Stage

IV.b-3Aδ.) Barremian Stage

IV.b-3Aε.) Aptian Stage

IV.b-3Aζ.) Albian Stage

IV.b-3B.) Upper/Late Cretaceous Epoch

IV.b-3Bα.) Cenomanian Stage

IV.b-3Bβ.) Turonian Stage

IV.b-3Bγ.) Coniacian Stage

IV.b-3Bδ.) Santonian Stage

IV.b-3Bε.) Campanian Stage

IV.b-3Bζ.) Maastrichtian Stage

IV.c. Cenozoic Era

IV.c-1.) Palaeogene Period

IV.c-1A.) Palaeocene Epoch

IV.c-1Aα.) Danian Stage

IV.c-1Aβ.) Selandian Stage

IV.c-1Aγ.) Thanetian Stage

IV.c-1B.) Eocene Epoch

IV.c-1Bα.) Ypresian Stage

IV.c-1C.) Oligocene Epoch (35 to 33 MYA)

[24-27 MYA] Proconsul hamiltoni

IV.c-2.) Neogene Period

IV.c-2A.) Miocene Epoch [23.03 to 5.333 MYA]

Original divergence of the human, chimpanzee, and gorilla lineages, about 13 MYA.

(Begun, 2010)

IV.c-2Aα.) Antiquanian Stage [23.03 — 20.04 MYA]

IV.c-2Aβ.) Burdigalian Stage [20.04 — 15.97 MYA]

IV.c-2Aγ.) Langhian Stage [15.97 — 13.82 MYA]

IV.c-2Aδ.) Serravallian Stage [13.82 — 11.63 MYA]

IV.c-2Aε.) Tortonian Stage [11.63 — 7.246 MYA]

IV.c-2Aζ.) Messinian Stage [7.246 — 5.333 MYA]

IV.c-2B.) Pliocene Epoch [5.333 — 2.58 MYA]

Interbreeding between the human and chimpanzee lineages ends possibly as recently as 4 MYA.

(Haile-Selassie et al., 2017)

IV.c-2Bα.) Zanclean Stage [5.333 — 3.6 MYA]

IV.c-2Bβ.) Piacenzian Stage [3.6 — 2.58 MYA]

IV.c-3.) Quaternary Period

IV.c-3A.) Pleistocene Epoch [2.588 MYA — 11.7 KYA]

2,588,000 to 11,700 years ago.

IV.c-3Aα.) Gelasian Stage [2.58 — 1.8 MYA]

IV.c-3Aβ.) Calabrian Stage [1.8 MYA — 781 KYA]

IV.c-3Aγ.) Ionian Stage [781 KYA — 126 KYA]

IV.c-3Aδ.) Tarantian Stage [126 KYA — 11.7 KYA]

IV.c-3B. Holocene Epoch

Works Cited